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In this essay I am going to give some explanations taken from different books about what a method in second language teaching is. After that I am going to explain in a brief way, what in my opinion a method is. Furthermore, I am going to set my theory in a very specific context; culture, country, education, system, characteristics of the learners… Moreover, I am going to define two different methods: The grammar-translation method and the direct method. And I am going to provide my personal opinion about those methods. Also I am going to explain why I have chosen them according to my own experience as learner.

Besides, I am going to take some features from the two methods explained before and I am going to combine them to create what I consider a more useful method. And to conclude, I am going to give a summary of the paper, and of the conclusions I have reached at the end of it. The concept of method in language teaching is the idea that there is a collection of teaching practices based in a determined theory of language and of language learning. According to Richards and Rodgers’ (2001: 20) definition: ‘A method is theoretically related to an approach, is organizationally determined by a design, and is practically realized in procedure’.

Personally, I think that a method in language teaching is a program that all teachers should follow to teach a language. Each program is based on the different sections of language teaching such as reading, writing, listening and grammar. Some methods that nowadays are being applied are: the Grammar Translation Method, the Direct Method, the Audiolingual Method, Community Language Teaching, the Silent Way, Suggestopedia, Total Physical Response, and the Natural Approach. Each of those methods is applied in a different context.

Depending on the necessities of the students, the teacher could apply one or other method. If the student wants to improve grammar, the teacher may use the grammar translation method. If the student wants to improve communication, the teacher may use the direct, the audiolingual method, the suggestopedia method or the natural approach. Along the history of language teaching there has been a great debate about the differences between method and approach, some teachers believe that there is no difference between method and approach and that both merge in just one category; method.

According to Richard and Rodgers (2001: 20): “Approach refers to theories about the nature of language and language learning that serve as the source of practices and principles in language teaching. ” On the other hand: “Design (Method) is the level of method analysis in which we consider (a) what the objectives of a method are; (b) how language content is selected and organized within the method, that is, the syllabus model the method incorporates; (c) the types of learning tasks and teaching activities the method advocates; (d) the roles of learners; (e) the role of teachers; and (f) the role of instruction materials.

In my opinion an approach is a set of theories and principles about the nature of language, and a method (design) is the way you apply these theories and principles. This method is thought to be applied in secondary schools. The level of the students towards this method is going to be applied is intermediate level. The country in which this method is thought to be applied is Spain. The learners are going to have English as L2. The teachers are going to teach all the theory in English, but in some occasions they will use the mother tongue of the students.

Because, although they understand the basic concepts in English, they do not have enough level to understand the whole lesson. The teacher will have to prepare in a great way his classes because he has to enjoy the student, to maintain their attention. In order to obtain their concentration, the teacher will use videos, internet… GRAMMAR-TRANSLATION METHOD The grammar-translation method of foreign language teaching is one of the most traditional methods (late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries).

It was originally used to teach ‘dead’ languages (and literatures) such as Latin and Greek, and this has to do with its main aim to-wards written work to the virtual exclusion of oral production. This method was used for the purpose of helping students read and appreciate foreign language literature. Characteristics: 1. The goal of foreign language study is to learn a language in order to read its literature or in order to benefit from the mental discipline and intellectual development that result from foreign language study. 2. Classes are taught in the students’ mother tongue.

It is used to explain new items and to enable comparisons to be made between the foreign language and the student’s native language. 3. Reading and writing are the major focus; little or no systematic attention is paid to speaking or listening. 4. Reading of difficult texts is begun early in the course of study. Little attention is paid to the content of texts. 5. Vocabulary selection is based solely on the reading texts used, and words are taught through bilingual word lists, dictionary study, and memorization. 6. Vocabulary is taught in the form of isolated word lists. 7.

The sentence is the basic unit of teaching and language practice. Much of the lesson is devoted to translating sentences into and out of the target language, and it is this focus on the sentence that is a distinctive feature of the method. 8. Accuracy is emphasized. 9. Grammar is taught deductively- that is, by presentation and study of grammar rules, which are then practiced through translation exercises. Elaborate explanations of grammar are always provided. 10. The student’s native language is the medium of instruction. 11. Little or no attention is given to pronunciation.

In my opinion the Grammar-translation method is a great one because the teacher uses the mother tongue of the students to teach the lesson. Personally I think that this is so important because when a teacher is introducing a foreign language to the students, they may feel uncomfortable and may not be receptive, whether if you teach the lesson in their mother tongue they can compare the words between the two languages and it is easier for them. Furthermore, it is essential for me the importance that this method gives to reading and writing.

Because I think that the main issues that a student should study to know a language are reading and writing, and after that, he/she will understand everything of this language. DIRECT METHOD Towards the end of the late 1800s, a revolution in language teaching philosophy took place that is seen by many as the dawn of modern foreign language teaching. Sauveur and other believers in the Natural Method argued that a foreign language could be taught without translation or the use of the learner’s native language if meaning was conveyed directly through demonstration and action.

According to Franke, a language could best be taught by using it actively in the classroom. Rather than using analytical procedures that focus on explanation of grammar rules in classroom teaching, teacher must encourage direct and spontaneous use of foreign language in the classroom. Teachers began attempting to teach foreign languages in a way that was more similar to first language acquisition. It incorporated techniques designed to address all the areas that the Grammar Translation did not – namely oral communication, more spontaneous use of the language, and developing the ability to think in the target language.

Classroom instruction was conducted exclusively in the target language. 2. Only everyday vocabulary and sentences were taught. 3. Oral communication skills were built up in a carefully graded progression organized around question-and-answer exchanges between teachers and students in small, intensive classes. 4. The learner should be actively involved in using the language in realistic everyday situations. 5. Students are encouraged to think in the target language. Vocabulary is acquired more naturally if students use it in full sentences rather than memorizing word lists.

Grammar was taught inductively. 7. New teaching points were introduced orally. 8. Concrete vocabulary was taught by association of ideas. 9. Both speech and listening comprehension were taught. 10. Correct pronunciation and grammar were emphasized. 11. The teacher should demonstrate, not explain or translate. It is desirable that students make a direct association between the target language and meaning. 12. Lessons should contain some conversational activity—some opportunity for students to use language in real contexts. Students should be encouraged to speak as much as possible.

In my opinion this method has some interesting ideas. I think that this method is addressed to a more concrete group of students with some specific necessities. For example for a group of students that want to improve their communication in the foreign language. Moreover I find this method so important because the lessons are explained in the target language, and the teacher uses images or objects to explain the words that the students do not understand. Personally I had an experience with this method, when I studied German for the first time.

The teacher entered the lesson talking in German and no one understood anything and also we learned grammar inductively. Depending on the type of student and the necessities that they have I would take more features from one method than from the other. But for example, for students that know nothing from the foreign language I would take more features from the Grammar-Translation method. I would teach the lesson combining the mother tongue and the target language. Moreover, I would base the lessons on reading and grammar. Also I would choose texts that enjoy the students.

Furthermore, I would make some exercises of speaking. Besides, I would teach vocabulary with images and objects, to make the lesson more interesting for the students and also I will introduce some videos or internet, to make the lesson fluent. But I will base my lessons in writing and reading. I would make exercises such as: -Dictation: The teacher chooses a grade appropriate passage and reads the text aloud. -Reading Aloud: Students take turn reading sections of a passage, play or dialog out loud. In this essay I have tried to explain what a method in second language teaching is.

Besides, I have settled my own method in a specific context: country, students. And after that I have explained two methods that were interesting for me, giving my opinion and my experience about them. Furthermore I have compared both of them and also I have combined the best features of them into one method. In my opinion a method in language teaching is completely necessary, because a teacher can not use the same method with all the students. Depending on the age of the students and on their necessities the teacher should choose one or other, or even combine different ones.

A teacher needs a method because he/she has to have a fixed lesson, he/she must to know what he/she wants to teach, and in what sections of language he/ she is going to focus on. There has been a lot of controversy along the history about the concept of method in language teaching; about the differences or similarities between the concept of method and approach. But in my opinion I think that there is a clear difference between them; an approach is a set of theories and principles about the nature of language, and a method (design) is the way you apply these theories and principles.

Music theory questions

Could you help me answer 2, 3, and B in the first attachment and then all of C in the second attachment, and then A in the third attachment. Follow all the directions and help me fill out the rest of the music staff