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Term Paper: Networking

Term Paper: Networking. I don’t understand this Computer Science question and need help to study.

Term Paper: Networking
Due Week 10 and worth 200 points
Select one of the following topics in which you will base your responses in the form of a term paper:

Network Neutrality
Wireless Technology
Broadband Convergence
U.S. Telecommunication Policy
Internet Security


Write a fully developed paper in which you:

Compose an executive summary highlighting the paper’s contents and reasoning for your chosen topic.
Conduct a SWOT analysis by analyzing the strengths, weaknesses, application opportunities, and threats from competitors of the chosen topic.
Evaluate the current ethical and legal concerns surrounding your topic.
Select one ethical or legal concern surrounding your topic, take a position on the issue, and provide rationale.
Analyze the improvements over the last two years to your communication technology topic, and suggest an improvement based on its current usage.
Predict the future role of the communication technology you’ve selected for both personal and commercial use.
Create a diagram that illustrates the communication structure of your chosen technology in Visio or its open source alternative software. Note: The graphically depicted solution is not included in the required page length.
Use at least eight quality resources in this assignment. Note: Wikipedia and similar websites do not qualify as quality resources.

Your assignment must follow these formatting requirements:

Be typed, double-spaced, using Times New Roman font (size 12), with one-inch margins on all sides; references must follow APA or school-specific format. Check with your professor for any additional instructions.

Include a cover page containing the title of the assignment, the student’s name, the professor’s name, the course title, and the date. The cover page and the reference page are not included in the required page length.
Include charts or diagrams created in Visio or Dia. The completed diagrams/charts must be imported into the Word document before the paper is submitted.

The specific course learning outcomes associated with this assignment are:

Evaluate the need for information communication in the business environment.
Evaluate the basic technology of information communication.
Analyze the roles of the Internet and the basic protocols that are the foundation of the Internet and address the critical issue of quality of service (QoS).
Analyze the technologies and architectures that have been developed for networking over shorter distances.

Term Paper: Networking

There has been a raging debate about the definitions of a social condition and a social problem. Some researchers have also likened these two concepts despite the distinction between the two concepts. A social condition is a condition regarded by some people as bad while a social problem is a condition viewed by everyone as bad. Leon-Guerrero defines a social problem as “a social condition or pattern of behavior that has negative consequences for individuals, our social world, or our physical world” (8). Race and ethnicity is among the major social conditions that exist in the contemporary society. It occurs as a result of increased international migrations across the continents and intermarriages between different communities in the world. Leon-Guerrero outlines two perspectives of defining of race namely the biological and the sociological perspectives. Race from a biological point of view is defined as a group or population that shares a set of genetic characteristics and physical features such as religion, skin color or species. However, sociologists such as Michael Omi an Howard Winant regard race as a concept signifying and symbolizing social conflicts and interests by referring to different types of human bodies (Leon-Guerrero 67). Racism is the belief by individuals that certain racial or ethnic groups are inferior and that discriminatory practices against them are justified (Leon-Guerrero 70). Discriminatory practices can be classified as individual or institutional. Individual discrimination includes actions against minority members by individuals whereas institutional discrimination is practiced by the government, social institutions and organizations and it includes segregation, exclusion or expulsion. Racial and ethnic inequalities affect an individual and the society in different ways including the socioeconomic position of an individual or of the society. Income and wealth of an individual is determined by the social class to which he or she belongs. In the United States, the measure of income and wealth is home ownership since it enables families to invest in their future. After the Second World War, the rate of White middle-class home ownership grew steadily as compared to the Blacks and other minority groups who were denied access to home ownership through discrimination and low income. A research by Hudson et al also suggests that “it is possible that experiences of racial discrimination could, in part, diminish the effects of increased socioeconomic position among African American men” (134). The racial and ethnic inequalities also determine the type of education that various individuals in the society would like the children to have. Gagné and Tewksbury, as quoted by Leon-Guerrero, argue that “schools have become economically segregated, with the children of middle or upper class families attending predominantly White suburban schools and the children of poorer parents attending racially mixed urban schools” (79). Thus it is evident that racial and ethnic inequalities have an indirect impact on the family income and wealth which in turn dictates the education system that their children would undergo. Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Racial and ethnic inequalities have a profound impact on the health of an individual or the society at large. Leon-Guerrero quotes Gabard and Cooper who argue that “although race may be a social construct, it produces profound biological manifestations through stress, decreased services, decreased medications, and decreased hospital procedures” (80). The health institutions have put in place a system that discriminates against the racial and ethnic minority group members. Some researchers have gone further to specify how discrimination is related to health. After an analysis and comparison of the relationship between racial discrimination and health-related outcomes, Benjamins argues that “discrimination was most strongly related to depression and was less consistently associated with physical health and health behaviors” (16). Racial and ethnic inequalities also have consequences on individuals who leave their country of origin to move to another. The security systems always target immigrants of ethnic and racial minority and they are associated with crime since they are believed to be illegal immigrants. The history of social problems is identified through a subjective process according to Malcom Spector and John Kituse who outline four stages of the subjective process (Leon-Guerrero 12). The first stage, which is defined as the transformation process, involves taking a private or personal problem and transforming it into a public issue. The transformation is done by an influential group, activists or advocates who call attention to and define an issue as a social problem. The second stage is known as the legitimization process which is concerned with formalizing the manner in which the social problems or complaints generated by the problem are handled. This process involves creation and implementation of policies to respond to the social problem. The third stage is the conflict stage that involves readjustment of the formal response system, renegotiation of procedures, reforming practices and engaging in administrative or organizational restructuring. The fourth and final stage begins when groups believe that they can no longer work within the established system. Advocates or activists of the social problem are faced with two options which are either to radically change the existing system or to work outside the system (Leon-Guerrero 12). Most social problems in a community, society, or a global social system are caused by the inequality in the distribution of resources. Some individuals or organizations in the community have more income, power and prestige than others. We will write a custom Essay on Racial and ethnic inequalities as a social problem specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This group of people develops vested interests in maintaining or even increasing their resources and therefore they come up with laws, ideologies, customs and informal norms which are viewed as legitimate by the whole society. As a result, they are able to maintain and control the available resources and block other low class individuals who may want to rise up the ranks. This yields frustration on the part of the majority low class individuals who must struggle to access the resources thus creating conflict. Leon-Guerrero explains that “conflict theorists focus on how the dynamics of racial and ethnic relations divide groups while maintaining a dominant group defined by ethnic and racial categories or social class” (71). Marxist theorists argue that immigrants form a backup labor force that performs jobs that native workers no longer perform. This group of individuals provides a cheaper labor source that easily secures employment during economic growth and easily lay off during economic recessions. Conflict develops when higher paid native workers struggle to prevent importation of cheaper nonnative labor so as to maintain their advantage in the labor market. According to Edna Bonacich’s theory of antagonism, “the presence of a cheaper labor group threatens the jobs of higher paid workers and the standard for wages in all jobs. Under these conditions, the two groups of laborers remain in conflict with each other while the interests of capitalist business owners are maintained” (Leon-Guerrero 72). Works Cited Benjamins, Maureen R. “Comparing Measures of Racial/Ethnic Discrimination, Coping, and Associations with Health-related Outcomes in a Diverse Sample.” Journal of Urban Health (2013): 1-17. Print. Hudson, Darrell L., et al. “Are Benefits Conferred with Greater Socioeconomic Position Undermined by Racial Discrimination among African American Men?” Journal of Men’s Health 9.2 (2012): 127-136. Print. Leon-Guerrero, Anna. Social Problems: Community, Policy, and Social Action. (3rd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Pine Forge Press, 2011. Print.

Business Report: SimVenture

This report is based on the engagement with SimVenture – a business simulation which allows us as a team to setup and run our virtual company and learn about business and being an entrepreneur. This report evaluates team performance and decision making within the perspective of results achieved in the simulation at the end of three virtual years. This report also reflects the use of relevant entrepreneurial theories into practise while making decisions in the business and clearly stating the financial achievements at the end of it. The report takes you through the initial six months of the business in details where the crucial strategies were developed; thereafter the illustration is only on a half yearly basis. A question with many answers is that what drives people to turn into entrepreneurs to begin companies? Frequently we as individuals are not completely sure ourselves, and the answers to the questions are apt to change over time as our perception keeps changing. The reasons can be divided into two broad categories. First, the ‘reactive reasons’ being things those are objectionable about working for others. They are the negatives that push us out. And secondly, the ‘active reasons’ being things that are attractive about having our own business. They are positives that pull us out. Starting a new company is an immense challenge and to those with entrepreneurial impulse, it is very appealing (Kurtako et al, 2001). The attributes that a successful entrepreneur should possess while the start-up of a business is a competitive mind-set, one in which flexibility, speed, innovation, and strategic leadership are valued highly. With this mind set, firms can identify and completely exploit opportunities that emerge in a new competitive landscape. These opportunities surface primarily because of the disequilibrium that is created by continuous change. More specifically, although uncertainty and disequilibrium often result in seemingly hostile and intensely rivalrous conditions, these conditions may simultaneously yield significant product driven growth opportunities. Through effective entrepreneurial leadership, growth firms can adapt their behaviours and exploit such opportunities (Kurtako et al, 2001). It is interesting to see the differences between mind-set of an Entrepreneur, Manager and a Bureaucrat from the self explanatory Fig 1. Scenarios and assumptions at the beginning of the game Prior to the beginning of our business, we assumed to have a finance of £10,000 for start up. The business was supposed to commence with a one man show by our virtual entrepreneur, who had already been working for 40 hours a week in another business. But as a team we had decided each individual to take the decision making responsibility of a particular department, with me being the one in charge of marketing. We initially decided to get our entrepreneur working part time for this new venture at a monthly salary of 500£. He had been selling computers to friends and families for the past few years and always had a knack towards technology and assembling computers. Having only one sales order in hand for the first month, our entrepreneur intended to begin his business from home so as to maintain his costs as low as possible. At this stage the aspects which are of utmost concern are that he has limited knowledge in sales, marketing and about his local competitors. Our new business was inspired by the venture development stages, namely: New Venture Development, Start-Up Activities, Growth, Business Stabilization, and Innovation (Kurtako et al, 2001). Of these five stages the first stage consisted of activities associated to initial formulation of the venture, which has been mentioned above. The stages into which our business activities over the 3 years of simulation could be split into are Start-Up Activities and Growth. Start-Up Activities Stage The Start-Up Activity encompasses the foundation work needed in searching for capital, carrying marketing activities, taking up competitor analysis and developing effective entrepreneurial skills. This stage is typified by strategic and operational planning steps designed to identify the firm’s competitive advantage and uncover funding sources. With the availability of limited skills and working hours, in the first month we decided to outsource our firm’s competitor analysis and market research activities to specialized external agencies, the primary intention behind outsourcing being to get expert and skilled services efficiently. A legal advisor had been hired to specify the terms of a customer contract, not only keeping in mind the benefits of detailing the scope of work and means and methods of payment, but also with a future view to gain trust from prospective clients (a contract can also be seen as a marketing tool) and establishing a strong relationship with them while negotiating the terms of the contract. Other major customer awareness activities of the first month were to publish a press release for the launch of the company; joining a business networking group; and creating a standard website, designed and supported in-house to balance time and expenses of our working entrepreneur. Apart from these we had planned to take up a book based writing skills training course for our virtual entrepreneur, to provide him with the expertise of business communications which most small business owners lack in. And we planned to invest on a distributor research, because it is difficult and very expensive to reach a market with many customers with a directly employed sales force. Moreover distributors by and large aim to win business on sales rather than technical services. And our core competence being technical expertise we decided to use distributors to enhance our sales, although they bought products from us at a lower rate. After evaluating the suppliers on the criteria of their prices and flexibility to pay on account, we decided to choose ‘ProSupply’ as our supplier because of its 60 days credit offering, at an additional expense of 0.5£ per component. Apart from the legal liabilities of a limited company to maintain accurate information on its financial transaction which includes sales, purchases, income and payments by an organization, book keeping assists any entrepreneur to maintain the business on top of its competition by easily watching how the business is performing. Thus having a small scale start up business we decided to keep this particular activity in house. The second month of our business started on a positive note as we received two grants disbursed by the government, £500 each: one was for training and the other was for research activities to be conducted. Although we had invested time on the application process for this funding, as a new company with limited finances this allowance was much needed to us. We also happened to receive our customer research report, following which we decided to choose our target customers to be ‘Corporation’. This decision was completely based on a few factors from our customer research report: market size, order size, order frequency and typical price. These four factors provided us inputs to calculate the average orders generated per year and the probable sales for each segment. Analysing our market research report (Fig 3) closely we noticed that there were much similarities in the ‘product preferences’ sections of ‘Corporations’ and ‘ICT Businesses’ and both customers catered to a similar ‘typical price’ range of £630-680. This made us decide to build a product with ‘preferences’ that would suffice both the customer segments providing each one of them differentiation on certain product attributes. Referring to Porter’s generic strategies framework, we were serving a narrow market which demanded product uniqueness, thus we decided to use a differentiation focus strategy to increase our market share rapidly. Also a firm using a differentiation focus strategy enjoys a high level of customer loyalty which discourages other firms to compete directly. Analysing the competition and market report together, we designed our product offering to cater for both the target segments with the following attributes: extreme features, good quality, extreme performance, good style. Thus the product was differentiated for the ‘Corporations’ with extreme performance, where they had demanded only for a good performance, and for the ‘ICT Businesses’ with good quality and good style, where they had demanded for above average quality and above average style only. The unit cost of the product was £452.62 and it was priced to the customers at £679 initially, which was pretty high as compared to what our competitors were offering. I individually thought for market penetration a lower price was required. The marketing activities for this month were placing an advert in a local newspaper and joining a business community network where we could make our target customers aware of our unique selling points. Apart from this we spent our entrepreneur’s remaining time in negotiating contracts with our distributors, namely: Norman, Harton Brothers, Rad, and Aztak, and manufacturing three product units in-house anticipating the future demand. We negotiated with our distributors in terms of size of orders per month, price of each unit of product and the methods of payments. The rationale behind choosing three of them as our distributors was because Normans had the maximum share in ICT Businesses followed by Solo Businesses and Corporations, Harton Brothers had 20% share in ICT Businesses and Rad captured 30%market share for ICT and Solo Businesses. Although Aztak held very little market share with ICT Businesses or Corporations but we still went with them, which I personally feel might not have been an appropriate move. Since at the end of the previous month, the number of enquiries were too low to sustain our business, thus the third month was very crucial for us where we had to take our strategic moves very carefully. Therefore we intended to hire a consultant to carry on a customer research, which we thought would help us find the reason behind the low number of enquiries. Along with a lucky break which resulted in good publicity for our company in the local media, this month we planned to go for a direct marketing campaign with 3000 basic leads bought as a database and promotional materials being designed in house. In the remaining time we planned manufacturing 9 products for future sales. On the fourth month of our business, we received the customer research results which provided us with the statistics of what our customers thought about our product and how did they hear about us. We used this information to fine tune our product design, work out the best marketing approach and get the price right with respect to our competitors. We understood that previously we had set up a very high price for our product to maximise short term profits, which was the reason for us to receive lower number of enquiries which hardly turned into orders. As quoted by Dolgui and Proth (2010), “High price is accepted if it agrees with the value of the product perceived by the customers, otherwise such a strategy leads to commercial failure. While a low price can lead to a commercial success depending on the number of clients attracted by the product, but a low margin should be compensated by a higher number of items sold. Moreover with a high or a low price strategy the image of the items sold by the company is somewhat frozen and a long term price expectation is established, which can reduce the flexibility of the decision-making system.” Thus justifying the aforesaid analysis we had to set the unit price of our product neither too high nor too low, at £660, while we were operating in a range where customers were ready to pay from £630-£680. On the marketing front we managed to attend the monthly business club meeting and exhibit ourselves at the Business2Business matters along with a direct marketing campaign to 3000 leads. Since by now our entrepreneur was overdoing his hours every month which was gradually making him tired, thus we decided to increase his part time working hours to 51 hrs a week and increasing his salary by £100 to keep him happy. This was the fifth month of our business where we already had sales of 4 products from our last month and another new order for 4 products to be sold this month. The business was gradually taking its pace, but there were financial hurdles in front of us. Due to lack of cash in our account we were unable to pay our suppliers on time. The options we had to borrow money were either through bank loans or friends and family or overdraft or by selling equity. We thought the most viable option we had was to take a loan of £50,000 for three years at an interest rate of 13% from the bank. Our monthly instalment to the bank summed up to £1684.70 for three years which was lesser than our monthly estimated profit after selling units to distributors (refer Appendix 1). I individually thought we should have taken our first loan from friends and family instead of a bank because the interest rate was only 5.25%. Eventually in the next month we could have taken a bank loan. There was a business exhibition which was supposed to be held in the month of February, the next year. Having considered the fact that such events would provide us a platform to bring our product in front of the targeted customers and make them aware of it, we booked a place for our entrepreneur in this event, bearing in mind that Corporations were our primary target segment. Apart from this we also booked two more exhibitions for our entrepreneur to attend during the next month. One was an exhibition at New Ventures and the other was at Sparks. We heavily started relying on exhibitions primarily as a mean of marketing and advertisement for our business. We had a very clear marketing plan as a start-up company, which was the process of determining a comprehensive approach to the creation of customers. For developing this plan, the following elements were critical to us: Marketing research: determining who the customers were, what they want and how they buy. Sales research: promoting and distributing products according to market research finding. Sales forecasting: coordinating personal judgement with reliable personal information. Marketing plan: formulating plan for achieving long term marketing and sales goal. Evaluation: identifying and assessing deviations from marketing plans. (Kuratko and Hodgetts, 2007) As a marketing mix (refer Fig 5) for our Product offering we were having a strategy of focus differentiation to targeting only two business client segments. Our Price was set neither too high nor too low and was rationalized by setting it to £660. We Placed our product through distribution channels, direct and indirect selling and also had a retail shop in place from the sixth month. And for Promotion we used individual communication channels like word of mouth, networking, public relations and direct marketing, and mass communication channels like exhibition, website and advertising. The sixth month was a fortune turner for us when we received 9 orders for the next month. Anticipating this huge number of orders, we already had been manufacturing products from the previous few months, even though at times we didn’t have a single order to deliver. Our application for bank loan had been approved and we were able to successfully raise £50,000 to clear all our pending bills. Having the right communication and marketing skills because of our previous training in the relevant departments this month we decided to create a small advert in-house, for a trade magazine. Since our business was growing bigger, this was the time when we had to decide relocating to a retail unit from the next month which was 100 sq. ft and £208 of rent per month. Also convenience is an issue for most shoppers, whether its business or individual shoppers, and so sales location can have a major bearing on sales performance. Since we were only operating in a B2B environment we developed the following business model (refer Fig 6) where our products were reached to our customers either buy the distributors (which gave us less profit but large number of sales) or through our retail shop (which gave us higher profit but lesser number of sales). Because of the sudden rise in sales, hereafter we had to follow a model where most of our manufacturing had to be outsources and the remaining was to be built in-house. This month onwards we transited from the Start-Up Activities stage to the Growth Stage of our business. Growth Stage The Growth stage often requires major changes in entrepreneurial strategies, which is reformulated because of competition and other marketing forces (Kurtako et al, 2001). Thus now onwards our primary focus became the management of various departments involved in our business including the various stakeholders: direct customers, distributors, suppliers etc. The planning of operations was a major part of our start up venture. From the self explanatory Fig 7, we had adopted the ‘bottom-up’ and the ‘market requirements’ perspectives to design our operational strategy. The ‘bottom-up’ view of operations strategy was to see strategic decision making as an accumulation of practical experiences. After all, our business would find it difficult to invent strategies in a total vacuum. Our ideas were formed from our previous months’ experience of dealing with customers, suppliers and their own processes. These were strategic ideas which emerged over time as our organisation begun to understand the realities of the situation. The ‘market requirements’ perspective begun from the commonsense notion that our operations strategy should reflect what our business was trying to do in its markets. Our competitors competed in different ways; some competed primarily on cost, others on the excellence of their products or services, others on high levels of customer service, others on customising their products and services to individual customer needs, and so on. Our operations function therefore had to respond to this by providing the capabilities which allowed us perform in an appropriate manner to satisfy the requirements of our market (Slack et al, 2007). After the initial breakthrough in the sixth month of our business, the next six months were more or less running at a constant pace, with 7-9 orders every month on an average. We did have to improve our product design based on the Customer Research results and by comparing our offerings with that of our competitors. We attended a marketing exhibition and carried out marketing campaigns with other sales activities almost every month to keep our enquiries and order numbers high. Apart from that, instead of failing to cater to our increased order rate every month, we kept manufacturing products by primarily outsourcing the major bulk of it at (£452.62 £80) £432.62 per unit and partially building it in-house. By the end of the first year our business had again dried up in cash, thus making us unable to pay suppliers on time. It was time to consider a funding option again to cater to our growing business needs. As overwork was making our entrepreneur tired, this affected the scheduled tasks being incomplete in few of the months during this span of six months. We had the option of recruiting an employee for our business which I individually thought as the wisest option, but as a group we thought it wouldn’t have been affordable for our entrepreneur in terms of time and money to opt for a new employee at this stage of our business. Thus we increased his part-time working hours and paid him a larger salary, doing our best to keep him happy and motivated. Previously and in future we not only did motivate him with only extrinsic factors like money but also encouraged him with intrinsic motivational factors like relevant training in various departments, namely: Production, writing skills, design and development, basic finance, business management, IT, communications skills, marketing and sales which helped him build a entrepreneurial identity of his own (enhancing his business qualities as an entrepreneur). In the first six months of the second year our main focus was to look out for the most feasible source of finance to our business. With the various options available in simventure, a bank loan of £30,000 was the most viable option, which got approved within a span of three months. There was a noticeable increase in number of orders, the average being around 11 orders monthly, but on a couple of occasions the count had spiked to 16 and 17 orders which resulted in generating cash inflow for our business in the later months. During this period we also realised that the insufficiency of cash in our account was due to the fact that some of our customers did not clear their bills on time. Thus we had to take on the Credit Control strategy to closely observe all our customers who owed us money. A process was implemented which adhered to three steps. The first step was to send our customers a written reminder to clear their dues. If this didn’t work the second step was to give them a phone call in the same regards. And if the first two steps failed then the final step was to take a legal action against the defaulter by hiring a third party agency who charged us 20% of the recovered money. In this process we had to compromise on shedding off a part of our profits rather than agonising our suppliers by failing to pay them on time, which could have lead to termination of our contract with them. During the last six months of our second year we had an average of 13 orders which was more than before. There had also been a dip in orders to 9 in number during the month of November and December. During this period we also decided to hire a few resources (namely: Premium Equipments, Premium Furniture, Premium Tools, Premium Transport) for our retail space to cater to the smooth running of the business as we were constantly growing. The marketing, advertising and sales activities were more or less similar to the previous half of the year, with our entrepreneur planning to attend more number of exhibitions for ICT Businesses apart from Corporations. The first six months of the third year saw a little decrease in orders, with the average being 11 orders a month. Because of this our entrepreneur had more time than the previous six months, which he decided to invest in an aggressive marketing campaign to create a base for the last six months of the third year of our business. He had also suffered from illness for 5 days during this period. The last six months of our third year was the span in our business where we received the most number of orders, the highest being 19 in the month of August. Our business had an added advantage, i.e. the economy became stronger resulting in rising of customers’ confidence in us. With Net Assets of £240,077.47, Fig 8 depicts the financial health of our business at the end of the third year. And Fig 9 highlights the sales vs. Profit for the 3 years showing that although there had been continuous increase in sales over the three years, but the profit maximization was only achieved in the 2nd year of our business. This is because of the fact that with the increase in cost of sales in the third year of our business we didn’t increase the product price, which resulted in decrease of profit margins, when compared to the previous year. Conclusion Throughout the span of this report we have been focussing on the competitive and entrepreneurial mindset of a start-up business owner, by recognizing and exploiting the opportunities that came across. We have been discussing about the entrepreneur’s engagement in key areas of strategy, marketing, operations, finance and HR which enhanced the performance of our organization. The critical evaluation of decisions taken over the three years span of our business has given us an understanding of how differently various obstacle could be tackled. We begun from the star-up activity stage of a business simulation and happened to reach the growth stage in our business, by developing and nurturing our abilities as an entrepreneur while taking vital decisions at various junctures across the span of three years of entrepreneurship. Appendix 1 Distributor Order size Price / unit Fixed cost / unit Overhead Cost* Profit / unit Cost of total sale Profit per month per distributor Normans 10 £599 £452.62 £90 £56.38 £5,426.20 £563.80 Harton Bros 15 £594 £452.62 £90 £51.38 £8,139.30 £770.70 Aztek 5 £604 £452.62 £90 £61.38 £2,713.10 £306.90 Rad 25 £589 £452.62 £90 £46.38 £13,565.50 £1,159.50 Total 55 £2,386 £1,810.48 £360 £215.52 £29,844.10 £2,800.90 *Note: Overhead cost is estimated by adding Manufacturing cost (i.e. £80 for any order above 25 units) and miscellaneous cost ( i.e. £10 kept as a margin) Table : Distributor Analysis Source: Adopted from SimVenture

International Development homework help

essay writing service free International Development homework help. Explain Lincoln’s practical and idealistic views regarding ending the Civil War, Using specific examples and line numbers from both the Emancipation Proclamation and the Gettysburg Address.,Lincoln’s practical and idealistic views regarding ending the Civil War,Using specific examples and line numbers from both the Emancipation Proclamation and the Gettysburg Address, explain Lincoln’s practical and idealistic views regarding ending the Civil War.,What was Abraham Lincoln trying to accomplish in the Gettysburg Address?,In it, he invoked the principles of human equality contained in the Declaration of Independence and connected the sacrifices of the Civil War with the desire for ,“a new birth of freedom,”, as well as the all-important preservation of the Union created in 1776 and its ideal of self-government.,What did Lincoln think about the Gettysburg Address?,The speech reflected his redefined belief that the Civil War was not just a fight to save the Union, but a struggle for freedom and equality for all, an idea Lincoln had not championed in the years leading up to the war.,What did the Emancipation Proclamation declare?,President Abraham Lincoln issued the Emancipation Proclamation on January 1, 1863. This time the nation was approaching its third year of bloody civil war. The proclamation declared “that all persons held as slaves” within the rebellious states “are, and henceforward shall be free.”,What is the main purpose of the Gettysburg Address?,Lincoln’s main purpose was to urge everyone to honor those who had died at Gettysburg. This could be done by striving to maintain the kind of nation imagined by America’s founders. President Lincoln delivered the Gettysburg Address on November 19, 1863.,What states did the Emancipation Proclamation apply to?,The Proclamation applied in the ten states that were still in rebellion in 1863. This did not cover the nearly 500,000 slaves in the slave-holding Border States (Missouri, Kentucky, Maryland or Delaware) which were Union states. Those slaves were freed by later separate state and federal actions., International Development homework help

DeVry University Non Verbal Communication Writing Report

DeVry University Non Verbal Communication Writing Report.

I’m working on a writing report and need an explanation to help me understand better.

Nonverbal communication is “the use of body language as opposed to the spoken word.” What that means is that our bodies give off messages when we are, or are not, speaking. NV communication does not include what I say, but does include how I say it. This is an area in which most communicators are not aware and do not pay close attention to. When we do not pay attention to our body language, we may give off a message that we did not intend to give. Emotions, especially, are revealed in our body language and can sometime contradict, or compliment, what we say. Nonverbal specialist and trainer Janine Driver always says: “you say more than you think!”For this exercise, you are going to sit and observe speakers in a natural setting. What you will do is find a place and sit for 30-45 minutes and watch. You will observe three different conversations. Even if you do not hear what the speakers say, observe their bodies and attempt to interpret what their bodies are saying. Are their bodies complimenting? Are they excited (this can be seen when our bodies become more excited by showing more animation)? Is someone angry? Is there an argument occurring? Can you see if people are attracted to each other or possibly in a romantic relationship? Can you see the difference between men and women in their body orientation (men tend to stand at angles while women tend to speak straight on to each other…consider feminine and masculine behaviors here as well)? Can you possible tell if there is any other emotion in their body language (happiness, sadness, fear, disgust, contempt)? What do you see?In your observations, think of what we discussed in this module. Look at their: Kinesics (body movement, gestures, postures),Oculesics (facial expressions…are emotions seen here?),Haptics (touch…is someone touching another and how: hand on their arm, playful hitting, angry hitting, etc.),Proxemics (how far or close are they standing or sitting)?If you can hear them, is there anything in their vocalics (tone, pitch, volume) that says something?Is their physical attractiveness (message relayed the way they are dressed) a part of their posture or gestures?Even chronemics (time)…were they speaking quickly to leave the situation? In anything you see, what is your interpretation?You can sit in the food court of a mall, go to a restaurant or busy store, or if you have a lot of people at your workplace you can observe there. Anywhere you can find people. Take your time and watch (It will be obvious in your summary if you slapped words on a page, so do not do that), but try not to be too “stalker-y”! You may do your observations with a friend and you may discuss what you see with each other; but you must do your assignment separately.Instructions (same as the last assignment with basic writing rules followed):A minimum two-page, typed, double-spaced, paper in 12 point, Times New Roman or Courier font essay.Format your paper using the correct APA style with cover page.An abstract is not needed for this as this is your observation.You may use first person: “I observed…”Submit your paper as an MS Office word document.Use correct grammar and spelling.Cite your references within the paper when you paraphrase the information or quote someone. Your references should be documented according to APA style if other sources are used.
DeVry University Non Verbal Communication Writing Report

Consider the three problems or applications below. Submit your answers with enough explanation and background that fully reflects what

Consider the three problems or applications below. Submit your answers with enough explanation and background that fully reflects what is asked. One thing for sure, every problem in this class will always have a unit involved- Time, rate, each, dollars — changing based on the problem at hand. No problem is ever complete without the “units” involved.

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