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Template for a Standard Operating Procedure(collection of methods and guidelines) SOP,1400 words DOC

Template for a Standard Operating Procedure(collection of methods and guidelines) SOP,1400 words DOC.

In this first Individual Project, you are asked to develop the outline of the sections that will be included in the procedures manual as well as a draft of a proposal to submit to both your instructor and a potential project sponsor. The other information you will include is a high-level description of the business process or set of procedures and the intended audience for the manual.You will also be setting up the foundation of the procedures manual documentation outline that you will add to each week.Project SelectionThe first step will be to select a process or set of procedures for which a manual does not exist today. You will then outline the sections of the manual. This project will be used as the basis for each of the assignments throughout the course and should conform to the following guidelines:Nontrivial: The selected business process or set of procedures should reflect a real-life application (Examples: “Remove the spam from our network”, “Install new Operating system on all computers in our enterprise network”, “Install database with all employees of our company”)Domain knowledge: Students will be applying knowledge of this process or set of procedures to determine the contents of the manual.Select a process or set of procedures that fit these requirements, and submit your proposal to your instructor before proceeding further with the assignments in the course. Keep in mind that this is a draft of a proposal that you could later send to a project sponsor. Approval should be sought within the first few days of the course. Your instructor will tell you how to submit this proposal and what notification will be given for project approval.AssignmentYour first task in this process will be to select a process or set of procedures to use as the basis of your procedures manual. As you proceed through each project phase, you will add content to each section of the final document to gradually complete the final project deliverable.The project deliverables are as follows:Procedures manual document shell (in MS Word format)Title pageCourse number and nameProject nameStudent nameDateTable of contents (autogenerated)Separate pageMaximum of 3 levels deepFields updated so that the TOC it is up-to-date before submitting your projectSection headings (create each heading on a new page with TBD as content, except for sections listed under “New Content” below)Project OutlineAbstractProcedures Manual OutlineProcedures Manual ProposalProcedures Manual BrochureProcedures Manual Preparation PlanProcedures ManualProcedures Manual: Quick ReferenceProcedures Manual Training (PowerPoint Deck)New content to be inserted in above shellProject OutlineWrite a brief description of the process or set of procedures.Material can be taken from the approved proposal submitted to your instructor, and this will serve as the draft for the proposal you will be submitting to a potential project sponsor in the next IP assignment.Be sure that this project is approved by the instructor.Procedures manual outlineOutline each of the sections that will be included in the final procedures manual.In 1–2 sentences, describe what types of content will go in each section.
Template for a Standard Operating Procedure(collection of methods and guidelines) SOP,1400 words DOC

The Zika Virus (ZV): Causes and Features. The Zika Virus (ZV) is a mosquito-borne flavivirus that is transmitted by Aedes species, specifically A. aegypti, africanus, and the albopictus mosquitoes.1,2,3 ZV has recently gained global concern as recent outbreaks have occurred in the Americas. However, the virus was first isolated in 1947 from a macaque monkey in the Zika forest located in Uganda. The virus migrated to the Southeast Asian countries in 1945; the first human case was reported in Nigeria in 1952. Multiple epidemics have been reported since its first reported case in 1952. The first large scale outbreak occurred on Yap Island, Micronesia in 2007. Between April and July 2007, there were 49 confirmed and 59 probable cases of the ZV infection.4 During this time, no deaths were reported. Of the 6,982 Yap Island residents that were at least three years of age, 5,005 (roughly 73%) were estimated to be infected with ZV during this outbreak.4 The second major outbreak occurred in the French Polynesia between October 2013 and February 2014. As of February 14, 2014, 8,510 suspected cases were reported.5 The largest and current outbreak in the Americas began in Brazil. Brazil’s first reported locally transmitted case in Brazil occurred May 2015. The ZV entry into Brazil is not clear; however, it is proposed that travelers from ZV-infected areas of Chile, Asia, and Africa brought it during 2014 sporting events. This outbreak brought ZV back into the news as many athletes became weary of contracting ZV while participating in the 2016 Rio de Janeiro Olympic Games. Based on rates of asymptomatic infection, an estimated 500,000 to 1.5 million people in Brazil were affected with ZV.6 As of January 18, 2017, there are 738,783 confirmed cases, with the highest number of cases reported in Brazil, Columbia, and Venezuela.6 Mexico, Central America, the United States, and the Caribbean including the U.S. Virgin Islands and Puerto Rico reported confirmed cases of the virus. Regions outside of the Americas, specifically Singapore, Thailand, and Cape Verde reported confirmed cases of ZV. In January 2016, a traveler returning from Latin America to Texas reported the first U.S. case of ZV infection. As of March 22, 2017, more than 5,100 cases of ZV were reported.7 Of those reported, 4,861 cases were travel-related, 1,617 cases occurred in pregnant women, and 45 cases were sexually transmitted.8,9,10 The first case of transmission within the U.S. was in Florida. Those who were traveling to the U.S. from other affected areas reported many of the subsequent ZV cases. Every state has reported laboratory-confirmed symptomatic ZV disease. Only Florida and Texas have reported local-transmission of ZV.9 ZV is a member of the virus family Flaviviridae. The Flaviviruses include arboviruses that are transmitted through mosquitoes to humans. Ranging from 40-50 nm in diameter, the Flaviviruses are positive-sense and single-stranded RNA. The ZV is an icosahedral capsid enveloped virus. Several small proteins surround the RNA genome; the capsid proteins cover the core, creating its icosahedral shape. The lipid bilayer envelope membrane contains both the membrane and the envelope proteins, which are glycosylated in many flaviviruses.11 Vectors, generally mosquitoes, are infected when they feed on viremic hosts. Humans are generally the accidental hosts. The mosquitoes will take a blood meal from an infected host and transmit it to another individual. In the U.S., these mosquito vectors are isolated to the southeastern states. Aerosols or contaminated food products can also transmit Flaviviruses; however, this only occurs under certain circumstances. Other diseases associated with Flaviviruses include Japanese encephalitis, yellow fever, dengue fever, chikungunya fever, and hemorrhagic fever. ZV is an arthropod-borne virus (arbovirus) that infects their vectors after ingestion of a blood meal from aviremic non-human vertebrate. Some arthropods can be infected by saliva-infected transmission. The arthropod vectors develop chronic systemic infections as the virus will penetrate the gut and spread to the salivary glands. This dissemination to the salivary glands is known as extrinsic incubation, which lasts about 1-3 weeks in mosquitoes.12 The mosquito is not harmed by the infection. The ZV pathogen has two lineages that are based on phylogenetic analysis of viral envelope proteins:13 the African and Asian lineages. The African lineage is primarily restricted to the African countries of Central African Republic, Kenya, Nigeria, Senegal, and Uganda. The Asian lineage seems to be the strand that has been seen in recent outbreaks. This lineage has been circulating in the Southeast Asian countries since the 1950s, in French Polynesia in 2013, and the Americas in 2015. ZV is primarily transmitted by a bite of an infected Aedes mosquito. Humans are the likely main reservoirs; however, during outbreaks, human-to-vector-to-human transmission is common. Other modes of transmission of ZV are sexual transmission and maternal-fetal transmission during pregnancy. The estimated reproduction number of ZV infection during the Columbia epidemic in 2015-2016 ranged 2.2-14.8.14 During the Yap Island and French Polynesia epidemics, the estimated reproduction number ranged 4.3-5.815, that is comparable to dengue and chikungunya fevers, which are from the same family as ZV. Various sexual transmission has been reported: multiple cases of male to female transmission in the U.S. between January-April 201615, one case of male-to-male anal intercourse17, one case of female-to-male transmission18, and an asymptomatic case of male-to- female transmission.19 The duration of ZV RNA persistence in semen has been monitored to determine the degree of ZV infectivity. Detection of the viral RNA in semen was found up to 188 days after symptom onset in an Italian man who contracted ZV infection while traveling in Haiti.20 Additionally, it was found that ZV was found in semen up to 92 days after the illness onset.21 Various reports regarding vaginal secretions and bodily fluids have been monitored for ZV infectivity as well. Viral RNA in vaginal secretions were found up to 14 days after symptom onset.22 Viral RNA has been detected in urine and saliva in 54 days and serum up to 67 days.23 These findings were monitored in an infant whose mother displayed ZV infection symptoms during week 26 of her pregnancy and tested positive for ZV after birth. No reports of ZV in other bodily fluids of the reproductive tracts, specifically the follicular fluid, have been identified. There are potential modes of transmission that have been explored and discussed. Blood transfusion or blood products and breast-feeding have been linked to possible transmission.2 Viral RNA has been detected in the breast milk of those women who have been infected. There was a detection of ZV and viral RNA in breast milk collected 4 days postpartum from a woman who developed ZV symptoms during prenatal period.24 Breast-feeding is not a confirmed route of transmission, as it has not yet been thoroughly evaluated. Kissing is not a confirmed route of transmission. However, one case of transmission was reported from an elderly patient with a high viral load to a family member who reported kissing and hugging an infected patient, but had no known direct contact with infected bodily fluids.25 Saliva, urine, and conjunctival fluid have been detected sources, but transmission has not been confirmed. The incubation period of the ZV is usually 3-12 days. About 75-80% of ZV infections are asymptomatic.1 If ZV becomes symptomatic, disease is generally mild. Common symptoms include rash, fever, joint pain (known as arthralgia), and conjunctivitis. Symptoms generally resolve within a week. Pathogenesis of the ZV is not well studied; early data indicates that ZV will infect and replicate in dermal fibroblasts, epidermal keratinocytes, and immature dendritic cells.26 Infected epidermal keratinocytes will undergo apoptotic cell death. The viral replication prompts an innate immune response. As a result, type I interferons in infected cells are produced. The risk factors that put an individual at a greater risk for contracting ZV are those who live or travel to endemic or epidemic areas, mosquito exposure, and unprotected sexual contact with someone who has recently traveled to areas with active transmission. To determine if an individual is at risk, asking patients about travel history to ZV-infected areas, noting specific dates and location of travel, and discussing risk factors for transmission are important. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) concluded that ZV is a cause of microcephaly and other severe fatal neural defects, such as Guillain-Barré Syndrome. This is a complication associated with pregnancy. The CDC has determined this based on epidemiologic evidence showing an increase number of infants born with microcephaly during the French Polynesian and Brazilian outbreaks.3 Through cohort and case series studies, the CDC has found a cause and effect between the ZV and various brain defects, such as microcephaly, “cerebral malformation, intracranial calcifications, neurologic dysfunction, and ophthalmologic abnormalities.”3 Various studies have detected ZV in brain tissue of affected fetuses. Brain tissue was collected from infants with microcephaly who later died and in the placenta of mothers who suffered a miscarriage. As of result of these findings, the CDC has established two surveillance systems to monitor pregnancies and congenital outcomes in women with ZV infection: The U.S. Zika Pregnancy Registry and Zika Active Pregnancy Surveillance System (ZAPSS) for women in Puerto Rico. Due to the CDC findings regarding malformations of embryos, ZV is considered teratogenic. Microcephaly is a common defect of infants that have contracted ZV from their mothers. Microcephaly is a condition where a baby is born with a smaller than normal head or the head stops growing after birth.27 Because there is a delay in the growth of a head, there are neural developmental abnormalities. Babies born with microcephaly typically have physical and learning disabilities as they continue to grow and age. During ZV outbreaks, there was an increased incidence of microcephaly reported. During the 2013 French Polynesia outbreak, 8,750 suspected ZV cases were reported.28 Estimated risk of microcephaly reported 95 cases per 10,000 women who contracted ZV in the first trimester, while the baseline microcephaly prevalence for that area was two per 10,000 neonates.28 In 2015, an annual rate of microcephaly in Brazil “increased from 5.7 cases per 100,000 live birth in 2014 to 99.7 cases per 100,000 in 2015.”29 For diagnosing ZV, polymerase chain reaction, specifically quantitative or qualitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) is considered the gold standard. RT-PCR distinguishes ZV from other flaviviruses such as dengue and chikungunya fevers. This test can be performed on serum, urine, or blood; however, serum and urine are commonly used. Sensitivity of RT-PCR can vary within 14 days of symptom onset. If symptoms are less than 14 days from onset, it is recommended that RT-PCR of urine or serum samples be performed. Cohort studies have found that RT-PCR of plasma samples appear more sensitive than RT-PCR of urine samples within the first 5 days of symptomatic ZV infection.30 In addition to performing RT-PCR, a physical examination must be done to diagnosis ZV. During physical examination, a clinician should examine a patient for fever, maculopapular rash, arthralgia, and conjunctivitis. Most symptomatic patients will present with rash and conjunctivitis.1,2 Clinicians should access the patient’s risk of exposure, such as travel history to an area of active transmission and unprotected sexual contact with someone who recently traveled to an affected area. Bloodwork should be completed. Generally bloodwork results are normal, but mild leukopenia (low white blood cell count), thrombocytopenia (low platelet count) and hepatic transaminitis (elevated liver enzymes) have been reported with ZV infection.31 Patients with suspected ZV should be evaluated for dengue and chikungunya virus infections as they all cause symptoms that overlap. The same mosquito vector transmits ZV, dengue fever, and chikungunya fever. Other illnesses to differentiate are malaria, influenza, infectious mononucleosis, and acute HIV infection. Other ZV testing options include serum virus-specific immunoglobulin M (IgM) and culture. IgM testing has a greater sensitivity at the end of the first week of illness. IgM has the potential to cross-react with other flaviviruses.2 The FDA approved the CDC IgM Antibody Capture Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (Zika MAC-ELISA) as the first antibody test for emergency evaluation in selected laboratories.32 In addition to the Zika MAC-ELISA, Trioplex Real-Time RT-PCR assay can be used for ZV diagnosis. Culture is generally not used as a tool, but rather an aid to determine if any additional infections are present. If a patient is symptomatic or thought to have contracted the infection due to recent ZV exposure, these diagnostic tools are used to diagnose ZV. Coinfection with other viral illnesses transmitted by the same infected Aedes mosquito can occur. Dengue and chikungunya fever are the common illnesses that are associated with ZV. These coinfections were found in Nicaragua. Between September 2015 and April 2016, 356 patients in Nicaragua with suspected arboviral illnesses provided serum samples for ZV, dengue, and chikungunya fevers.33 A real-time RT-PCR confirmed the presence of a virus. Of those that provided serum samples, 263 had at least one of these viruses, 71 of these cases had a coinfection with 2-3 viruses. Suspected cases should be reported to local health departments in the U.S. for coordination of testing, care, and spread prevention. The CDC and selected state health departments perform more testing to confirm the diagnosis of ZV. The CDC provides instruction for sending ZV samples for testing. There are specific considerations for pregnant women. In 2016, the CDC provided guidelines for evaluation and management for pregnant women and infants with suspected ZV infections (Appendices 1 and 2). Possible Zika virus exposure should be discussed with all pregnant women during each prenatal visit. Testing symptomatic pregnant women should be based on the time of potential exposure. Additional testing is needed to rule out other illnesses, such as dengue, chikungunya, and yellow fever. Other illnesses to consider include malaria, rubella, measles, parvovirus B19 infection, influenza, rickettsial illnesses, enterovirus illnesses, acute HIV infection, and group A streptococcal infection.34 If asymptomatic pregnant women have an ongoing risk for exposure, routine ZV IgM testing should be performed at visits during the first and second trimesters. Offering RT-PCR testing for asymptomatic women with possible infection is recommended for those who have had exposure within the past two weeks of their prenatal visits. Positive results from RT-PCR testing confirm infection. However, a negative result does not exclude infection; IgM testing should be performed for further analysis. In addition to testing, if ZV is suspected or confirmed, serial ultrasounds are necessary every 3-4 weeks to monitor fetal growth and anatomy. Decisions on amniocentesis should be discussed as it is considered a high-risk procedure. Amniocentesis is a medical procedure where a small sample from the amniotic sac surrounding a fetus is sampled and examined for genetic abnormalities. The optimal time to perform this procedure to accurately diagnose ZV is unknown. Amniocentesis is generally performed after 15 weeks of gestation. Because of the uncertainty surrounding the accuracy of this test, amniocentesis should be discussed on an individualized basis. Currently there is no specific antiviral treatment available for ZV. The recommended treatment is supportive with a focus primarily on rest, hydration, and fever and pain control. Acetaminophen is preferred to address fever and pain. Until dengue fever can be excluded, aspirin and other nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory (NSAIDS), such ibuprofen and naproxen, should be avoided to reduce the risk of hemorrhage. Most infected individuals recover within a week. Hospitalization or severe disease is not common. Those individuals infected with ZV are encouraged to avoid mosquito exposure during the first week of symptom onset to reduce the risk of continued transmission.2,3 While infected, individuals should isolate themselves, refrain from sexual contact, and avoid mosquito exposure. Mosquito avoidance is the main option for prevention and further spread of ZV. This is the key to preventing illness while traveling to endemic or epidemic affected regions. Eliminating mosquito habitat is also recommended. Mosquitoes can breed in small amounts of water. Individuals traveling in affected locations should wear light-colored clothing that completely cover the body, use mosquito repellents with DEET, and utilize mosquito nets. There are additional precautions for pregnant women and women trying to become pregnant. Women should avoid traveling to areas of active transmission. Consulting healthcare providers before traveling is recommended. The CDC instructs pregnant women to avoid traveling to elevations less than <2,000 meters in regions of active transmission.35 Because of evidence of sexual transmission of ZV, men who live in areas of active transmission should abstain from sexual activity or effectively use condoms during all sexual contact, especially with pregnant partners. No vaccine or preventive medications are available; however, research efforts are currently being done to develop a ZV vaccine. In order to develop antiviral treatments to combat ZV, more research needs to be done to learn about ZV and its effects. Being one of the prominent organizations to explore infectious diseases, The National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) has committed to provide funding to research ZV. Through their efforts and research, NIAID hopes to expand current diagnostic testing, further understand the pathogenesis of ZV, and develop and utilize vaccines to prevent future infections and transmission. Many studies currently being conducted focus on gathering more information about Zika and its effects. Collaborating with National Institute of Health (NIH) and various investigators globally, NIAID began its Zika in Infants and Pregnancy (ZIP) trial, enrolling as many 10,000 pregnant women in Brazil, Colombia, Guatemala, Nicaragua, and Puerto Rico.36 This study will enroll women in their first trimester of pregnancy and will follow them until at least one year after birth. Researchers will observe any effects, if any, in the event that a woman contracts ZV while enrolled in this trial. Primary outcomes include incidence of congenital malformation, adverse fetal outcomes of ZV symptomatic and infected patients. Researchers will also collect maternal samples of urine, blood, genital secretions, saliva, breast milk and amniotic fluid and tissue (if available).36 Researchers will only collect urine, blood, and saliva from infants. Understanding the effects of ZV on infants is critical. Collaboration among the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Michigan State University, and Universidad Industrial de Santander in Columbia has created a prospective cohort study exploring the fetal effects of ZV, specifically examining the neurodevelopment effects. Beginning May 2016, researchers aimed to enroll 440 pregnant women suspected of having ZV. Researchers will confirm the exposure of ZV by maternal symptoms, blood and urine RT-PCR, and serologic testing specific to ZV.37 Neurodevelopment outcomes and fetal CNS impairment will be monitored throughout the two-year study. There is a similar study being conducted in France where researchers are monitoring the ZV effects of over 2,000 infants and toddlers up to the age of two that are affected by the infection.38 Because blood transfusions have been linked to possible ZV transmission, research concerning blood donors and transfusions are being conducted. The NIH Clinical Center is currently studying the risk of viruses from the Flaviviridae family on the U.S. blood supply. The viruses being evaluated are ZV, dengue virus, and chikungunya virus. Because donated blood generally is not tested for these viruses, researchers want to study how these viruses infect people with time. Individuals who deferred donating blood because of potential sexual or travel exposure to ZV are eligible for this study. An anticipated 200 subjects will be asked about travel in more detail and tested for any virus.39 If virus results test positive, researchers will closely follow subjects for 6 months with weekly visits where physical exams will be conducted in addition to collection of blood and urine samples. Optional semen samples from men will be collected. Weekly clinic visits will become monthly visits once test results return negative for two weeks straight. Late 2016, Cereus Corporation and the Biomedical Advanced Research and Development Authority (BARDA) announced it received additional funding to further its research in a program designed to reduce the risk of virus-transmission via blood transfusions. Cereus and BARDA developed a Phase III clinical trial, known as “RedeS,” to evaluate the efficacy and safety of INTERCEPT RBCs compared to the standard RBCs in areas greatly impacted by the ZV, including Puerto Rico and Florida.40 The INTERCEPT Blood System is a technology designed to reduce the transfusion-transmitted infections. This technology becomes effective by inactivating various pathogens, such as viruses, bacteria, parasites, and leukocytes that may been in donated blood. Cereus and BARDA hope the INTERCEPT blood system will be utilized during blood borne pathogen endemics and epidemics. Clinicians can continue routine care with the use of the INTERCEPT. Many researchers have conducted research to gather more information about ZV. This knowledge has led the way to develop potential vaccines. NIAID has done vast research regarding ZV vaccines. NIAID’s VRC developed a DNA-based vaccine that will create an immune response to ZV. The idea for developing this vaccine is similar to VRC’s investigational vaccine for the West Nile virus, which was found to be safe in a Phase I clinical trial. The investigational vaccine for ZV completed recruitment and follow-up is ongoing.41 NIAID plans to continue research with this vaccine by conducting a Phase II clinical trial aiming to enroll over 5,000 participants. The objective of this trial will be to evaluate the effectiveness of the vaccine to prevent ZV. Developed by the Walker Reed Army Institute of Research (WRAIR), the Zika Purified Inactivated Virus (ZPIV) was created using a similar model the WRAIR used to develop vaccines for Japanese encephalitis and dengue virus. The ZPIV vaccine has ZV particles that cannot replicate and cause disease in humans. The protein shell of the inactivated virus remains intact so that the immune system can recognize it and cause an immune response.Sponsored by the NIAID, there are five planned Phase I clinical trials using ZPIV vaccine. The first trial to use ZPIV vaccine is enrolling about 75 individuals with no previous Flavivirus infection in Silver Spring, Maryland. Subjects will be randomly allocated into three groups: the first group will receive two intramuscular (IM) injections of the ZPIV vaccine or a placebo 28 days apart. The other two groups will either receive a two-dose regimen of Japanese encephalitis vaccine or one dose of the yellow fever before starting the two-dose ZPIV vaccine regimen.42 Researchers designed the study in this fashion because those tasked to assist with the ZV outbreak are often vaccinated before arriving to outbreak area. This study plans to complete by fall 2018. The second trial will be evaluating the safety of the ZPIV vaccine in Flavivirus-naïve healthy males and non-pregnant female adult subjects at the Saint Louis University School of Medicine. Beginning in October 2016, NIAID began to enroll 90 subjects in one of three groups, either receiving a low, moderate, or high dose of the experimental or placebo vaccine.43 Subjects would receive their vaccine on Day 1 and 29. During the 14-month duration of the study, researchers will examine the safety and immune response of ZPIV vaccine. Currently there are no results of this study, as it is still in the data collection phase of research. In Puerto Rico, the third trial will evaluate ZPIV vaccine’s safety and immunogenicity of those who have previously been exposed to dengue virus. With a planned February 2017 start, 90 healthy males and non-pregnant women will randomly be assigned to receive either a high dose, moderate dose, or a placebo.44 Each dose will be 28 days apart. Follow-up for subjects will be 40 months. The fourth clinical trial to use ZPIV vaccine will explore the vaccine as a boost vaccination to the DNA Zika vaccine. Beginning July 2016, the NIH Clinical Center, the Center for Vaccine Development at the University of Maryland School of Medicine’s Institute for Global Health, and Emory University recruited 120 subjects.45 Half of the subjects will receive the NIAID ZV DNA vaccine followed by a ZPIV boost four or twelve weeks later. The subjects will only receive two doses of ZPIV vaccine either four or twelve weeks apart. In Boston, the fifth trial is enrolling 48 adults to compare different dosing regimens of ZPIV vaccine.46 Beginning October 2016, subjects were randomly assigned to either receive a single dose of ZPIV vaccine or two doses of ZPIV vaccine and placed into one of 4 experimental dosing intervals. Collaborating with the NIH and the VRC, NIAID developed a ZV DNA investigational vaccine called, VRC-ZKADNA090-00-VP. These institutions are currently conducting a Phase I randomized trial evaluating the safety and immunogenicity of a 3-dose vaccination regimen using this investigational product (IP). Forty-five subjects will be randomized into one of three experimental groups. Subject will either receive a full dose in one injection of IP IM injection using needle and syringe, a split dose via IM using needle and syringe, or an intramuscular injection with needle-free injection device, PharmaJet.47 Researchers hypothesized that the IP will be safely tolerated at three different time points during the two-year study. Researchers also want to examine the immunogenicity of the vaccine and the vaccine regimens. Research regarding ZV vaccination is extremely important for reducing risk of transmission. Perceptions about the potential vaccination are just as imperative. The University of Colorado at Denver conducted an online questionnaire distributed to mothers to gain information regarding their knowledge of Colorado vaccination legislation, their opinions on childhood vaccination, and their views on a potential Zika vaccine.48 This study was completed November 2016. Unfortunately, results have not been published for public view. Currently there are only 20 open research studies regarding ZV. With the exception of the research being conducted by NIAID, all research being done is to gain more knowledge about the different associations between ZV and various risk factors. In late 2016, the World Health Organization declared that ZV is no longer a global threat. However, it is important to continue exploring potential risk factors and mode of transmission. From gaining valuable knowledge, a vaccine is being developed for global use. Due to developing research, a safe and effective ZV vaccine will not be available for several years. Ongoing surveillance and awareness of ZV are needed to prevent future outbreaks. The Zika Virus (ZV): Causes and Features
Write a 2-page paper (not including the required cover and reference pages) that evaluates a minimum of one fake news story that has been found on a social media platform. Provide the link (or a screen shot) to this news story and pinpoint the ethical and/or legal issues with the story. Then discuss the impact and consequences of the story based on these ethical and/or legal issues. Your paper must be written and formatted according to the requirements in the CSU Global Writing Center (Links to an external site.). Support your paper with a minimum of scholarly two sources in addition to the course textbooks. The CSU Global Library (Links to an external site.) is a good place to find these sources.
The goals and objectives of business organizations. All business organizations have some objectives; those are to create not only revenues, profits and growth, but also unique products and services. To attain those objectives organizations need to ensure proper management of human assets that would be a source of sustainable competitive advantage for high performance organizations. Increase in productivity make happy the potential investors and they also want to retain this productivity without increasing labor time or expenses this is why everybody needs to concentrate on the incentive plans. There is nothing new about using incentives to motivate workers. Frederick Taylor popularized the use of financial incentives- financial rewards paid to workers whose production exceeds some predetermined standard. (Garry Dessler, 2006 p.438). Taylor had become concerned with what he called “systematic soldiering”. He became concerned after constituting some surveys. He found that employees tend to work at the slowest pace possible and to produce at the minimum acceptable level while they are capable enough to perform work on their homes, even after a 12-hour day. (Garry Dessler, 2006). The goal of all commercial institutions is to maximize shareholder value and it is becoming quite difficult along with the time being due to enormous competition. To solve these problem financial incentives or pay-for- performance plan is included to the firm’s policy. Moreover, this is evident that this incentive plans work. (Example 01): one study involved 34 stores of a large retailer. 15 of which installed a new sales incentive plan the researchers found that installing the plan “enables a store to capture more customers from its competitors when there is more intense competition.” However, there a problem arises that is- according to some survey, it is suggested that most incentive plans are less than effective. (Example 02) Mercer Human Resource Consulting found that just 28% of the U.S workers it surveyed said they were personally motivated by their company’s incentive plans. Only 29% said their firms rewarded their performance, “employees do not see a strong connection between pay and performance In addition, their performance is, and their performance is not particularly influenced by the company’s incentive plan, is how or Mercer pay expert summed up the findings. What accounts for the fact that about 70% of these employees felt that their firm’s pay-for-performance plans were ineffective? (Garry Dessler, 2006). Incentive structure One of the important things needs to be focused on that not everyone reacts to rewards in a same way and not all rewards are suited to all situations. There are three sets of psychological insights that the manager will find useful in devising his or her incentive plans they are as follows:- Individual differences Psychological needs Employee expectancies (Garry Dessler, 2006). Individual Difference: This means that people differ in personality, abilities, values, and needs, and this difference manifest themselves indifferent desires and in different reactions. Personality is one of the main factors that individual react in different ways. For example, according to one recent study it was found that people can divided in to two parts based on affectiveness. They are as follows: High Positive Affective (High PA) Low Positive Affective (Low PA) High Positive Affective (High PA): This type of peoples is energetic, active and alert. Low Positive Affective (Low PA): This type of peoples is more lethargic, listless, and apathetic. In the study, it is observed that low PAs responded much more favorably to merit raises that did high PAs Psychological Needs: According to Abraham Maslow’s hierarchy theory, we all know that people have five increasingly hierarchy. They are as follows: physiological, Security, social, self-esteem, and self-actualization. According to this theory one fundamental thing what we have found that is lower level needs first to be satisfied. The bottom rung contains needs best satisfied by things like extrinsically supplied job security and food and shelter. The second, upper rung contains needs or achievement and self-actualization, needs best satisfied by intrinsic rewards like the sense of achievement one derives from doing a challenging job and ling Frederick (Garry Dessler, 2006). Herzberg’s Concept: His theory of motivation simply divides Maslow’s hierarchy into two levels they are as follows: Higher level: People who are in need of achievement and self-actualization. Lower level: People who are only in need of psychological, social and safety. (Garry Dessler, 2006). Herzberg calls the two factors at the heart of his theory hygiene and motivators. He says the factors (hygiene’s) that satisfy lower-level needs are different from those (motivators) that satisfy or partially satisfy higher-level needs. If hygiene factors (factors outside the job itself, such as working conditions, salary, and incentive pay) are inadequate, employees become dissatisfied. However, adding more of these hygiene’s (like incentives) to the job (supplying what Herzberg calls extrinsic motivation) is an inferior way to motivate someone. Because lower level needs are quickly satisfied. (Garry Dessler, 2006). Considering above discussed Factors the following, Incentives Plans to motivate employees are commonly used. Individual employee incentive plan Piecework plan: Straight piecework: The standard hour plan: Merit pay as an incentive: Incentives for Sales Persons Salary Plan Commission Plan Combination Plan Setting Sales Quotas Strategic Sales Incentives Organization wide variable pay plans Profit Sharing Plans: Employee Stock Ownership Plan (ESOP): Scanlon and Other Gain Sharing plan: Gainsharing Plans: At-risk Variable Pay plans: (Gary Desslar, 2007 p.442) Organization wide variable pay plans Profit Sharing Plans: A plan whereby employees share in the company profits. In which all or most employees receive a share of the firm’s annual, profits are popular today. According recent research Ford Motor co. introduced a profit-sharing plan for salaried employees. In addition, General Motors increased its profit-sharing payout when profits improved. Disadvantages of Profit Sharing: This profit sharing plan is mainly attractive for the executives not for the hourly paid employees because profit is shared at the end of a fiscal year and the rest of the rest a part is transferred to the employee’s account after retirement. Company makes profit by selling their finished goods and services but productions of finished goods and services are related to a number of factors. Along with production cost and other internal cost, this is related with raw materials, competitive factors, market conditions, etc. In accordance with the above facts, we can say that employee effort has little to do directly with the company profit. Employee Stock Ownership Plan (ESOP): A corporation contributes shares of its own stocks to a trust in which additional contributions are made annually. The trust distributes the stock to employees on retirement or separation from service. Employee Stock ownership plans are companywide plans in which a corporation contributes shares of its own stock-or cash to be used to purchase such stock-to a trust established to purchase shares of the firm’s stock for employees. The firm generally makes these contributions annually in proportion to total employee compensation, with a limit of 15% of compensation. The trust holds the stock in individual employee accounts, and distributes it to employees upon retirement (or other separation from service. (Garry Dessler, 2007) STRUCTURE OF ESOP: This plan can be two types they are as follows: Leveraged ESOP Unleveraged ESOP Leveraged ESOP: The firm makes nothing but periodic contribution of employers stock or purchase stock with cash, which has been contributed by the firm to the employees with an unleveraged ESOP Unleveraged ESOP: Initially an ESOP is constructed, of course appropriately administrated by a qualified trustee. After that, the organization company purchases stock from the sponsoring company or the key stockholders of the company. Sponsoring company assures about amortization and makes tax-deductible contribution to the ESOP. Eventually the benefit of shares then contributed to the employees account. THE ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF ESOP Employee Stock Ownership Plan is normally used to provide employee the ownership of stock and simultaneously a number of other objectives. As the advantages and disadvantages of ESOP is very clear and transparent so it is important that management also be concern about this. This might be helpful to concern that every business in the U.S is a potential candidate for an ESOP structuring. Employee Stock Option has currently cover over 10 million workers, and the potential clients ranged from small, privately held companies to Fortune 500 firms such as Polaroid and J.C Penny. (Example 03): The founder of the modern ESOP Lewis Kelso, quoted in the August 1987 about the issue of the institutional Investors by saying this ” this Plan is treated as simply an employee benefit, but is really a device to save the human race”(Rosenberg 1987). While these words are somewhat strong, they represent the sentiments of some of the truly fervent devotees to this movement (Mathews 1989). (http://www.questia.com/googleScholar.qst;jsessionid=L8GGpQDyMkXhzf5pKVKXGYwBqpRHZh1Q1N2lh918g1hbjnSFrxnV!746944862!1850919211?docId=5000125804) Advantages: One of the most commonly accepted advantages is issuing stock options to the employees, receiving what employees become more loyal and committed to the organization. In order to gain future benefits the talented employees will be attracted to the company. Business organizations also get tax benefits using this stock option. Companies do not need to record this compensation as a pending expense because this is technically a form of deferred payment to the employees so these stock options are worthless until they are exercised. Disadvantages: Many employees transfer their stock to cash by exercising their option. There are some employees who left the company with their newly gained wealth as soon as they transfer their stocks into cash and search another growth company to make another quick score. Some employees’ loyalty to the organizations disappeared after their options have matured. This plan sometimes encourages institutions to take excessive risk. Employees who are issued these stocks they are shares the price gain options not the risk of price fall. There is a chance that a large number of employees will exercise their option to gain more money transfer their stock to cash that will unstable company’s whole equity structure. Due to this reason, company needs to issue new shares what may results to increase the number of shares outstanding and lighten the value of stock because the large number of shares will go the outsiders. To recover this situation company needs to increase their earnings or repurchase their shares from market. Scanlon and Other Gain Sharing plan: An incentive plan developed in 1937 by Joseph Scanlon and designed to encourage cooperation. Involvement and sharing of benefits. Few would argue with the fact that the most powerful way of insuring employee commitment is to synchronize the organiztions goals with those of its employees to ensure that the two sets of goals overlap, and that by pursuing his or her goals, the worker pursues the employer’s goals as well. Experts have proposed many techniques of attaining this idyllic state, but few are used as widely of successfully as the Scanlon plan an incentive plan developed in 1937 by Joseph Scanlon, a United Steel Workers Union official. It is still popular today. Gainsharing Plans: An incentive plan that engages employees in a common effort to achieve productivity objectives and share the gains. The Scanlon plan is one early version of what we call today a gainsharing plan. Gainsharing is and incentive plan that engages many or all employees’ cost-saving gains shared among employees and the company. In addition to the Scanlon plan, other types of gain sharing plans include the Rucker and Improshare plans. Benefits of gainsharing: According to the results of some accountants of different companies they said that due to using Gainsharing methods they have 22 percent decrease in waste, spoilage, and customer returns, a sharp rise in productivity and 17% increase in net profit for the year. If there are some thing gained after a certain period suppose, if 100 employees produced 1,000 units in 1,000 hours in a given month, and the same 100 employees produced 1,000 units in 900 hours in the next month, that was a gain of 100 hours. So, if labors are paid $10 per hour then the total gain will be $1000, this Gain can be divided among the employees and can be also used to reduce cost. People can realize their efforts are being rewarded and the production of the company is being increased through the following ways: such as quality of the product is being improved, accidents eliminating, and total income for both the employee and company is being increased. According the success of the companies the federal government also looked into this new method of motivating employees. Bureau of Labor Statistics, reports that some variety of Gainsharings are being used by about 18 percent of manufacturing companies, the number increasing ever year. Disadvantages of Gainsharing: There are some companies, which are dragging their shoes on Gainsharing because they are satisfied with their current, medium satisfactory performances. (http://www.entrepreneur.com/tradejournals/article/183136734.html) At-risk Variable Pay plans: Plans that put some portion of the employee’s weekly pay at risk, subject to the firm’s meeting its financial goals. at-risk variable pay plans are essentially plans that put some portion of the employees weekly pay at risk. If employees meet of exceed their goals, they earn encentives. If they fail to meet their goals, they forgo some of the pay they would normally have earned. Individual employee incentive plan Piecework plan: This is the oldest individual incentive plan and is still the most widely used. Here workers are paid a sum (called a piece rate) for each unit he or she produces. Thus, if a Web surfer gets $4o for each e-mail sales lead he finds for the firm, he would make $40 for bringing in100 a day and $80 for200.(Gary Desslar, 2007 p.442) Straight piecework: Piecework generally implies straight piecework, which entails a strict proportionality between results and rewards regardless of output. However such that the worker allow for sharing productivity gains between employer and worker such that the worker receives extra income for some above-normal production. Therefore, if a worker bringing in30 leads per hour instead of the “standard” 20, his piece rate for leads above 25 might bump to $45 each(Gary Desslar, 2007) The standard hour plan: is like the piece rate plan, with one difference. Instead of getting a rate per piece, the worker gets a premium equal to the percent which his or her performance exceeds the standard. So if a workers standard is160 leads per day (and thus $64 per day), and he brings in 200 leads, he would get an extra 25%, or $80 for the day. Some firms find that expressing the incentive in percentages reduces the workers tendency to link their production standard to pay (thus making the standard easier to change). It also eliminates the need to re compute piece rates whenever hourly wage rates are changed. (Gary Desslar, 2007 p.443) Merit pay as an incentive: Merit pay or a merit raise is any salary increase, the firm awards to an individual employee based on his or her individual performance. it is different from a bonus in that it usually becomes part of the employees base salary, where as a bonus is a one-time payment although the term merit pay can apply to the incentive raises given to any employee-exempt or non exempt, office or factory, management or non- management, the term is more often used for white-collar employees and, partculary professional office, and clerical employees. (Gary Desslar, 2007) Merit Pay option: Two adaptations of merit pay plans are popular. One awards merit raises in a lump sum once a year and does not make the raises part of the employee’s salary (making them, in effect, short-term bonuses of lower-level workers.) the other ties merit awards to both individual and organizational performance. Traditional merit increases are cumulative, but most lump-sum raises are not. This produces two potential benefits. First, the rise in payroll expenses can be significantly slowed. (Example 4) Traditionally, someone with a salary of $30000 per year might get a 5% increase this moves the employee to a new base salary of $31,500. If the employee gets another 5% increase next year, then the new merit increase of 5% is tacked on not just to the $30,000 base salary but also to the extra $15, 00 the employee received last year. Lump-sum merit increases can also be more dramatic motivators than traditional merit pay rises. A 5% Lump-sum merit payment to our $30,000 employee is $1500 cash, as opposed to a traditional weekly merit payout of $29 for 52 weeks. (Gary Desslar, 2007) Tying lump-sum merit: This option pays to both individual and organizational performance is another option. Company performance and the employee’s performance (using his or her performance appraisal) receive equal weight in computing the merit pay. Here and outstanding performer would receive 70% of his or her maximum lump-sum award even if the organizations performance were marginal. However, employees with marginal of unacceptable performance would get no lump sum awards even in years in which the firm’s performance was outstanding. The bonus plan at Discovery Communications is an example. Executive assistants can receive bonuses of up to 10% of their salaries. The bolls evaluation of the assistants individual performance accounts for 80% of the potential bonus; 10% is based on how the division does, and 10%on how the company as a whole does. (Gary Desslar, 2007). Following Chart is a compensation issues and policies Employee’s Performance Bottom Third Middle Third Top Third Out Standing 12-15% 9-11% 6-8% Good 8-11 6-8 4-5 Average 4-7 4-5 2-3 Marginal 1-3 3 1 Satisfactory No increase No increase No increase Unsatisfactory (John M. Ivancevich, 2007, p.335) Advantages: It makes the reward more valuable by relating it to economic conditions. (Raymond A. Noe, et al, 2004) It provides a method for rewarding performance in all of the dimensions measured in the organizations performance management system. So appropriately designed system can be linked between employees effectiveness and organizations objectives. (Raymond A. Noe, et al, 2004) Drawback of Merit Pay option: Detractors present good reasons why merit pay can backfire. One is the dubious mature of many firms appraisal processes. Since the appraisals are unfair, so too will be the merit pay you base them on. Similarly, supervisors often tend to minimize difference in employee performance when computing merit raises. They give most employees about the same raise, either because of a reluctance to alienate some employees about the same raise, either because of a reluctance to alienate some employees because of a desire to give everyone a raise that will at least help them stay even with the cost of living. A third problem that almost every employee thinks he or she is an above-average per-former, so getting a below-average merit increase can be demoralizing. (Garry Dessler, 2007) During recent years, budgets for merit pay increases were about 3 to 5 percent of pay so average performers could receive a 4 percent raise and top performers perhaps as much as 6 percent, the 2 percent point deference after taxes and other deductions, would amount to only a few dollars a week on their salary so this in spite of their huge performance gap is unacceptable. (Raymond A. Noe, et al, 2004) Pay increases may become expected, what if the company has a bad year, or employees fail to produce to expectations? Under these traditional systems, workers still expect wage increases. Theoretically, they should give some of their salary back! (David A. Decenjo and Stephen P. Robbins, 2005,p.286) Recommendation and Debate about merit pay option: Effective Management strongly believes that incentive plan always provide the best motivation and improved attitudes. Both organizations need something beyond production as well as employees needs something beyond money. Employees are found looking for stable alternatives because strait incentives system is no longer successful to meet their expectations. While other incentives are rigid merit pay option is not. Factors such as stress quality, attendance or any other management wants to improve, merit pay plan can be apply to them. Because it works with the merit elements of employees and it preserve their independence. (http://www.genelevine.com/Papers/31.htm) Merit pay is the subject of much debate. Advocates argue that only pay or other rewards tied directly to performance can motivate improved performance. They content that the effect of awarding pay raise across the board (without regard to individual merit) may actually detract from performance, by showing employees the will be rewarded regardless of how they perform. (Garry Dessler, 2007) Based on performance merit pay, option is designed, but there are huge difference between merit pay option with other incentives plan. Differences are through these ways: In merit pay option past performance is important than future performance. Subjective ratings evaluated rather than objective measures. Here individual performance focused more than organizational performance. Long-term performances are assessed here and increase in payment becomes permanent in merit pay option. (http://www.entrepreneur.com/tradejournals/article/85884301.html) On the other hand, if we focused on the piecework plan, payment is given based on each unit a worker produced. Likewise, if we moved on the strait piecework plan, this is like which entails a strict proportionality between results and rewards regardless of output. In standard hour plan Instead of getting a rate per piece, the worker gets a premium equal to the percent which his or her performance exceeds the standard. From all individual incentive plan we have found that all plans tie employees beyond a standard but not render them towards the unlimited goal. If we concentrate on the organization incentive plan:- In profit-sharing plan whereby employees share in the company profits. There is a great uncertainty about company’s profit because employees do not know whether company would make profit or not and although profit would be given at the end of the fiscal year of the company so it no longer stimulate employee for that long period. In Employee Stock Option Plan (ESOP), a corporation contributes shares of its own stocks to a trust in which additional contributions are made annually. The trust distributes the stock to employees on retirement or separation from service. This plan haw lots of risk because Many employees transfer their stock to cash by exercising their option.There are some employees who left the company with their newly gained wealth as soon as they transfer their stocks into cash and search another growth company to make another quick score. Similar situation is found for Scanlon and Gain sharing plan where there are many benefits this is true but these benefits cannot overcome their disadvantages. This thing is true for both individual and organization incentive plans. Based on the above discussion it can be said that incentive based on merit pay is more effective than those above discussed plan are. But sometimes merit pay option seems to be increase payroll cost at least initially by compensating employees but inspired employees performance will re-compensate the initial extra charges. It provides a method for rewarding performance in all of the dimensions measured in the organizations performance management system. So appropriately designed system can be linked between employees effectiveness and organizations objectives. Conclusion: The goal of all commercial institutions is to maximize shareholder value. All institutions give their full effort and do whatever they need to do to achieve organizations objectives. Moreover, it is becoming quite difficult along with the time being due to enormous competition. There is no doubt about this, Managing Human Capital properly organizations can attain their objectives. Where employees are efficient and there is a linked between organizations and employees objective, success will be achieved easily. To create a link between employees and organizations objective, financial incentives or pay-for- performance plan is included to the firm’s policy. Moreover, this is evident that this incentive plans work. However, incentive plans need to be sincerely selected because all incentive plans does not suit all kinds of employees. There might be such incentive plans what make people committed to the organization welfare. By reinforced with those incentive plans they will be loyal and give their maximum effort to achieve organization goal and objectives. Merit pay incentive is so far recommended to carry out this job. Because only merit is that thing what can bring unlimited success to the organization. And merit is nourished within an independent environment. Only merit pay plan can ensure this. Other incentives plans are more or less effective inspite of their lots of disadvantages but our motto is that organization will be run forever and their success as well so will select the best things for our organization in every aspect. Reference Books John M. Ivancevich (2005), Human Resource Management, McGraw-Hill International Edition. Garry Desler(2006), Human Resource Management, New Dilhi-110001 Private Limited. Raymond A. Noe, John R. Hollenbeck, Barry Gerhart And Patrick M. Wright (2007), Human Resource Management,Tara McGraw-Hill publishing limited. David A. Decenzo and Stephen P. Robbins(2005), Fundamentals of Human Resource Management,WILY publication ltd. Internet 1. The Advantages and Disadvantages Of ESOP’s: A Long-Range Analysis. http://www.allbusiness.com/human-resources/158479-1.html 2. Benefits Of Gainsharing: Number Of Companies Using Motivation Technique Is increasing. http://www.entrepreneur.com/tradejournals/article/183136734.html 3. The Wisdom of Merit Pay (http://www.genelevine.com/Papers/31.htm) 4. An empirical examination of a merit bonus plan.(Statistical Data Included) (http://www.entrepreneur.com/tradejournals/article/85884301.html) The goals and objectives of business organizations

University of Phoenix Teaching Disciplinary Literacy to Adolescents Discussion

University of Phoenix Teaching Disciplinary Literacy to Adolescents Discussion.

Lesson should be 1st grade reading and writing NARRATIVE RESPONSE #1 Describe a content lesson or unit that defines you as a first grade reading/writing teacher. How did you engage students of all backgrounds and abilities in the learning? How did that learning influence your students? How are your beliefs about teaching demonstrated in this lesson or unit? Multi Line Text. NARRATIVE RESPONSE #2 Describe a project or initiative you have been involved in which contributed to the improvement of overall school culture. What was your role, how did you collaborate with others, and what is the status of this project today? Please include evidence of student impact.. Multi Line Text. 3. How do you ensure that education transcends the classroom? Describe specific ways in which you deliberately connect your students with the community. Please include evidence of student impact. 4. What do you consider to be a major public education issue today prior to the COVID-19 Pandemic? Describe how you demonstrate being a lifelong learner, leader, and innovator concerning this issue, both in and outside of the classroom walls.. Multi Line Text.
University of Phoenix Teaching Disciplinary Literacy to Adolescents Discussion

PVCC Did Martha Breach the Contract Video Watching Discussion

best essay writers PVCC Did Martha Breach the Contract Video Watching Discussion.

Discussion: Did Martha breach the contract?No unread replies.No replies.Read the articles linked below and watch the video about Macy’s lawsuit against Martha Stewart, then answer the two (2) questions and respond to at least one post from your classmates. Note that this is a complicated case. Feel free to do more research to understand the intricacies of this case and answer the discussion questions to the best of your knowledge.Article links:1. https://www.reuters.com/article/us-marthastewartlivingomnimedia-macys-idUSBREA010G520140102 (Links to an external site.)2. https://www.macysinc.com/news-media/press-releases/detail/467/macys-and-martha-stewart-living-omnimedia-settle-legal (Links to an external site.)Video link: QUESTIONS:1. Did Martha Stewart breach her contract with Macy’s? Include at least one argument as to why she did breach the contract and at least one argument as to why she did not breach the contract.2. If your business had an opportunity that would greatly increase your profits but required you to potentially breach a current contract, would you take the opportunity? Why or why not? What are the ethical issues you would consider when making this decision?
PVCC Did Martha Breach the Contract Video Watching Discussion

MGMT312 APU Week 1 Leadership and Management Discussion

MGMT312 APU Week 1 Leadership and Management Discussion.

Week 1 Forum – Leadership and ManagementRead this article: (LINK) Plachy, R. J. (2009). When to Lead? When to Manage?. T+D, 63(12), 52-55.Watch this video:What it takes to be a good leaderVideo – What it takes to be a good leader – https://www.ted.com/talks/roselinde_torres_what_it_takes_to_be_a_great_leaderAlso read: Dugan (chapter 1) Dugan – Chapter 4 – (96-111)Then, write a summary (in your own words) of what leadership means to you. Explain why leadership and management are different. Use your own words. Read the material and then format your reply to include a personal example where you have witnessed a good leader and a good manager or a poor leader or manager. Relate to the class how these leaders or managers affected you. Do you think that all good managers must be good leaders to be effective?Instructions: Your initial post should be at least 250 words, not including repeated questions, references and quotes. References are in APA format.
MGMT312 APU Week 1 Leadership and Management Discussion

Sexually Abused Child in Foster Care Setting | Case Study

The sexually abused child in the foster setting Current researchers believe the majority of children entering the foster system have been traumatized physically and emotionally and now require care the foster system was not originally created address[1]. Additionally, foster children are reported to have “three to seven times as many acute and chronic health conditions, developmental delays and emotional adjustment problems” as their non-foster peers[2]. The care provided in foster care is of critical importance, as research emphasizes the remaking of an attachment based relationship, such as the foster parent-child relationship, is the focal emotional need during the foster experience[3]. When a child has been sexually abused, the care required is of paramount importance, however, a careful and comprehensive assessment of the child is required as childhood sexual abuse affects different children completely differently, displaying a range of symptoms or lack thereof[4]. Cicchetti and Toth[5] emphasize the individual differences that abuse has on individuals is most often based on the child’s level of functioning at the time of the sexual abuse, such that the sexual abuse and/or other forms of concurrent child abuse will be interpreted by one child differently from another. As the child matures, the abuse will also carry different meanings, therefore Cicchetti and Toth[6] tell us that [foster] caregivers must readily adapt to the changing issues the child is dealing with and manner in which he/she relates. This essay will present a brief case study followed by an examination of the foster parent skills, qualities and understanding needed to engage in a relationship with a child who has been sexually abused, critically reflecting on actions taken with the child. For purposes of this paper, the child discussed is an adolescent who suffered repeated sexual abuse in an intra-familial setting. Issues relating specifically to infants, preschool or younger children victimized by sexual abuse and placed in a foster care setting are considered beyond the current scope of this essay. Additionally, issues pertaining to the legalities implicit in a childhood sexual abuse case, abuse by an extra-familial individual or issues pertaining to abduction and violence perpetrated upon a child in conjunction with sexual abuse are considered beyond the scope of this essay. Case study J is a 14-year-old female who was repeatedly sexually abused by her step-father from the age of five years. J’s mother was an alcoholic and unable to hold a job. J’s step-father threatened that he’d kill her mother and J if she told anyone. J remained silent for the first eight years, displaying a variety of emotional and physical problem that doctors and school officials put off to developmental disturbances. When J finally told her mother when she was 13 years-old, her mother said it was because J was such a pretty girl and to just go along with it because after all, he provided for them all and they’d be on the street otherwise. When J was called to the principal’s office for disruptive and aggressive behaviour towards a boy who made sexual advances to her in the hallway, J finally told her principal what was going on at home and family service and police officials were called in. J was removed from the home and placed in foster care. J was 15 by the time she was placed in this writer’s foster care. J exhibited many of the common mannerisms common to adolescent females victimized by intra-familial sexual abuse including adopting sexually promiscuous and extremely flirtatious behaviour with other males, engaging in self-injurious behaviour such as cutting coupled with distancing herself from trusting authority figures. Also noted by this writer were J’s frequent depressive episodes and affect. It was important to note, consistent with current research, that the British child welfare authority over two-thirds met current diagnostic criteria for at least one or more psychiatric disorders[7], emphasizing that older individuals in foster care have a higher rate of lifetime and past year psychiatric disorders, frequently onset prior to the initiation of the foster situation. Fostering J Consistent with research by Yancey[8] an appropriate combination of mentoring and role-modelling for J was an integral part of her fostering. Role modelling does not necessarily necessitate personal interaction, whereas mentoring also includes deliberate support, guidance and an effort to help shape the adolescent, as in the case of J where she had not developed the appropriate skills with which to weather difficult periods in her life or make sense of what had happened to her in real world terms[9] and examine the skills, qualities and understanding needed to engage in a relationship with that child. J’s brain anatomy was modified by the repetitive abuse, accounting for much of her depression and other personality disorders[10] through the L-HPA axis impact[11]. Explaining this to J in terms she would understand was difficult as she was not overtly trusting of authority or parental figures; the information only seemed to fuel her rage at her role of helpless victim and further emphasize her own role in the abuse process rather than appropriate placement of blame externally on her step-father. Similarly, research highlights the persistence of depression and other emotional areas of dysfunction up to and extending beyond five years following childhood sexual abuse[12]. Given the goal of foster placement as the reunification of the family unit[13] occasional visitation with J’s mother caused greater depressive episodes and more dramatic episodes of self-injurious behaviour, which is consistent with the literature stating further abuser contact within five years can be used to predict higher levels of depression in the abused child[14]. Significant mentoring with J focused on building her sense of self-esteem and orienting her towards healing her own inner hurt child, mothering it in ways that were not provided to her in her critical early childhood years. For example, it was important to help J search for solutions and focus on how to overcome her current issues and for her to admit problems exist with her normal day to day actions. Rather than nurture her child’s mind questioning “why” did this happen to me, this writer had to stress that she is responsible for her own thoughts, feelings and behaviour at this point in her life and as it moves forward, that she can construct her own destiny, especially since she is within years of adulthood[15]. It was difficult explaining that her sexually aggressive behaviour was not considered normal, but an affect of her abuse[16] as she continued to seek the physical intimacy with a male as an expression of their love for her rather than simply sexual gratification[17], still replaying her step-father’s verbal expressions of his love for her, how attractive she was, etc. Given J’s level of problems with attachment relationships, it was instrumental working with her coming from the transactional analysis framework emphasizing relations needs both current and in the archaic ego, emphasizing J’s need for security and protection experienced within a relationship[18]. One of the most difficult issues relative to providing care for J was to nurture her commitment to positive change, as considered a fundamental principle of transactional analysis based integrative therapy[19] as J demonstrated oppositional and defiant behaviours on a regular basis. J’s continual behaviour issues emphasized the need for working with her as a role model and mentor rather than being directly confrontational with her regarding her dysfunctional behaviour or inappropriate thinking. This emphasized keeping control of J’s life in her hands, considered by research as critical for survivors of sexual abuse[20]. Research demonstrates that combining therapy in the foster setting can reduce stress for the child and caregiver, increase the development of positive attachment relationships and corresponds with an increase in positive behavioural change[21]. While the interaction with J was a positive, albeit difficult one, upon reflection, however, one major change would have been to mutually establish J’s goals for growth into an integrated and intact adult. This would have helped establish a foundation and framework for working together. Bibliography Alfaro, Jose, Fein, Edith, Fine, Paul, Halfon, Neal, Irwin, Martin, Nickman, Steven, Pilowsky, Daniel K., Rosenfeld, Alvin A., Saletsky, Ronald, Simms, Mark D.