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Texas a & M International University Safety Audit Program Memo

Texas a & M International University Safety Audit Program Memo.

You have just been hired as the Director of Safety and Health at US Jets, a mid-sized business organization that designs, manufactures, and sells mid-sized business jets in San Carlos, California. Since you completed your MSOSM graduate degree at Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University, you understand the importance of safety audits. You have decided that you want to implement a safety audit program. However, your boss, Mr. George Jetson may not understand what is involved in a safety audit and may not understand the benefits of completing a safety audit.You are the first Director of Safety and Health at this organization. The safety function was previously managed by the Human Resources department. Over the past few years, the company has grown quickly. With the growth and greater production requirements, some safety problems have emerged. Worker injuries have increased significantly, and Cal/OSHA recently visited the company and issued a citation for not having a formal Injury and Illness Prevention Program. Thus, George Jetson decided to hire a Director of Safety and Health.Writing Assignment: Draft a letter to Mr. George Jetson, Chief Operating Officer (your supervisor), explaining that you want to establish a safety audit program. Within your letter be sure to address the following:Discuss the purpose of a safety auditPresent a plan for the overall audit processBe sure to highlight how the audit will be completed and the materials, etc. that will be assessedPropose a time frame and implementation agenda for the auditProvide a justification for why you want to complete the safety audit, which details the expected benefitsBe sure you make a business case for the auditWrite your letter using block format. The letter should be succinct but detailed enough to fully address the requirements of the writing assignment. Be sure to include citations and add references if utilized.The letter should be addressed to: Mr. George Jetson, COOUS Jets, Inc.1 Industry WaySan Carlos, CA 94070.p.s.. not sure if you may need this: https://owl.purdue.edu/owl/purdue_owl.html
Texas a & M International University Safety Audit Program Memo

The four factors. Track 11 The four factors that influence natural selection are genetic variation, overproduction of offspring, struggle for existence, differential survival and reproduction. Natural selection says that the organism most fit for living in its environment, will be most likely to survive and reproduce passing on those good traits to their offspring. Eventually, there will only be organisms that have those good traits. People with one sickle cell gene will survive the disease and grow up to reproduce children with the gene. Just one person had the original mutation and that has caused most of Africa to now have that gene because that gene makes them more fit to survive in their environment. 3. 1. Data Table 2. Explain how the color of moths increases or decreases their chances of survival depending on the environment. In a sooty forest, the darker moths blended in more and were harder to spot by predators which gave them a higher chance of survival. In the lichen forest, the lighter moths blended in more giving them a higher chance of survival. 500 light colored moths and 500 dark colored moths are released into a polluted forest. After 2 days the moths were recaptured, make a prediction about the number of each type of moth that would be captured. About 7% of the dark moths will be captured and about 93% of the light moths will be captured. How has the striking change in coloration come about? (Include an explanation of how the dark moth appeared and how the proportion of dark moths changed from 0.0005% to more than 90% in polluted forests.) The dark coloration was an accidental genetic mutation but in that environment, it was more fit to survive so over time, there were much more dark colored moths. What underlying law of nature has produced this change? (Use Darwin’s theory of evolution and apply it to what you have learned in this investigation.) Natural selection produced this change. Fitness is not necessarily the fastest or the strongest, it is the best suited for the particular environment. In that sense, survival of the fittest is an accurate statement. The brown beetle may not be faster or stronger than the green beetle but it produces more offspring and in this case, that makes it more fit. If the green beetles tasted bad to predators then eventually, there would be no brown beetles left because the green beetles would have an advantage. They would be more fit for their environment which would give individual green beetles a better chance of surviving and reproducing than individual brown beetles. When a group of bacteria is attacked by an antibiotic, there may be an individual bacteria that has a genetic mutation allowing it to survive the attack. Since that individual survives, it can divide and all of its “offspring” will have that same genetic mutation. Eventually all of the bacteria will be immune to the antibiotic. Microevolution happens on a small scale with individual populations. Macroevolution happens on a large scale creating many different species from one original. Organisms that reproduce through asexual means create offspring that have exact copies of their own DNA. Their offspring are perfect clones of the mothers. Sexual reproduction is time consuming, and mothers only get to contribute half of their genes. This makes asexual reproduction look better but in reality it isn’t. Asexually reproducing species stopped evolving when they became asexual because there is no genetic mutation or variation (offspring are clones of parents). This leaves them susceptible to things like diseases. Since they can’t evolve, their species can’t become immune to diseases, which causes their species’ to become extinct. The four factors
ECO 550 Strayer University Auctions and Dynamic Pricing Essay.

I’m working on a economics case study and need a sample draft to help me learn.

There are many types of auctions, each with strengths and weaknesses at uncovering the real price or value of an item. Auctions are widely used in finance, e-commerce, and e-games. They are also widely used to generate revenue for not-for-profit organizations. The following video describes auctions as price discovery mechanisms:The Ideal Auction.Use the video on auctions and at least three academic or high-quality business publications (see acceptable types below) to compare and contrast English auctions and Dutch auctions, and sealed-bid first-price auctions and Vickery auctions.InstructionsAddress the following questions in 5–7 pages:Compare and contrast how each of the following uncovers value:English and Dutch auctions.Sealed-bid first-price auctions and Vickery auctions.Compare and contrast surge pricing and congestion pricing. Give an example of each currently in use.Identify three examples of auctions used in finance, e-commerce, and/or e-games. Explain the following in-depth:The need for an auction to uncover value in the product or service.How the type of auction used to uncover the value of the product or service is better at uncovering value than other types of auctions.What are the advantages or disadvantages of auctions as revenue generators for not-for-profit organizations?Suggest ways in which a for-profit company, such as the company for which you work or a company for which you aspire to work, can use auctions or dynamic pricing to better uncover value and increase revenue.This course requires the use of Strayer Writing Standards. For assistance and information, please refer to the Strayer Writing Standards link in the left-hand menu of your course. Check with your professor for any additional instructions.Acceptable Types of PublicationsA high-quality, professional business publication is one that is primarily directed at reporting or analyzing the workings of the business. Examples are the Wall Street Journal, Bloomberg, and Reuters. Avoid general news publications such as USA Today, the Washington Post, and the New York Times. Other articles and resources can be found at the Strayer Library.Please do not rely on Wikipedia, Investopedia, or similar websites as references at any time in this course.The specific course learning outcome associated with this assignment is:Propose ways in which a company can use auctions to better uncover value and increase revenue.
ECO 550 Strayer University Auctions and Dynamic Pricing Essay

Case Citation: Sawyer-Thompson v The Queen [2018] VSCA 161 Judges: Maxwell ACJ, Tate JA and Beach JJA Names of Parties: Bonnie Katie Sawyer-Thompson – Applicant The Queen – Respondent Summary of Facts: The Applicant was tried and convicted of the Defensive Homicide of Jack Brian Nankervis in the Supreme Court of Victoria.[1] It was found that the Sawyer-Thompson’s partner, Philip Mifsud, threatened to kill her family if she did not carry out the murder of Nankervis.[2] Sawyer-Thompson was subjected to violence as a result of the abusive relationship that she had with Mifsud.[3] It was found that before the killing of Nankervis took place, Mifsud told Sawyer-Thompson to hit him (Nankervis) with a mattock that was given to her prior to entering the victim’s apartment.[4] He also told her to claim that Nankervis attempted to rape her, thus resulting in the killing of the victim.[5] During the initial trial, the Sawyer-Thompson pleaded not guilty to defensive homicide with the defence of duress as she believed that her partner would carry out the threat of killing her family if she had not killed Nankervis.[6] However, after the jury empanelment process was completed, she changed her plea to guilty to defensive homicide. Upon the initial sentencing of Sawyer-Thompson, the judge said that the attack on the victim was ‘ghastly and disturbing in its execution’ given that he was ‘hacked and stabbed repeatedly … well beyond [what] was necessary to kill him’.[7] The sentencing judge in the initial trial sentenced her to 10 years imprisonment with a non-parole period of 7 years with the time already served included in the sentence.[8] An appeal of this conviction was granted to the Court of Appeal of the Supreme Court of Victoria. The Key Issues for Determination: The Court of Appeal had to determine various key issues within this case. The first and main key issue is whether the sentence that was implemented by the sentencing judge in the initial trial was excessive.[9] The second key issue that had to be determined was whether the applicant had reasonable belief that her partner would kill her family if she did not kill Nankervis.[10] A summary of the analysis of the law and the principles of law applied in the judgment Maxwell ACJ (Tate agreed with the judgement of Maxwell ACJ) based their decision upon the reasons referred to below: His Honour first discussed the overall mischaracterisation of the seriousness of the offence committed by the applicant, which he considered to be less serious as the applicant committed the offence as a result of the threat from their partner and history of violence.[11] His Honour understood and agreed that the violence that was perpetrated by the applicant was “grossly excessive” and “the extent of the injuries was deeply shocking”.[12] His Honour raised the question of what the actions of the applicant disclose about her state of mind at the time of the offence being committed.[13] In discussing the defence that was previously adopted by the defence, the Court determined that the family violence provisions that are entrenched that the time of the offence had to be analysed.[14] The defence counsel submitted that the then current provisions relating to Family Violence were applicable to the offence that the applicant was charged with (defensive homicide).[15] His Honour referred to the Crimes Act 1958 (Vic) to discuss the family violence law that applied during the time of the offence being committed.[16] Formerly known as Section 9AH (2) (a), (b) and (c) of the Crimes Act 1958 (Vic) (now ss 322J and 322P), a person may have a reasonable belief that the conduct that they committed was necessary to defend themselves, or prevent their liberty from being deprived, or was committed under duress.[17] His Honour secondly discussed the change of plea and abandonment of the defence of duress by the applicant.[18] His Honour noted that the applicant previously offered to plead guilty to the offence before the trial commenced, and the change of plea (to guilty) ultimately avoided “what would have been a stressful trial and spare the witnesses the ordeal of reliving these events and being cross-examined about them”.[19] His Honour accepted this action as the applicant showing remorse for their actions, and her overall willingness to assist in the course of justice by changing her plea to guilty.[20] It was also noted that the decrease in the length of the sentence was warranted given the overall cooperation of the applicant in changing her plea, her willingness to assist the authorities.[21] Beach JA held a different judgement to Maxwell ACJ and Tate. His Honour accepted that the conduct and violence inflicted on the victim excessive, and to the point where he was ’unrecognisable’.[22] His Honour then discussed the two main grounds of appeal; the first being that the sentencing judge made an error in concluding that the offence committed as a serious example of defensive homicide, and that the sentence and non-parole period were excessive.[23] In relation to the sentencing judge concluding that the offence was a serious example of a defensive homicide, His Honour agreed that the conduct that the applicant undertaken was excessive as it was ‘well beyond the point that was necessary to kill’.[24] His Honour also believed that the sentence that was given to the applicant in the initial trial (ten-year imprisonment) was not manifestly excessive in accordance to the sentencing options that were available to the sentencing judge.[25] His Honour also noted that the sentence was in no way manifestly excessive, but can be viewed as a stern sentence given by the sentencing judge.[26] The final outcome and the orders made by the Court: As a result of this Appeal, the Court ordered the original sentence to the set aside, and the applicant to be resentenced to six and a half years imprisonment with a non-parole period of five years. [27] Critical Review of Decision: In my opinion of the decision made in the case of Sawyer-Thompson v The Queen (2018), the Judges have effectively analysed all the major factors (both underlying and key issues) when determining the outcome of this appeal. Two of the judges in the case (Maxwell ACJ and Tate) both agreed that the sentence that was given to the applicant (Sawyer-Thompson) was excessive as the sentencing judge mischaracterised the seriousness of the offence (defensive homicide).[28] They also discussed the Family Violence provisions that were submitted by the defence, and how they related to the possible defence that we previously adopted by the applicant during trial.[29] Beach CJ agreed with the decision that the sentencing judge came up with in accordance to the arguments presented during the trial. In my opinion, the Judges properly analysed both sides of the argument, and fairly discussed the argument put forward by the defence and the prosecution. Overall, the outcome of the appeal was fair as the two Judges (Maxwell and Tate) analysed the underlying mitigating factors and the law that applied during the time the offence was committed and determined that the initial sentence that was given by the sentencing Judge was excessive. In the initial trial, the sentencing judge acknowledged the ‘reasonable to good’ possibility of the applicant being rehabilitated.[30] In my opinion, the sentence that was given as a result of this appeal was fair because Maxwell and Tate both agreed that the offence was mischaracterised by the sentencing judge when determining a suitable sentence. In my opinion, the sentencing judge should have reduced the sentence because the applicant committed the offence to prevent her family from being killed by her partner.[31] The initial defence that the applicant submitted was that the conduct was committed under duress that was then recognised under s.9AG(2) of the Crimes Act that recognises that her conduct was in reaction to the threat of death to her family.[32] She had a belief that she thought was reasonable at the time, that her partner would kill her family if she had not killed Nankervis in his apartment.[33] The initial defence that the applicant submitted was that the conduct was committed under duress that was then recognised under s.9AG(2) of the Crimes Act that recognises that her conduct was in reaction to the threat of death to her family.[34] The Court in Parker agreed that the personal factors must be taken into account when determining whether the person’s belief was reasonable as it could justify their conduct.[35] In my opinion, I also agree with the judgement that Beach JJA made as he reinforced the decision that the sentencing judge delivered due to the seriousness of the violence that led to the death of Nankervis.[36] As both the sentencing judge and Beach JJA agreed that the offence was a serious example of defensive homicide as the attack was ‘beyond the point that was necessary to kill’ the victim.[37] Overall. I agree with both of the decisions that were delivered by the judges. However, I believe that the applicant should have stuck with the initial plea of not guilty and the defence of duress as there was suitable evidence to support that claim and view. [1] R v Sawyer-Thompson [2016] VSC 767. [2] Sawyer-Thompson v The Queen [2018] VSCA 161 [2]. [3] Ibid, [2]. [4] R v Sawyer-Thompson [2016] VSC 767 [2]. [5] Ibid, [2]. [6] The definition of duress in this case was adopted from DPP v Parker (a pseudonym) [2016] VSCA 101 [7] R v Sawyer-Thompson [2016] VSC 767 [165] (‘Reasons’) [8] R v Sawyer-Thompson [2016] VSC 767 [265] (‘Sentence’) [9] Sawyer-Thompson v The Queen [2018] VSCA 161 [ [10] Ibid [15]. [11] Sawyer-Thompson v The Queen [2018] VSCA 161 [6]; See e.g. Black v The Queen [2012] VSCA 75 [18], [21], [33]. [12] Sawyer-Thompson v The Queen [2018] VSCA 161 [6]. [13] Ibid [6]. [14] Ibid [22]. [15] Ibid [18]. [16] Ibid [18]. [17] Crimes Act 1958 (Vic) S.9AH, now categorised under ss.322J

HIS 1043 PU Differences in The Role of Women Throughout Colonial America Essay

HIS 1043 PU Differences in The Role of Women Throughout Colonial America Essay.

PAPER REQUIREMENTSPROPER FORMATTING:500+ Word Essay responding to the prompt below.Times New Roman Font12 Point Font1 Inch MarginsDouble-spaced3-5 ParagraphsUSE THE DOCUMENTS:SUPPORT YOUR ARGUMENT WITH PROOF FROM THE PRIMARY SOURCE DOCUMENTS ATTACHED TO THE PROMPT. USE AT LEAST 4 OF THE PROVIDED DOCUMENTS TO SUPPORT YOUR ARGUMENT. DO NO USE ANY OTHER OUTSIDE SOURCES IN YOUR PAPER.CITE THE DOCUMENTS YOU REFER TO: IF YOU QUOTE, PARAPHRASE, OR REFERENCE A DOCUMENT YOU MUST PLACE THE DOCUMENT ALPHA CHARACTER IN PARENTHESES AT THE END OF THE SENTENCE. EXAMPLE: ADVOCATES FOR SUFFRAGE ARGUED THAT BECAUSE WOMEN HAVE TO OBEY THE LAWS, THEY SHOULD BE ABLE TO HELP CHOOSE WHO MAKES THE LAWS. (DOCUMENT A)ANY QUOTES FROM THE DOCUMENTS MUST BE ENCASED IN QUOTATIONS MARKS.YOU DO NOT NEED A WORKS CITED PAGE FOR THIS ASSIGNMENT SINCE YOU WILL BE USING ONLY THE SET OF DOCUMENTS PROVIDEDPROMPTIN COLONIAL AMERICA, NATIVE AMERICANS, EUROPEANS, AND AFRICANS CAME TOGETHER CREATING A COLLISION OF CULTURES. THIS CAN BE SEEN IN EACH GROUP’S ATTITUDES TOWARD WOMEN.BASED ON THE FOLLOWING DOCUMENTS, IDENTIFY THE MAJOR DIFFERENCES IN THE ROLE OF WOMEN THROUGHOUT COLONIAL AMERICA? (CONSIDER HOW POWER WAS EXERCISED BY WOMEN AND OVER WOMEN DEPENDING ON THE CULTURAL ATTITUDES AND PRESSURES OF EACH GROUPHTTPS://SPARK.ADOBE.COM/PAGE/QSVH5I38SGKF4/
HIS 1043 PU Differences in The Role of Women Throughout Colonial America Essay

MATH302 University of Phoenix Week 2 Car Price Descriptive Statistics Paper

i need help writing an essay MATH302 University of Phoenix Week 2 Car Price Descriptive Statistics Paper.

Using the data set that you identified in week 1, use Excel to find the following descriptive statistics for the price data. Descriptive statistics:MeanMedianStandard DeviationUse these summary statistics to make two conclusions or observations about the typical vehicle in the sample. One conclusion must relate to the measure of center (mean/median) and one to the variability (standard deviation) of the vehicles.Next, add an 11th vehicle to the data set. Choose a “supercar” that costs at least $1 million. Recalculate the summary statistics to include this vehicle.Descriptive statistics:MeanMedianStandard DeviationWhich summary statistics were affected the most by the addition of this outlier? How were they changed, and were you surprised by the results? I encourage you to review the Week 2 descriptive statistics PDF at the bottom of the discussion forums. This will give you a step by step example on how to calculate these values using Excel. I DO NOT recommend doing this by hand. Let Excel do the heavy lifting for you.Instructions: Your initial post should be at least 150 words. You must also respond to at least 2 other students outside your initial thread. Responses should be a minimum of 50 words and may include direct questions. In your peer posts, consider the summary statistics of your classmates’ data sets. After the supercar was added to the data set, which summary statistic do you think more accurately reflects the typical vehicle price – the mean or median? Compare the standard deviation before the supercar was added and after it was added. Does this indicate greater variability in the original or modified data set? Based on this information, do you feel the standard deviation can help you identify the presence of an outlier? Why or why not? In your responses, refer to the specific data from your classmates’ posts. Make sure you include your data set in your initial post as well.I will send two summary statistics when I receive them but you can continue with the initial post.
MATH302 University of Phoenix Week 2 Car Price Descriptive Statistics Paper

In her book ” The Reproduction of Mothering”, Nancy Chodorow argues

In her book ” The Reproduction of Mothering”, Nancy Chodorow argues. Question for the centrality of the mother-child role in the health and well-being of both women and their children, but diversity of modern family structures and the ongoing fight for equal rights on the fronts of both gender and sexual orientation may threaten this focus. What do you thik?; Are women best suited to be the primary caregiver, or can men do just as good a job? Comments (0)In her book ” The Reproduction of Mothering”, Nancy Chodorow argues

QUESTION 1 Poor leadership has been identified as one of the key challenges hindering the development of health systems

QUESTION 1 Poor leadership has been identified as one of the key challenges hindering the development of health systems in low and middle income countries.(LCMICs -Daire et al.2014;Galaviz et al 2016) To what extent do you agree or disagree with that statement and how can 21st century health systems leadership be shaped to improve health outcomes in LCMICs? (50marks) QUESTION 2 Procurement has been cited as one of the key sources of corruption in the health sector of many developing countries. Though some countries have procurement laws, the implementation of these laws meet several challenges, impeding efforts at ensuring good governance in health and throwing countries off meeting health goals. Discuss the principles of good governance in health, and propose ways of dealing with procurement challenges, thereby reducing corruption in health sector of developing countries.(50marks) QUESTION 3 Primary Health Care (PHC) has long been identified as critical in achieving universal coverage of health care service. However, its implementation in many countries has faced practical challenges. To what extent can health Systems leadership (from national to decentralized levels ) facilitate the use of closeto- client concepts (such as the Community- based Health Planning Services -CHPS approach in Ghana) to promote PHC in Africa (50marks) QUESTION 4 The outbreak of Ebola virus disease in West Africa in 2014 highlighted the weakness in the health systems of many developing countries. Outline and discuss the key lessons for health systems management, using specific examples. QUESTION 5 During the 2016 general elections in Ghana, the health care system dominated debates among political parties contesting to lead the country. As a special advisor to the new Minister for Health, identify five key challenges the sector faces that should serve as priority issues for the Minister, proposing pragmatic solutions to the challenges identified. QUESTION 6 The year 2015 saw major changes in global political landscape, which have been seen posing critical challenges to the funding health in many developing countries. Discuss four of such challenges that developing countries face as a result of the withdrawal of Britain from European Union and a possible reduction of global health funding from the United States government due to the promises made by the current U.S. President. QUESTION 7 Globally, health financing has been acknowledged as a tool to achieving universal health coverage and the global health community is using every available opportunity to promote increasing health expenditures through various financing mechanisms. One concrete tool to enhancing financing is health insurance, which has been embraced by many developing countries as a way to ensuring financial risk protection for, especially the poor and vulnerable, but also to the entire population. Ghana’s National Health insurance scheme, which became operational in 2004 currently covers about 30% of the country’s population. However, the scheme is faced with a number of challenges which, if unresolved could undermine the objectives and sustainability of the scheme. Discuss four of these challenges and propose practical solutions ( 50 marks) As a health manager propose innovative ways of mobilizing local resources to improve health financing in Ghana. In particular, how can the private sector and the health system itself (operating efficiently) help mobilize such resources? QUESTION 8 Discussions are ongoing in Ghana’s health sector to transfer decentralized health structures (from the district level downwards) to the Local Government authority( Metropolitan, Municipal, and District Assemblies). This will imply local government structures having full control over health activities and decisions at these lower levels of health system, including the power of recruit health staff at these levels. Discuss the advantages and challenges that such a move could pose to operation and efficiency of the health systems components. (50marks) QUESTION 9 Primary Health care( PHC ) has long been identified as critical in achieving universal coverage of health care service. However, its implementation in many countries has faced practical challenges. To what extent can health systems leaderships (from national to decentralized levels) facilitate the use of close- to- client concepts (such as the Community based Health Planning and Services- CHPS approach in Ghana) to promote PHC in Africa? QUESTION 10 In recent times, there have been calls from various actors on the global health landscape for donors in national governments in low and low- middle income countries ( L MICs) to significantly increase investment in health, if significant improvements in health are to be observed in these countries. For example, the lancet commission on investing in Health’s Global Health 2035 report calls for investments of up to U.S. dollars 70 billion annually over the next 20 years, which could propel reduction of mortality levels (from infectious, maternal and child diseases) to levels currently seen in the best performing middle income countries (China Chile, Costa Rica and Cuba), a phenomenon they prefer to as the grand convergence. The Lancet Commission and the school of Public Health, UG recent estimates show that Ghana and kenya require about US dollar 566 million and US dollar 932 million (respectively) investments annually (equivalent to doubling current spending on health) to attain the convergence. With the transition of some countries ( Ghana ,Kenya, Nigeria) to lower- middle income status, evidence shows that donor support for health in these countries has significantly reduced, mainly due to the transition. This phenomenon implies that governments will have to mobilize mainly local resources for financing health. As a health manager, propose innovative ways of mobilizing local resources to improve health financing in Ghana. In particular, how can private sector and health system itself (operating efficiently) help mobilize such resources. (50marks) QUESTION 11 Discussions are ongoing in Ghana’s health sector to transfer the decentralized health structures (from the district level downwards) to the local government authority(Metropolitan, Municipal and District Assemblies). This will imply local government structures having full control over health activities and decisions at these lower levels of the health system, including the power to recruit health staff at these levels. Discuss the advantages and challenges that such a move could pose to operation and efficiency of the health systems components (50marks) QUESTION 12 Primary Health Care (PHC) has long been identified as critical in achieving universal coverage of health care service. However, its implementation in many countries has faced practical challenges. To what extent can Health system leadership (from national to decentralized levels) facilitate the use of close- to- client concepts (such as the Community-based Health Planning and Services- CHPS approach in Ghana) to promote PHC in Africa. QUESTION 13 According to Akinwumi Adesina, President of African Development Bank, poor governance and lack of public accountability have always been among the main causes hindering Africa’s structural transformation. To what extent do you agree or disagree with the above statement, as it relates to the health sector of countries in Africa. (50marks) QUESTION 14 From 6-12th September, 1978, the United Nations convened an International conference on the Primary Health Care Alma-Ata, which resulted in Alma-Ata declaration on Primary Health care. Among many things, the declaration provided that; “Primary Health care is essential health care based on practical, scientifically sound and socially acceptable methods and technology made universally accessible to individuals and families in the community through their full participation and at a cost that the community and the country can afford to maintain at every stage of their development in the spirit of self-reliance and self-determination. It forms an integral part both of the country’s health system, of which it is the central function and main focus, and of the overall social and economic development of the community. It is the first level of contact of individuals, the family, and community with National Health system bringing health care as close as possible to where people live and work and constitutes the first element of continuing health care process. After 40 years of the Alma-Ata Declaration, to what extent are the characteristics of the primary health care mentioned above still relevant for achieving universal health coverage, especially in developing countries? (50marks) QUESTION 15 There have been calls from various actors on global health landscape for donors and national governments in low and lower-middle income countries (LMICs) to significantly increase investments in health, if significant improvements in health outcomes are to be observed in these countries. As a health manager propose innovative ways of mobilizing local resources to improve health financing in Ghana. (50marks) QUESTION 16 Ghana’s population is youthful with about 1/3 being young people. The government is concerned about this population dynamics and has been contemplating whether this is a “risk” or an “opportunity” for the country’s development. As an adolescent health experts, you have been consulted by the National Development Planning to make inputs into its 25-year development plan. Discuss four critical issues you will consider in relation to investment in adolescent health. (40 Marks) QUESTION 17 Why should a trainee public health professionals take a course in demography (30 Marks) QUESTION 18 With the aid of the relevant illustrative examples, show why and how innovative interventions are currently needed to improve maternal health outcomes in Ghana. (30marks) QUESTION 19 UNAIDS estimates of Ghana in 2017 shows that there are 28,000 children between 0-14 years living with HIV.As the Directorate-General of the Ghana Health service, what will you do to eliminate mother to child transmission of HIV in Ghana by 2023. (30marks) QUESTION 20 From an ecological perspective, discuss the common determinants of micronutrient deficiency among women in reproductive age in developing countries settings.(30marks) QUESTION 21 Universal Health Coverage (UHC) has been endorsed by major players in global health and national governments as a major approach to ensure that all people have much needed access to essential health care services. Identify any three leadership styles and discuss the leadership style that is much needed to facilitate the transition to you UHC in the Ghanaian health sector, discussing the advantages of this style and how it towers above the others in facilitating UHC (100marks) QUESTION 22 Life Time Risk (LTR) of Maternal mortality is an important and a better indicator of risk of maternal mortality than the most commonly used indicators. Explain why this is the case and why LTR is not commonly estimated? (100marks) QUESTION 23 With the Millennium Development Goal endline fast approaching, the sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) are being developed as the next set of goals to guide major decisions. Global Health leaders are discussing health goals which should be included to guide global health decisions. What roles exist for good governance, accountability and transparency in national health system to facilitate the achievement of those goals when they are made? (100marks) QUESTION 24 Ghana’s health system is generally regarded as weak, hindering the achievement of positive outcomes despite the fact that huge investments have been made in the health sector. Discuss essential managerial skills be that are required to facilitate the be delivery of health services in order to improve population health (100marks) QUESTION 25 According to Akinwumi Adesina, President of the African Development Bank, “ poor governance and lack of public accountability have always been among the main causes hindering Africa’s structural transformation”. To what extent do you agree or disagree with the above statement, as it relates to the health sector of countries in Africa. (50marks) QUESTION 26 From 6-12th September, 1978, the United Nations convened an International conference on the Primary Health Care Alma-Ata, which resulted in Alma-Ata declaration on Primary Health care. Among many things, the declaration provided that; “Primary Health care is essential health care based on practical, scientifically sound and socially acceptable methods and technology made universally accessible to individuals and families in the community through their full participation and at a cost that the community and the country can afford to maintain at every stage of their development in the spirit of self-reliance and self-determination. It forms an integral part both of the country’s health system, of which it is the central function and main focus, and of the overall social and economic development of the community. It is the first level of contact of individuals, the family, and community with National Health system bringing health care as close as possible to where people live and work and constitutes the first element of continuing health care process”. After 40 years of the Alma-Ata Declaration, to what extent are the characteristics of the primary health care mentioned above still relevant for achieving universal health coverage, especially in developing countries? (50marks) QUESTION 27 There have been calls from various actors on global health landscape for donors and national governments in low and lower-middle income countries (LMICs) to significantly increase investments in health, if significant improvements in health outcomes are to be observed in these countries. As a health manager propose innovative ways of mobilizing local resources to improve health financing in Ghana. (50marks) QUESTION 28 The outbreak of Ebola virus disease in West Africa in 2014 highlighted the weakness in the health systems of many developing countries. Outline and discuss the key lessons for health systems management, using specific examples. QUESTION 29. During the 2016 general elections in Ghana, the health care system dominated debates among political parties contesting to lead the country. As a special advisor to the new Minister for Health, identify five key challenges the sector faces that should serve as priority issues for the Minister, proposing pragmatic solutions to the challenges identified. QUESTION 30 The year 2015 saw major changes in global political landscape, which have been seen posing critical challenges to the funding health in many developing countries. Discuss four of such challenges that developing countries face as a result of the withdrawal of Britain from European Union and a possible reduction of global health funding from the United States government due to the promises made by the current U.S. President. QUESTIONS: Leadership in Healthcare 31. Innovative financing opportunities that the government in South Africa can leverage on to close the financing gap resulting from the pressures of the COVID-19 pandemic 32. Innovative solutions to the agitations of remuneration, recruitment and posting of health workers upon completion in Ghana and other Sub-Saharan African countries. 33. How governance can assist in curbing challenges in procurement among the government sector of developing countries. 34. What suggestions would you give for South Africa to better prepare for handling pandemics of the COVID19 magnitude?