In this essay, you will offer a critical analysis of five television advertisements.
Your essay should be 3-4 pages in length (not including title page, works cited, and statement of originality).
1. Choose any television network that broadcasts commercials. Choose any type of show that you enjoy: sporting event, soap opera, comedy, movie, news, etc. Watch five commercials in a row. You may also find commercials on YouTube. If that is the case, the commercials must be recent (within the last year) and ones that were broadcast in the United States.
2. Use the concepts discussed in Chapters 6-7 of the textbook to analyze the commercials and to write your essay. (You can also draw upon learning from earlier chapters and discussion postings but you’ll need to apply key concepts from Chapters 6 and 7).
3. Give your essay a title.
4. Write an introduction. Include the channel, television show, and date when the commercials were broadcasted.
5. Consider who the commercial seems to be made for. Does it appear to target a broad, diverse audience, or does it seem to be positioned to appeal to specific social identities? (social identities include but are not limited to race, ethnicity, national identity, gender, sexuality, age, religion, occupation, etc.)
6. Analyze the significance of the cultural patterns and values depicted in the commercials and support your reasoning with information from the textbook. In your analysis, describe how some of the following concepts are exemplified in the commercials:
Control over nature/Harmony with nature
7. Cite the textbook at least four times. Give page numbers when citing or referencing concepts from the textbook. You may also cite outside research sources, if applicable.
8. When analyzing the commercials, you may consider some of the following questions:
Note: You do not have to answer each of these questions in your essay. These are some of the questions that you could address to complete the assignment satisfactorily.
What do the people in the commercial value: youth? wealth? beauty? fame? technology?
How does the commercial depict people of a particular racial or ethnic group?
What traditional gender roles are challenged by the commercial? What gender roles are affirmed? How?
How do the people in the commercial interact with each other? What do these interactions portray about dominant or co-cultures in the United States?
Are the commercials based on stereotypes? Explain.
What age groups are represented by the people in the commercial? What does the commercial communicate about these age groups?
Can you distinguish any identifying religious behaviors in the people in the commercial? What does the commercial communicate about these religions?
How are the people in the commercial dressed? What does their clothing indicate about their lifestyle?
Does the commercial in any way promote the ideas of individualism or of collectivism? Explain.
What social organizations are depicted in the commercial: family? government? military? schools? churches? community groups? What does the commercial communicate about these social organizations?
What natural resources are present in the commercial? How are they used? What does the commercial communicate about the use of these natural resources?
Are any environmental issues raised by the commercial? Explain.
Does the commercial make any historical references? Explain.
Do any nonverbal symbols in the commercial create meaning? (i.e. a recycling symbol)
Is there any evidence of globalization in the commercials? (i.e. foreign products or other signs of global economic integration)
Does the commercial utilize a slogan? What cultural messages are communicated in the slogan?
What is the overt message of the commercial? What is the covert message of the commercial?
How does the commercial relate to the deep structure of American culture?
Texas Southern University Chapter 6 The Man Your Man Could Smell Like Paper
***********READ ALL INSTRUCTIONS BELOW***************DO NOT UNDER ANY CIRCUMSTANCE COMMIT ANY PLAGIARISM.READ ALL INSTRUCTIONS BELOW AND FOLLOW ALL DIRECTIONS.THE BOOK YOU NEED TO USE FOR THIS IS CALLED Child Development, 7th edition by Robert Feldman. USE THIS BOOK FOR THIS ESSAY. Do not forget..Human Development Paper Grading CriteriaA. Completeness (80% = 32 Points)1. 2+ page single spaced essay (4 Points)2. Three sections each with the title centered and bolded above it: (3 Points)Physical DevelopmentCognitive DevelopmentSocial/Personality Development3. Connection of notes with physical, cognitive, and social/personality development information from textbook including analysis on whether the subject’s behavior is typical or atypical within the domains. (10 Points)4. At least six (2 for physical, 2 for cognitive, 2 for social/personality development) relevant quotes or citations from the textbook (Follow these with Feldman and the page number: (Feldman, 203). Please bold, underline, and/or WRITE IN ALL CAPS for your quotes or citations. (12 Points)5. Addresses how cultural values, beliefs, behaviors may have affecteddevelopment (3 Points)B. Written Language Conventions (20% = 8 Points) 1. Correct English spelling and grammar, use of paragraphs, etc Sample Paper:Preschool/Early Childhood PaperObservationI observed my cousin, Michelle, on Memorial Day, two days before her sixth birthday. She will be the focal point of this paper. When I went to observe her my aunt and uncle were having a get together with friends, so there were many additional children present: Michelle’s brother Ian (7), her sister Layla (8), and her brother Nate (10), there was also Michelle’s cousins Thomas (9) and Ginger (7), family friends from church, Gracie (3) and her brother Bryce (7), and Kayla (7). In this environment the children were fairly unmonitored and behaving extremely naturally. Because they were surrounded by those they knew well, they were at ease and very genuine. Living just fifteen minutes away from her and having a very close extended family, I have watched Michelle grow and develop over the last six years. These type of celebrations with extended family and friends are typical of Michelle’s culture. From day one she has been spirited and active, yet sweet and intelligent. These qualities have stayed with her over the years. Michelle is an avid gymnast and dancer on top of playing soccer and baseball. Each of the sections will begin with my observations made within the first moment of walking into the backyard. Physical DevelopmentWhen I first walked into the backyard Michelle’s physical abilities were made evident by her skill in swimming, one that she has had for many years now (she was doing backflips into the deep end of the pool as a toddler). Although at the time she was in a large, blow up, floating pretzel-raft, the moment she noticed me she dove under the water and swam to where I was on the other side of the pool to say hello. Soon after I had arrived, the girls all took off to the trampoline where Michelle launched into flips and aerial cartwheels. As was mentioned in the opening of this paper, Michelle is in many sports, including gymnastics. “Five-year-olds can learn to ride bikes, climb ladders, and ski downhill—activities that all require considerable coordination” (Feldman, 216). However coordinated and skilled physically five-year-olds are typically able to be, Michelle is unquestionably ahead of the curve. This is likely due to both inherent skill and her environment. Michelle’s parents were both active and fit in their youths and have encouraged their children to be as well.It is nothing short of miraculous that Michelle has yet to break a bone, as active as she is; she is quite the daredevil to match. “A 3-year-old might think that it is perfectly reasonable to climb on an unsteady chair to get something that is out of reach, and a 4-year-old might enjoy holding on to a low tree branch and swinging her legs up and down. It is this physical ability, in combination with the curiosity and lack of judgment that also characterizes this age group, that make preschoolers so accident-prone” (Feldman, 209). While I was observing them, Michelle and Bryce—the genders had temporarily meshed—acted their age and began to climb all over the play structure next to the trampoline, most especially where it was not safe to do so. Thankfully, neither of them fell or was harmed and though they wanted to see how far they could push their own abilities, the other kids, acting as bystanders, were telling them to get down and expressing the danger involved in their actions.Cognitive DevelopmentWhen I first walked into the backyard Michelle’s cognitive abilities were made obvious by her ability to remember. Michelle, Ginger, and Gracie were sitting together in the pretzel-raft as it slowly drifted about – in the direction of the deep end. Although, as aforementioned, Michelle is a strong swimmer, she told the girls that they had to head back to the shallow end because that was her mom’s rule, likely put in place for Gracie. Although Michelle’s mother had not called out at them, this rule was in Michelle’s memory and she used her ability to consider right and wrong in choosing to obey it.About halfway through observing Michelle, she and Ginger put a long, thick poll in the swing, creating a teeter totter like object. This, in and of itself, shows Michelle’s ability to think, as she was able to come up with the idea to do such a thing. However, her cognitive development was shown in more than just this way. As Ginger and Michelle played on the makeshift teeter totter, Kayla came up and wanted to join. Ginger, rather rudely, stated that Kayla joining would ruin the game (claiming to be thinking of the weight distribution rather than just not wanting her to join). This shows Ginger’s egocentric thought. “Egocentric thought takes two forms: the lack of awareness that others see things from a different physical perspective and the failure to realize that others may hold thoughts, feelings, and points of view that differ from theirs” (Feldman, 228). Ginger was not able, or willing, to consider how to brush off of Kayla had made Kayla feel because she did not realize that Kayla does not have Ginger’s point of view. However, Michelle had Kayla’s feelings in mind and invited her to join her side of the poll. I do not know if this makes Michelle ahead in development, but it certainly does make her atypical in this respect. Along with Michelle’s parents being rather sports oriented, they are also some of the kindest people I know, most especially her mother. Michelle’s mom brought her up to be thoughtful rather than selfish and Michelle has taken to these teachings. “Unless we look at what is important and meaningful to members of a given society, we may seriously underestimate the nature and level of cognitive abilities that ultimately will be attained” (Feldman, 233). Michelle’s thinking has also been influenced by her mother in her love for school and passion for reading.Social/Personality Development When I first walked into the backyard Michelle’s social strengths were made obvious by the fact that she had the other girls all around her. Now, Michelle has an attractiveness to her that made it less than shocking to see her getting along so well with such a mixed group of girls (the two seven year olds were often at one another’s throats), but as I found out throughout the observation, Michelle is also a genuinely kind and loving person, which helps in making the people her attraction brings stay. During one of their times on the trampoline, the girls decided to play ‘popcorn.’ After one round with two of the girls claiming that they had won, it became evident that they had been playing differing games from one another. The girls went on to explain what they believed the rules of the game to be and it turned out that each of them had learned fairly different rules than the others. Nevertheless, they each fervently clung to the belief that their way was the correct way. “During this stage, which lasts from about age 4 though age 7, children play games rigidly, assuming that there is one, and only one, way to play and that every other way is wrong” (266). Each of the girls, not just Michelle, were typical in this part of their social/personality development. Although the constantly vigorous activities were not enough to tire Michelle out, she did have to take a break to hydrate herself. She walked to the table and found that though the drinks were easily within her reach, the cups were behind them and as such were seemingly impossible for her to reach. Though I offered to help her, Michelle felt confident in her abilities and ended up being able to just reach the cups when she was her tippy toes. This was a typical behavior for her age because “they are eager to do things on their own (‘Let me do it’ is a popular refrain among preschoolers)…” (Feldman, 253). She was indeed able to reach it on her own, but I get the feeling that had she not been she would have pulled over a chair to stand on before accepting my help. Personally, I believe that Michelle is ahead in development for social/personality as well because she is so considerate of others and is so social with others.Michelle, who chose her own pseudonym without me even telling her that she would be getting one, is largely ahead in her development, but is most obviously so physically. Whether it be that Michelle seems to be turning out like her mom because her traits were passed down through nature or nurture, her mother has definitely had an incredible influence on her. Her mother, father, and three older siblings have allowed Michelle to develop as she has needed to thus far and this has also benefitted her development.
Preschool/Early Childhood Paper, psychology homework help
Question 1: What are resource leveling and resource smoothing? Answer using your own words but citing current scholarly research. What is the impact to the critical path, and how is “float” used in leveling and smoothing resources? Give an example of leveling and smoothing resources on a project you know or can find through research (250 words)
Question 2: Developmental Case Study: Helena
Helena is 13 years old and exhibiting signs that she may be suffering from an eating disorder. Her mother and father are worried and in need of a workshop that will educate them on what indicators or symptoms to look for in their daughter (and sons, Jordan, 15, and Zach, 14). Describe how, as a human service professional, you can help Helena and her family. First, consider common preconceived notions about the causes and symptoms relating to bulimia and anorexia. describe what you would say to Helena’s mother (“Leigh”) and father (“Dean”) to help them with their daughter’s problem. Note: think about the differences between bulimia and anorexia and consider the signs, symptoms, and possible causes of each. Finally, provide a link to a resource you can provide to Helena’s parents that will assist their efforts to support their daughter. (Consider a non-profit organization in your surrounding area or provided online to a national user group.) (250 words)
Cultural Diversity in Counseling Essay
Multicultural counseling is an emerging concept in the field of counseling, and especially in situations where both the client and the counselor are from diverse cultural backgrounds. The United States has undergone significant socio-demographic changes in recent years and for this reason, multiculturalism is now as important part of our lives. Moreover, the U.S has become a religiously and culturally diverse country and for this reason, counselors are more likely to exhibit their own cultural biases while attending to clients. Cultural distinctness affects the communication process between the client and the counselor, thereby impacting on the patient-counselor relationship and the results of the counseling session. This reflection paper has identified religious and spiritual diversity in the United States as a major form of cultural biases. It examines the origin of these biases, along with the measures that needs to be taken in order to overcome them. People from different ethnic and racial backgrounds believe in the power embedded in their spirituality and religion. They believe that spirituality and religion affects their wellbeing, lives, and good health. Therefore, spirituality and religion are important to different racial and ethnic groups as they provide meaning to life, joy, comfort and pleasure. However, beliefs tied around spirituality and religion varies from one ethnic community to another, and lack of exposure to other cultures may result in cultural bias. From my own experience, the origin of cultural bias due to religious and spiritual diversity emanates from limited exposure to other cultures (Sumari,
Classical Economists’ Shared Elements and Visions Term Paper
write my term paper Development of Classical Political Economy Introduction Classical economics is considered the first modern economic school of thought. Its major proponents are Karl Marx, David Ricardo, J.S. Mill, and Adam Smith. Adam Smith’s Wealth of Nations marked the beginning of this school of thought. Classical economics was prominent in the mid 19th Century before it developed into neoclassical economics. Karl Marx used the term Classical Economics to refer to the economics of Ricardo, Mill, and their predecessors. Classical economists propagated their ideas at a time when the ideological system was shifting from feudalism to capitalism. During this time, society was fast-changing as a result of the industrial revolution that swept through Europe. It became necessary for each individual to make his/her monetary gain (Smith, p. 246). This led to the emergence of free markets, which could regulate themselves. Classical economists built their economic ideas on a nationalistic front rather than around the ruler’s wealth as had been previously the case (Smith, p. 8). Thus, wealth belonged to an entire nation; it was not limited to the king alone. According to Smith, the income was produced by three factors namely; land, labor, and capital. Land produced rents, labor translated into wages, and capital earned interests or profits. Shared Elements Adam Smith’s and David Ricardo’s economic ideas converged on the labor theory of value. The labor theory of value states that the value of a commodity is related to the labor needed to produce or obtain the commodity. This is a very prominent feature in the economics of Karl Marx. Karl Marx introduced the concept of marginal utility, which reflected the tastes and preferences among consumers. The same philosophy also applied to the producers who tend to substitute one commodity for another in the production of goods and services. According to Smith, the amount of labor invested in producing a good determines its exchange value (p. 689). Exchange value is the amount of labor a given good can purchase. However, Smith argues that market price cannot be equal to the amount of labor employed in producing a good since it has to be expanded to allow for profits for the producers. As for Ricardo, the value of a good is proportional to how much labor was used to produce it, including the labor needed to produce the raw materials and the machinery used in the process. Ricardo attempts to distinguish the amount of labor necessary to produce a good and the wages paid to the laborers for its production. But he noted with concern the disparity between the price of goods and the labor required to produce them. This was especially the case for luxury products like wine: the longer it stayed, the more expensive it became. He was consoled by the advent of capitalism, which he was convinced would iron out the discrepancy by adding only the cost of storage to such commodities. Karl Marx introduced a social dimension to the labor theory of value. Whereas the other theorists focused on labor from an individual’s perspective, Marx places the entire society into the picture. The process of production involved a division of labor, but the individuals depended on each other for survival and growth. Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Marx also raised the concept of what he called abstract labor. Abstract labor refers to the physical and mental capacity of a person to do work. It remains intangible until it is put into practice by actually applying it in the production process. When applied to the production process, abstract labor becomes physical labor as its effects are tangible, for example, workers become tired, weary, and fatigued. Karl Marx used the labor theory of value to derive the theory of exploitation under capitalism. The workers, who are the majority, cannot survive except by working for this minority who enjoy the support of the state. In effect, there is a large number of unemployed workers who exert pressure on the employed, hence the employed have to work even harder to produce for the capitalists. Another classical economist, J. S. Mill, added to the socialist approach presented by Marx. He promoted economic democracy in which laborers in a capitalist economy elect members of the management team (Mill, p 11). He provided room for interventions in the economy such as taxations on the premise of sufficient utilitarian grounds. He further believed in the equality of taxation since progressive taxation penalized those who worked harder and, therefore, saved more. He considered this as a mild form of robbery. He agreed to the taxation of inheritance to maintain equality in a utilitarian society. This was because inheritance placed the beneficiary at a position above the others. On the labor theory of value, Mill held that the rate of capital accumulation was a function of the proportion of the labor force employed productively. Unproductive labor did not generate any wealth or income. Any profit earned by employing unproductive income was merely a transfer of income. Only productive laborers engaged in productive consumption, which is maintaining and increasing the productive capacity of the community. Refinement of the Theory The labor theory of value has been improved over time. First, it developed into neoclassical economic theorists, which improved on the labor theory of value by including a few crucial determinants that the classical economists had failed to take into account. The inclusion of demand and supply forces is clear evidence of this. The price of a commodity was affected by its demand and the supply rather than the amount of labor put into it. The labor theory of value was later replaced by the marginal utility theory of value on the demand side and the cost on the supply side. The modern understanding of economics further deviates from the labor theory of value as it states that the value of a commodity may depend on how much one is willing to give up for it. We will write a custom Term Paper on Classical Economists’ Shared Elements and Visions specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More David Ricardo felt that the labor theory of value had some assumptions, which needed to be revised. These included: the exclusive wage composition of production capital; equal production period for both goods; and the same wage rate and profit rate for both sectors. He modified the assumptions to allow for differing production periods for different goods. He also conceded that the two production processes may employ instruments and equipment as capital, and not just wages and in very different proportions. Although he mentions that instruments and machines may add to the capital required for the production of goods, in addition to labor, the principle of the labor theory of value that Ricardo attributes to Smith does not change. Machines and equipment employed in the production process simply add to the factors that determine the value of goods thus produced. Ricardo further implies that accumulation of capital leads to a proportionate increase in wealth, but does not reduce the value of a good to be traded. This puts the various economic players in a win-win situation. The growth of the value in use may lead to competition, but this problem can be addressed through sufficient economic growth. Adam Smith had imagined that on account of its effect on the value, the growth of wealth for the poor would impact negatively on national wealth. Consequently, the wealth of the poor has to be controlled to maintain economic growth. However, a careful analysis of the growth of the value in use could help all parties chart a way forward, rather than controlling the wealth of the poor. Placing a limit on the wealth of the poor is exploitative and oppressive. Karl Marx was able to refine Smith’s labor theory of value by distinguishing the exchange value and value in use. This is after Ricardo had grappled with the two terms in his earlier analysis and view of the labor theory of value. According to Marx, the exchange value of a commodity represents the number of other commodities it would trade for (Marx, Section 3: par 4). Thus, the exchange value is not necessarily equal to its price. This value is not necessarily expressed in monetary terms. On the other hand, the value in use is realized only during the consumption of a given good. Therefore, the two terms are distinctly different, as envisioned by Marx. Marx went ahead to describe how the value in use is transformed into a commodity. This process is known as commodification. He stated that the process is neither automatic nor spontaneous, but required certain technical, social, and political preconditions. For example, it should be possible to transfer the goods from one person to another, and that there must be real market demand for the good. Marx implied that goodwill has a value in use for its buyer, but did not quantify the aspect except in the number of units a buyer wants to acquire. But neoclassical economists maintain that the value in use of a commodity is subjectively determined by the buyer, and not objectively by the characteristics of the good itself. On the other hand, the exchange value is expressed in monetary terms. Marx states: Not sure if you can write a paper on Classical Economists’ Shared Elements and Visions by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More We have seen that when commodities are about exchange, their exchange-value manifests itself as something independent of their use-value. But if we abstract from their use-value, there remains its value, as has just been defined. The common factor in exchange relation, or the exchange value of the commodity, is therefore its value. (Marx, Section 1: par. 12) It is evident in this quotation that the value of commodities, expressed in monetary terms, is quite different from its value in use. Marx had attempted to establish shared characteristics from the concrete differences among commodities. He concluded that all commodities have value, which he called the labor value denoting the abstract labor time needed to produce a given commodity. Therefore, the production of goods and services required labor, which was availed by a community through the societal division of labor (Marx, Section 4: par 7). Hence, Marx succeeded in establishing that the exchange values of all commodities had a characteristic value. Also, it was a competition that enforced uniform exchange values. Marx further notes that the exchange value of a commodity is related to the owner’s purchasing power and their ability to obtain the required amount of labor. This principle is evident in the modern service economy and the market for physical goods. This is because when one purchases a good, one gains the results of the labor put into producing it and at the same time commanding the labor to produce more of it. Conclusion In essence, classical economic theories have developed over time and have been refined by each subsequent classical economist. Adam Smith introduced the labor theory of value in which he held that the exchange value of a given good was similar to the quantity of labor used to produce the same good. Ricardo identified weak points in this theory and attempted to refine it by working on the assumptions he had earlier made. He included other factors that went into the production of goods, for example, the use of machines and equipment. These factors had to be taken into account too, not just the labor aspect alone. Karl Marx, on his part, distinguished between the exchange value and the value in the use of a product. He also introduced other aspects that go into the production of a good, most notably the societal division of labor. The Differences between Classical Political Economy and Modern Economics Introduction Modern economics is considered a science since it analyzes the production, distribution, and consumption of goods using empirical data. It has been divided into micro and macro-economics. It is also a broad subject that covers a litany of disciplines such as finance, politics, education, crime, government, and health among others. It mainly focuses on explaining how economies work and how various economic agents interact. On the other hand, classical political economy was built on abstractions, which are not easy to quantify. Aspects like the value in use of a product cannot be analyzed empirically because they are based on subjective factors. Although classical theories have been refined over time, some differences set them apart from modern economics. Differences One major difference between the two schools of economic thought lies in the use of empirical data. Whereas modern economics rely on empirical data to analyze situations and make conclusions, the classical political economy was based mostly on abstractions. Modern economic theories are frequently tested through the use of econometrics and economic data (Hashem, p. 8). This involves studying a broad spectrum of data to establish trends, which are useful in making decisions. Currently, there is an increasing inclination towards natural experiments in the field of modern economics. In the classical political economy, the factors determining economics are largely intangible. These include the value in use of a given commodity and the societal division of labor as expressed by Karl Marx. The concept of specialization is another difference between the classical political economy and modern economics. Modern economics relies on skilled specialized labor. This leads to the efficient production of goods and services, which are of high quality. Skilled labor requires training; hence, institutions have sprung up to enable the acquisition of the various necessary skills. In the classical political economy, most labor is unskilled. Classical political economy vouched for free markets, as opposed to modern economics in which markets are closely controlled by the forces of demand and supply. Classical economists, led by Adam Smith, were against the impositions of tariffs and other duties levied by the government in the markets. In modern economics, the markets are controlled not only by the forces of demand and supply, but also duties, tariffs, and other levies imposed by the state. Another factor that hinders the free market in modern times is the existence of monopolies. The markets in modern economics are not free at all. Classical political economists also held that labor was the source of all value and, by extension, profit. Most classical economists structured their theories around the issue of labor. Even the value of the finished product was dependent on the amount of labor channeled into it. In modern economics, the value of finished goods is determined by various factors including, but not limited to, labor. Such factors include supply and demand for the product, tastes, and preferences, the purchasing power of individuals, and the availability of complementary and substitute products. Strengths and Weaknesses The two schools of economic thought have their strengths and weaknesses. One of the strengths involves the enhanced process of production of better goods and services, as has been witnessed in modern times. This is attributed to the modern division of labor, which leads to the specialization of labor. This requires skilled labor; hence, it results in better goods and services. The classical political economy strived to create equality among the people, especially for the producers, because it was against the restrictions placed on markets by the state or other forces present on the market. Its vision of the free-market would provide a level ground for all players in the field. This is because new and small-scale producers are critically disadvantaged in a market already monopolized by mega-producers. The large scale producers control markets by flooding them with products, hence influencing the buyers in their favor. Control of the market has gone a long way in protecting the local industry from undue competition from international amalgamations. This is especially the case in developing countries whose economies are largely agricultural-based. In an attempt to protect and encourage the cottage industry, market protectionism has to be put into place. Heilbroner (1999) also raised various ethical and political issues associated with the two schools of economic thought. He argues that the process of wealth accumulation, be it individual or national, has devastating side effects. This is because it eventually leads to inequality, poverty, government corruption, business collusion, and industrial concentration. These side effects have made some scholars demonize capitalism. Heilbroner also takes issue with the fact that human behavior is dictated by utility rather than choice. According to him, this is rather tautological and too narrow in its exclusive emphasis on instrumental rationality. He contests this idea by arguing that human nature cannot be understood without “the concept of volition” (Heilbroner, p. 317). However, the two schools of economic thought have opened my mind to new dimensions of economic theories. There is much more to economics than what is mostly covered by the syllabus and the texts provided for study. This is because economic thought can shape worldly philosophies with the capacity to address future challenges by providing visionary guidance. A careful study of economic theories may just provide the much-needed solution to current economic problems such as widespread poverty, rampant corruption, and unemployment. Heilbroner states that “the end of the worldly philosophy should be to develop a new awareness of the need for and the possibilities of, socially as well as economically successful capitalisms” (Heilbroner, p. 320 – 321). Conclusion Despite the obvious differences that exist between classical political economics and modern economics, it is important to note that the two can be reconciled to form the most workable and beneficial economic dispensation. There is a lot that modern economics can borrow from classical economic theories. Works Cited Hashem, Pesaran M. “Econometrics”. The New Palgrave: A Dictionary of Economics, vol. 2 (1987): p. 8. Print. Heilbroner, Robert. The Worldly Philosophers: The Life, Times and Ideas of the Great Economic Thinkers. 7th ed. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1999. Print. Marx, Karl. Part I: Commodities and Money. Capital Volume one. n.p, 2005. Web. Mill, John Stuart and Bentham, Jeremy. Utilitarianism and other essays. Ed. Alan Ryan. London: Penguin Books, 2004. Print. Smith, Adam. An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations. Pennsylvania: Pennsylvania State University Electronic Classics Series, 2005. Print.
Grand Canyon University Using Research to Improve Professional Practices Paper
Grand Canyon University Using Research to Improve Professional Practices Paper.
Create a professional development PowerPoint or Prezi presentation to be presented to other ASD specialists in which you explore the importance of research to improve understanding of students with ASD. Include a title slide, a reference slide, and presenter notes. Include the following topics in your professional development presentation:Three current evidence-based practices that are used in the education of students with ASD.Current trends in collaboration and leadership practices among ASD educators, administrators, and general education teachers.Three leading educational interventions for students with ASD. Provide details regarding application of these interventions and how they are expected to improve outcomes for the targeted individuals.Include at least three scholarly references and appropriate in-text citations in your presentation.APA format is not required, but solid academic writing is expected.This assignment uses a rubric. Please review the rubric prior to beginning the assignment to become familiar with the expectations for successful completion.You may put more then one slide on each document. you have everything you need.Read “DSM-5 Diagnostic Criteria” from the Autism Speaks website.URL:http://www.autismspeaks.org/what-autism/diagnosis/dsm-5-diagnostic-criteria
Grand Canyon University Using Research to Improve Professional Practices Paper
Economic Impact of American Recovery and Reinvestment Act
“Government’s view of the economy could be summed up in a few short phrases: If it moves, tax it. If it keeps moving, regulate it. And if it stops moving, subsidize it.” –Ronald Reagan (Powell). Change is good to the point where it allows us to grow in the economy as a nation united as one. Over the years the economy has been growing due to smart choices and change in past policies. Interest rates have gone down, needless regulations have been squashed, and the economy was set on a growth path that has created millions of jobs in a short time span. President Obama targeted major concerns in the economy and in 2009 created the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) to resolve those issues. For instance some of the main focuses of this act was to preserve and create jobs and promote economic recovery as well as to assist those most impacted by the recession, invest in transportation, environmental protection, and other infrastructure that would provide long-term economic benefits, stabilize State and local government budgets, in order to minimize and avoid reductions in essential services and counterproductive state and local tax increases (Wikipedia). There were definite successes and drawbacks that would come out of this policy. During the time “shovel-ready” projects were highly praised due to their short and immediate success, the ARRA used the all controversial “Buy American” provision which required the use of domestic goods and services. In an article written about the ARRA Obama has this to say about the “shovel-ready” project, “The problem is that spending it out takes a long time, because there’s really nothing – there’s no such thing as shovel-ready projects,”. When it comes to economic stimulus, local governments may take years to begin actual construction even once they receive funding. The reason why such a small portion of the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 ended up spent on infrastructure is that the projects are simply too slow to get off the ground to provide meaningful near-term stimulus. While the 2009 stimulus package may not have fixed the nation’s infrastructure, it certainly did its intended job of getting the economy back on track (Duggan). The American Law on Restoration and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (ARRA) nicknamed the “Restoration Law”, became a stimulus package passed by the 111th US Congress and signed by President Barack Obama in February 2009 . This was his answer to the Great Recession, the main task of ARRA was to save existing jobs as soon as possible and create new ones. Other goals were to provide momentary assistance programs for those most affected by the recession and invest in infrastructure, renewable energy, health, and education. This day did not mark the end of our economic troubles nor eliminate everything that must be done to turn the economy around, however it did set the beginning for the end. The start to create new jobs for Americans, offer relief to those struggling to pay their rent, and to give our economy a strong foundation, setting a way for long-term growth and success. The importance of this recovery plan is not only that it will create or save 3½ million jobs over the next two years but that we force the Americans to work on what America should do in critical areas that have been ignored for too long, which will carry real and lasting changes for future generations. Since we know that we cannot build our economic future in transport and information systems of the past, we are recycling the American landscape with the largest new investments in the infrastructure of our country, as Eisenhower built a system of interstate highways in the 1950s. Because of this investment, almost 400,000 men and women will go to work to restore our disintegrating roads and bridges, repair our erroneous dams, provide serious broadband networks to businesses and homes in nearly every community in America, modernize mass transit and construction, high-speed rail networks that will create headway for travel and commerce across the country. We know that America cannot compete tomorrow with the world, if our children do not get education today, the greatest investments in education in the history of our country are being made for the future of this country. These are investments that will build jobs for the 21st century classes, libraries and laboratories for millions of children across America. It will provide funds for the training of a new generation of mathematicians and science teachers, assisting states and school districts to prevent teachers from being fired and curtailing educational programs. Assistance to working families will not only drive millions of families out of poverty; this is also one of the most economical ways to increase the economy and create jobs. As a result, it will strengthen and increase the middle class. Tax cuts and transfer payments to families only generate economic activity if they are spent rather than saved. Low-income families are most likely to spend the additional income, and policies aimed at low-income households therefore tend to do more for the economy. One dollar for low-income people—including unemployment insurance, nutrition assistance, and refundable tax credits—adds between $0.80 and $2.20 to the economy, according to the Congressional Budget Office. A dollar of tax cuts for high-income households adds only between $0.10 and $0.50 cents (Kvall). Legislation on the recovery of collection makes investments that will create jobs at present-day and will contribute to economic opportunities in the coming years. Historical investments in renewable energy and energy efficiency include both House and Senate bills, which will instantly create “green jobs” and will continue to maintain sustainable and affordable energy for years to come. They would include almost 50 billion dollars for public transport, public housing, and roads. Both would allow a new wave of venture in schools and colleges that would reinforce education and encourage future growth. When the project was just in the first steps of being an idea in someone’s mind, Obama had stated that it was planned to be a “shovel-ready” project. However by the time it was all said and done only about one-tenth of the Recovery Act was devoted to the infrastructure. The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act kept projects from putting people to work for having to use U.S. made products. According to Grabell (as cited in Simonson, 2012) “By the time officials and contractors had jumped through all the required hoops, it was already late in the construction season, and many projects would have to wait until 2010. It appeared that what ‘shovel-ready’ really meant was for politicians to pose with a shovel for a photo op” (Grabell, as cited in Simonson 2012). The practicality of the “shovel-ready” often contradicted the motivated goal of restoring the national infrastructure. To quickly get money out, numerous states have chosen short-term pavement projects, rather than focusing on their critical needs at hand. The ARRA botched its promise not because in retrospect it was small or because Keynesian economics is outdated, but because it was poorly planned. ARRA demonstrates a significant struggle in using fiscal policy to stabilize economic activity. It passed a year after the recession started. In 2009, only about 20% of the expenses stipulated by the legislation took place, growing to about two-thirds in mid-2010. There was only an assumption in which condition the country’s economy would be. As it turns out, the recession had come to an end, but there was still a big downturn in the economy, and unemployment continued to cause serious concern. President Obama argued that his applications to combat the economy in the short term, coincidentally, would also contribute to a long-term economic success. Some critics have said they are paying more attention to actual tax cuts, while others are concerned about whether spending will focus on maximizing employment or will be driven by political considerations (Principles of Macroeconomics, Chapter 12). The most dominant factor in preparing fiscal year 2011 budgets is the upcoming end of enhanced federal Medicaid matching funds provided to states by the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) of 2009. These funds, which will total an estimated $87 billion over a nine-quarter period ending in December 2010, have been critical in helping states maintain coverage. Medicaid directors in the Kaiser survey believed that the temporary ARRA enhancement of matching funds should be extended and followed by a phase-down period, to avoid an abrupt and major reduction in federal funding (Psychiatric Services, pg. 425). Three spending categories were included in the ARRA those include, $288 billion for cutting taxes, $224 billion spent in extending benefits for the unemployed, focus on education as well as health care. More jobs have been created by allotting $275 billion in federal loans, contracts, and grants. Congress designed the Act to spend 91.5%, or $720 billion in the first three fiscal years. It allocated $185 billion in 2009 fiscal year, $400 billion in 2010 fiscal year and $135 billion in 2011 fiscal year. This plan worked out better than the Obama Administration has predicted. By the end of 2009, $241.9 billion and a portion of it, $92.8 billion was spent towards tax relief, unemployment and other benefits had $86.5 billion, and job grants had $62.6 billion. In the 2012 fiscal year budget Congress distributed extra funding to raise the total amount to $840 billion. Towards December 2013, $816.3 billion was spent in total by the administration, $290.7 billion of that went towards tax relief, $264.4 billion in unemployment and benefits, and $261.2 billion in loans, grants, and contracts. Many critics pointed out that Obama’s stimulus package did not succeed because the economy contracted 2.8 percent in 2009. The Congressional Budget Office projected ARRA would stimulate GDP growth by 1.4 percent to 3.8 percent that year. That meant growth in gross domestic product would be 1.4 percent to 3.8 percent better than if Congress did nothing. In fact, the CBO projected the economy would contract 3 percent for 2009. That’s because it had already contracted 5.4 percent the first quarter, and 0.5 percent in the second. The Dow had fallen to 6,594.44 on March 5, 2009. By Q4 2009, GDP was up 3.9 percent, and the Dow had risen to 10,428. By 2010, the economy expanded 2.5 percent. The economic stimulus bill was supposed to save 900,000-2.3 million jobs. As of October 30, 2009, it saved 640,329 jobs. Not all of that success was thanks to the Stimulus Package. Expansive monetary policy and active emerging markets boosted global growth. But by March 2009, monetary policy had done all it could. It was evident more fiscal policy was needed. No doubt, the economic stimulus package inspired the confidence needed to turn the economy around (Amadeo 2017). Overall the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 that had been passed by President Barack Obama had poor feedback in terms of its success. However numbers do prove that in the end, even though the economy was not one hundred percent fixed, it did in fact end the recession and opened doors for future policies to gain way to a better tomorrow. Work Cited Amadeo, Kimberly. “Did Obama’s Stimulus Plan Work?” The Balance, Neil Vogel and Mike Jones, 30 Aug. 2017, www.thebalance.com/what-was-obama-s-stimulus-package-3305625. Duggan, Wayne. “What Happened To All The ‘Shovel-Ready’ Infrastructure Projects From The 2009 Stimulus Bill?” Behzinga, Jason Raznick, 17 Feb. 2017, www.benzinga.com/general/education/17/02/9036944/what-happened-to-all-the-shovel-ready-infrastructure-projects-from-t. Kvaal, James, and Ben Furnas. “The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act Will Reduce Poverty.” Poverty, edited by Roman Espejo, Greenhaven Press, 2012. Opposing Viewpoints. Opposing Viewpoints in Context, Accessed 12 Oct. 2017. Originally published as “Recession, Poverty, and the Recovery Act,” AmericanProgress.org, 11 Feb. 2009. Powell, Jared. “Ronald Reagan Quotes about Taxes.” Gop.gov, House Republicans, 24 Apr. 2015, www.gop.gov/9-ronald-reagan-quotes-about-taxes/. Principles of Macroeconomics, “Chapter 12: Government and Fiscal Policy.” University of Minnesota Libraries Publishing, 2011, open.lib.umn.edu/macroeconomics/part/chapter-12-government-and-fiscal-policy/. Psychiatric Services, “2009 Growth in Medicaid Enrollment Sets Record.” vol. 61, no. 4, Jan. 2010, p. 425. ProQuest, doi:10.1176/appi.ps.61.4.425. Simonson, Ken. “Michael Grabell, Money Well Spent? The Truth Behind the Trillion-Dollar Stimulus, the Biggest Economic Recovery Plan in History.” Business Economics, vol. 47, no. 3, July 2012, pp. 228–229. ProQuest, doi:10.1057/be.2012.13. Wikipedia, “American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009.” Wikimedia Foundation, 10 Oct. 2017, en.wikipedia.org/wiki/American_Recovery_and_Reinvestment_Act_of_2009#Provisions_of_the_Act.