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Technological Change in the Industrial Revolution Essay

Table of Contents Introduction Production Labor Capital Solow Analysis Impact of Technology and Innovation on Lifestyle Conclusion References Introduction Technological change has been an important element of the global economy and much of it has been characterized by the development of microprocessors, microcomputers, and automated production processes. Technological revolution specifically started during the industrial revolution, through the transformation of the traditional workplaces, leading to the creation of new types of work environments. The industrial revolution can be best analyzed through dramatic changes that happened in nearly all aspects of the British society (Cipolla 1994, p. 2). A significant portion of these changes was however felt in aspects such as social structures/institutions, demographics and politics but the growth of factories was the primary manifestation of the technological revolution (Cipolla 1994, p. 2). As a result, population was skewed on development grounds, with major British cities experiencing population growths of nearly 100% while the number of towns grew even more (Cipolla 1994, p. 2). For example, the cities of England and Wales only had about 20 cities in the 1800s, but by the close of the century, there were about 200 cities registered in the countries (Cipolla 1994, p. 4). Just to sample the impact technological changes had on the general demographical patterns of England and Wales, a technological invention to improve the smelting of Coke saw the shift in population growth from the South and East to the West and the North (Cipolla 1994, p. 7). Technological change can also be termed as the root of the capitalistic system of operation we witness today because the people who were in a position to control the means of production, back in the day, got very wealthy while those who did not; became subjects of the rich. Also, from the improvement of the technological landscape, the total income per household more than doubled and consequently, the national Gross domestic product (GDP)increased by a significant margin, within a ten decade period (Cipolla 1994, p. 3). This shift in wealth also brought a change on the world’s political landscape because industrial capitalists took over positions previously held by agrarian capitalists (Cipolla 1994, p. 2). However, even amid the wealth creation (brought about by the technological change), there were numerous concerns of workers’ safety in the factories because, often, there was congestion in the factories and all manner of people including children and women were allowed to work with minimal or no safety measures taken to guarantee their safety in the workplaces. Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More At the same time, the workers were usually paid minimal wages which also brought about devastation to the people because most workers could only afford basic needs, thereby leading to the emergence of slums. This kind of “crazy” factory life became the topic of most literature writers then, because textile factories, mines and factories were marred with the worst industrial human working conditions probably seen in the history of mankind (Cipolla 1994, p. 12). However, later on, conditions improved with the passing of laws to protect workers and more especially, the women and children from adverse working conditions. This progression also saw the development of the first trade unions to advocate for the rights of workers. Comprehensively, the technological change in the world led to the development of more global industries and the establishment of Britain as the world’s superpower, for more than a century. This study seeks to establish how technological change affected the production function in the industrial revolution; with a special emphasis on aspects such as the overall production output, and the resultant influence on capital and labor employed. In addition, this study will categorize the impact of technological development both at the firm level and the macroeconomic level. Lastly, this analysis will be done through Solow analysis alongside the comprehension of firms’ economic behavior. Production Technological revolution greatly changed the way production was normally undertaken in the industrial period. Specifically, technology increased the efficiency of production, made the final goods cheaper, and reduced the time taken to make goods. In this regard, technological developments had an impact on the short-run curves of production, thereby increasing the units which could have otherwise been produced solely from human labor. With the increase in production units, variable costs (costs which vary with the level of production) are likely to reduce whereas fixed costs are bound to have better utility in the production process because they will be spread over the increased production units. Consequently, average fixed costs are also likely to reduce. The decreased average costs of production are often characterized by the displacement of human labor for machinery, but modern-day representation of the phenomenon is best illustrated through the displacement of human labor in the assembly of motor units by robots. Labor With regards to human labor input, the introduction of new technology in production processes segmented the otherwise uniform labor force into skilled and unskilled labor whereas the old economy relied on both unskilled and skilled labor; however, the introduction of new technology and innovative initiatives in production processes only required skilled labor; rendering unskilled laborers jobless. We will write a custom Essay on Technological Change in the Industrial Revolution specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Also, the technological development brought forth an argument against unskilled labor on the basis that skilled laborers could easily furnish both skilled and unskilled labor, thereby rendering unskilled laborers redundant (Musson 1969, p. 27). This, therefore, meant that skilled laborers could move between two types of employment while unskilled laborers were stagnant in their economic sectors. This model of analysis also exposes the income disparities brought about by the introduction of new technology because skilled laborers were paid highly while unskilled laborers got minimal pay. This also set forth the capitalistic movement in the society. The same industrial revolution example can also be compared to the mechanization of agricultural activities in the US during the 1920s period. Initially, unskilled workers were directly employed by the agricultural economy, but since the advent of mechanized farming, most unskilled workers were eliminated from farming and the resultant situation saw only a dismal 2% of the initial workers employed in the industry (Cipolla 1994, p. 278). Conventionally, during the industrial revolution, the shift of the economy into technological advancement saw the destabilization of families due to a loss of livelihoods. Comprehensively, it can be said that there was a sense of asymmetry in the substitution of both skilled and unskilled labor, brought about by technological change. However, the advent of new technology was highly favorable to skilled labor, and the market equilibrium shifted at the expense of unskilled laborers because unskilled laborers experienced a lower marginal product of labor when compared to their skilled counterparts. This development brought about the decline in social welfare even though production levels improved. However, Musson (1969) notes that “the Utility of both groups is equal; however, there is a critical threshold level productivity of the skilled workers in the new technology beyond which unskilled workers became redundant as the sector that was in favor of them was eliminated in favor of the sector using skilled workers, and it is socially optimal to eliminate the industry employing the unskilled laborers who will not be employed” (27). Capital With regards to the capital input needed to acquire new technology in the factories, it was quite cheap to run machineries than human labor. The financial costs were therefore relatively affordable and most industries preferred to engage in more technological explorations to improve efficiency in the industries. Initially, most of the industrial processes were done by hand and many people had to be employed before any meaningful industrial process commenced (Cipolla 1994, p. 278). However, with the advent of technological development, machinery became valuable capital assets for industrial process. Not sure if you can write a paper on Technological Change in the Industrial Revolution by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Many industries were therefore economically socialized to set up new plants to do most of the industrial processes and consequently, this led to the increase in demand for energy to power these machines. This was the sole reason why the use of coal, firewood and water increased during the industrial revolution period and all of them became a significant part of the capital input in the industry. However, this development should not be confused to mean that the cost of doing business increased with the advent of technology because the use of technology only signified a change in the production process; meaning there was little reliance on human labor and more reliance on machinery. When compared to the overall productivity of the industries, a relatively low cost of capital was needed to produce the same output of products when compared to situations where technology was not incorporated. This, therefore, means that instead of using human energy to produce goods, alternative energy sources like coal were used to power machines, to do the same type of work that humans did. This marked the significant shift in capital from human capital to asset (machinery) capital accumulation. Moreover, the operational costs associated with human labor and machinery was incomparable because the price of operating machinery was much lower than maintaining human labor. Technology, therefore, made human capital less economically viable as compared to machinery because human capital involved a lot of business risks like death in the workplace, injury, burnouts and costs such like wages and salaries. At the same time, machinery or plant assets only required maintenance or replacements, which meant lower prices of operation, increased efficiency and more output. The revolution into technology and industrialization at one time became very widespread that a revolt started among workers to protest against the general replacement of human capital for machines. This period saw the destruction of machines and several plants in industries as workers tried to phase out the new technological changes and restore back the traditional human capital reliance. However, this failed to work out and many industries were forced to seek the services of the police in keeping away angry workers. Many protestors were arrested, tried and hanged upon declaration of guilt. Such was the level of human capital displacement evident in the industrial revolution period. One of the most significant technological innovations of the industrial revolution happened in the cotton industry where the cotton gin was invented to speed up the process of cotton weaving (Hooker 1996, p. 5). This invention saw an otherwise small industry bust into a robust industry throughout much of the 18th century. Cotton was majorly produced in America and India, but a large chunk of the production process happened in Britain, and this saw the massive traffic of African salves to work in cotton factories (Hooker 1996, p. 5). The process of shredding out the cotton to make pieces of threads for clothing was also improved by technological innovation because the spinning jenny machine was used to hasten the process; from making one thread at a time to making multiple threads at the same time. This progression also reduced the number of laborers working in the cotton industry and quite frankly, subsequent employees in other industries suffered the same fate from the progress of technological innovation (Hooker 1996, p. 6). These technological innovations significantly reduced the prices of cotton and made their use very expansive. In the same regard, the quality of production improved because cotton was stronger than wool, thereby making the production of cotton shoot through the roofs. In fact, by the close of the 18th century a majority of the cotton production process was no longer being done in small scale industries because it moved to large factories, thereby changing the nature of the domestic economy; however, more significant effects of this transition were realized in the middle of the 19th century (Hooker 1996, p. 7). Even though the spinning engine made a lot of developments in the cotton industry, a significant portion of technological change in the industrial revolution happened with the development of the steam engine. From this technological development, essential sectors of the economy improved. The most notable development which happened alongside the cotton industry was in the steel industry. A quirk in English geography especially made the industry develop in leaps and bounds because England was endowed with vast deposits of coal and carbon-based minerals. The development of steam engine was facilitated by the fact that coal burned much better and longer than wood and since England had huge deposits of it, it becomes infinitely cheaper to run steam engines from it (Hooker 1996, p. 5). In the same regard, the English used this discovery to substitute the use of coal for iron smelting while other manufacturers were quickly warming up to the idea as well. However, extracting the coal from the ground was not such an easy task because miners had to dig deep into the ground and the more they dug, the more the mines filled up with water. At this point, the steam engine came in handy because it was used to pump water from the mines, but since it used only one piston, it was highly inefficient and used vast amounts of energy and so, no other use was appropriate except for the extraction of water (Hooker 1996, p. 5). However, with a few modifications to the structure of the steam engine, the machine could now be applied to many other industries of the time. In reality, the invention of the steam engine changed the entire landscape of the English manufacturing industry after its adoption replaced the use of water as the major source of power in the industry. This development saw the explosion of factory-based technology-driven manufacture and the inception of the age of absolutism in the English manufacturing industry (Hooker 1996, 19). Solow Analysis Since much of the increase in labor productivity during the industrial revolution was attributed to technological change and innovation, an alternative form of growth accounting was needed to measure economic growth. This entailed calculating the effective stock of capital, based on the assumption that technological development was to be sourced from new vintages associated with capital injection; for example, if technological change was 5% per annum and the elasticity of output-based in the capital injection would be 0.36; it meant that technological growth would be contributing approximately 1.8% per year (CGU 2010, p. 5). When analyzing the capital input in economic growth during the industrial revolution, Solow notes that the capital share in the production process is constant over the period of technological development (CGU 2010, p. 1). The increase in capital per person-hour is not directly proportional to labor productivity because capital productivity only accounts for about an eighth of the total productive labor (CGU 2010, p. 2). Solow observes that the difference is brought about by technological change. In this regard, Solow notes that the productivity of labor doubled over the industrial revolution period, but it did not only come about from a change in capital but also a change in technology. This development was specifically derived from Solow’s initiative to dissect the total Gross Domestic Product (GDP) growth in terms of the elements, which led to its increase during the industrial revolution. This, therefore, means that analysis into the production function encompassing all the major production elements has to be done. This is in contrast to the widely held belief by many economists across the globe that social development during the industrial period was preceded by economic growth (CGU 2010, p. 8). In close relation, the same economists also believe that labor productivity also led to the same observations; in oblivion of other macroeconomic factors which may have led to the same observation. According to Solow, these neglected economic factors included technological development, innovative initiatives and a change in the managerial system (CGU 2010, p. 1). From an empirical point of view, assuming the aggregate production function is Q = A (t) f (K, L); where Q is the aggregate output, A (t) is a function of the time taken for technological changes to take effect and f (K, L) is a function of capital and labor, the aggregate production function should be treated as its separate entity while the other constituents of the equation should also be treated differently but with regards to time (CGU 2010, p. 2). This development has made many economists differ on Solow’s approach; in an attempt to decompose growth with the use of more complex formulations like human capital, technological development and innovative practices; however, many other economists disagree about the fraction of economic growth which can be explained by the effect of change in technology overproduction (all parties, however, agree that this element is essential). Solow’s analysis, therefore, provides a simple concept in which output can be analyzed through the consideration of technological and innovative inputs (CGU, 2010, p. 7) Denison 1962 (cited in CGU 2010, p. 8) however brought another perspective to analyzing the impact of technological development on industrial revolution by identifying the fact that economies of scale were responsible for about half of the residual created by economic developments. The sources for the residual in his point of view came from either the economies of scale or the improvement in resource allocation; meaning that the trajectory of his work was more inclined towards downsizing the contribution of technological change in the industrial revolution. Impact of Technology and Innovation on Lifestyle Technological changes greatly improved the type of human lifestyle characteristic of the industrial revolution and indeed even today. In the first place, technological changes brought with it the triumph of industrial economists who greatly improved the prospects of employment for the general population through the development of new mills and factories. The living conditions also changed in the same respect because industrialists lived in splendor while lower-level citizens lived in small houses, in cramped up streets or in the emerging slums, created by the population explosion in the cities. This development led to increased awareness of the importance of safety regulations especially in highly dense areas because, before laws to improve human living conditions were implemented, the slums used to be characterized by open sewers, poor drainage and poor sewage facilities, among other deplorable social conditions. Chronic diseases especially affected those living in cramped up places while hunger and malnutrition greatly hit those who were not in a position to afford basic needs. This situation came to a point where diseases such as cholera, smallpox typhoid and the likes were common because water sources were contaminated and there were not enough sanitation services to curb the pandemics. This situation became quite unfortunate especially for women and children because most of them died even before they reached the age of 25; from chest diseases and other diseases brought about by the poor working conditions in the factories they worked in. When the industrial revolution spread from Britain and England into other countries, the life expectancy of the general population was very low; with countries such as France recording a life expectancy of 35 years; slightly above England’s but America had a life expectancy age of between 45 -50 (Musson 1969, p. 78). However, the population was not only characterized by two extremes because, there was an existent emerging middle-class society which was largely dominated by lawyers, doctors and such like professionals. This middle-income population was majorly created by the emergence of the working class population who had a relatively good relationship with the factors of production as compared to low-income workers. The increase in technology and innovation also rendered many people unemployed; especially those who did not have the skills to compete with skilled workers, because employment was more confined to people who could operate machines, as opposed to people who could do the work machines did. In fact, the machines could do the same amount of work hundreds of workers combined together would. Even amid all the negative effects of technological development and industrial revolution on human lifestyle, there was an improved sense of literacy among the population, especially with the development of paper mills, which also led to the production of more resource materials like books, newspapers and the likes. Political participation of the general population also consequently increased. The deplorable living conditions exhibited at the start of the industrial revolution were also improved and the life expectancy of children below the age of five, dramatically increased. For instance, London reduced child mortality rates by more than half (Musson 1969, p. 78). The standards of living also greatly improved with the advent of technological development; in that, laws were passed to check humanitarian hazards in the sprawling slums and so diseases were checked and treated; sewage systems were improved and sanitation services availed. Also, as mentioned earlier, the factory working conditions were improved to match the new order. The growth of modern cities was also facilitated by the technological growth, evident in the industrial revolution because many people migrated from rural areas to live in cities while searching for employment openings. This led to massive urbanization which created a huge shift in the number of people living in cities and rural areas since it was estimated that only about 3% of people lived in rural areas in 1800 but by the start of the 21st century, more than 50% of the population lived in urban centers (Musson 1969, p. 78). Comparatively, Manchester, which only had a small population of close to ten thousand people by the year 1717 dramatically saw an increase in population to record 2.3 million people by the year 1911. Conclusion During the industrial revolution, technology and innovative practices had a profound impact on the economic landscape of the United Kingdom and subsequently other countries across the globe. This period still stands as a major hallmark in human history and it was characterized by a technological touch in almost every basic level of human life. Some of the significant socioeconomic developments could be evidenced through the tremendous increase in income and population; specifically major industrial cities experienced population explosions, but the overall household incomes of those engaged in industrial sectors increased ten-fold. Technological development also saw the immense shift in economic makeup from an agrarian-based economy to an industrial-based economy characterized by machine-based manufacturing industries. Initially, the textile industry was the first to experience such changes, then the iron smelting industries followed, and later huge deposits of coal started to be extracted to power the machines. The level of output production in most industrial processes was also incomparable to any other period in human history because as Solow notes, labor production increased two-fold, with a significant percentage of the production attributed to technological development and capital investments. These developments had a significant impact on the society because not only did the population increase as well as the level of income, technological developments segregated the once heterogeneous human labor into skilled and unskilled; leading to the phenomenal migration of people from rural to urban settlements and the emergence of landmark cities with a significant sprawl of urban slums and widespread joblessness (because of the displacement of human labor for machines). Nonetheless, technology brought about efficiency in production because human labor which was prone to human errors was avoided and the speed of operation improved, the start of the capitalistic system in the society also took root. Collectively, the technological change marked the change in production function. References CGU. (2010) Technological Change and the Aggregate Production Function. Web. Cipolla, C. (1994) Before the Industrial Revolution: European Society and Economy, 1000-1700. New York: Norton. Hooker, R. (1996) The European Enlightment. Web. Musson, A. (1969) Science and Technology in the Industrial Revolution. Manchester: Manchester University Press ND.
Loops and Case Logic.

You own a consulting firm and a client has engaged you to write a console program. In general, this program must prompt the user for ten numbers, ranging between 10 and 100. The program compares the number entered to the previous number. In the event that it is a duplicate number, the user will be prompted to enter a different number. Display the number to the screen as long as it is not a duplicate.For this assignment, complete the following:Write a console application that requests 10 numbers from the user as individual inputs. Each number must be between 10 and 100, inclusive. Compare each new number to the last one entered to determine if it is a duplicate. If it is, ask the user for a different number. Output each number to the screen once you have determined that all conditions are met. Submit your zipped Visual Studio project. In addition, prepare and submit a Word document that discusses any challenges you encountered including compilation errors, logic errors, or runtime errors that you had to resolve. The Word document should include your pseudocode and screenshots illustrating the successful execution of your program.
Loops and Case Logic

Computer Science homework help. Directions: ,In Module 9, you studied how to develop a last day lesson plan. Below you will find an empty last day lesson plan chart, ready for your own ideas.,In Module 9, you studied how to develop a last day lesson plan,Module 9: Portfolio Assignment,Directions: ,In Module 9, you studied how to develop a last day lesson plan. Below you will find an empty last day lesson plan chart, ready for your own ideas. Plan a sample last day lesson appropriate for a mid-level class using the chart below, your activities book, and your own ideas. When including activities which do not appear in our activities book, make sure to clearly describe them in your lesson plan. This includes detailing what the teacher will do during the activity and what the students will do. Save this document until the end of the course and upload it as part of your portfolio. All documents must be submitted as Microsoft Word files., ,Last Day Lesson Plan for a Mid-Level Class, ,Set your goal: ,The students will be able to __________, by the end of this ,lesson., ,Stage,Time,Activities,**School Policies & Procedures**, , , , , , , , , , ,Feedback, , , , , , , , , , , ,Review Activities, , , , , , , , , , ,Class Bonding Activities, , , , , , , , , , , , ,More details;,Use These Activities to Wind Up Learning as the School Year Winds Down,The last few days of the school year are upon you, and you’re at a loss for what to do. Do you emphasize fun or attempt to squeeze in some last-minute learning? Education World offers suggestions for keeping kids focused during the last hours of the school year. ,As days grow warmer and summer beckons, quite often the kids are tired and restless. What’s a teacher to do?,A couple of years ago, a teacher posted the following idea to an email list I subscribed to. I admired that teacher, whose project for the last days of school was not only fun but also challenged students to use what they had learned in the previous months.,Computer Science homework help

Marx

Marx. Paper details   Explain Marx and Engel’s conception of the relationship between the proletariat and bourgeoisie. What were the characteristics of the members of each group? Why and how do the two groups struggle? What are the problems with capitalism?Marx

Google’s Driverless Cars and Renewable Energy Essay

online assignment help Table of Contents The Google Driverless Cars Google Renewable Energy Google Home Automation Google Space Elevators Google New Drugs and Treatments References The Google Driverless Cars Self-driven cars are one of the technologies being developed by Google. The chauffeur software powers the robotic vehicles and is capable of detecting anything a human driver can see. The driverless cars are equipped with a light radar system, 64-beam laser, and high-definition inch-precision map as well as other detection equipment. The 64-beam laser is the range finder, which is placed at the top of the vehicle. Besides, the laser enables the robotic vehicle to create a three-dimensional map of its immediate environment. The three-dimensional maps are combined with the world’s high-resolution maps to produce diverse characteristics of data models that allow the car to drive automatically (Fisher, 2013). Besides the on-board systems, the driverless cars are also systematically automated in certain remote computer houses. According to Google, cars are not just purposely for transportation but can also be used for other purposes (Fisher, 2013). Driverless cars technology would revolutionize the manner in which people commute around the globe. Driverless car technology would find various applications ranging from providing the solutions to physical inabilities to commercials. Most importantly, blind people would easily commute using driverless cars. Finding something that the blind can comfortably utilize without any help is one of the greatest solutions the driverless cars can offer (Fisher, 2013). Besides, driverless cars can be utilized for advertisements as well as meeting various business hauling needs. While various individual and business applications can find the driverless cars useful, the firm is still not yet ready to roll out the technology for commercial purposes. In other words, the driverless cars will not be utilized in the near future (Fisher, 2013). However, technology can still be used for various purposes. In fact, Google is planning to come up with a firm that would market the technology to the producers of automobiles. The technology behind driverless cars is currently becoming popular with automobile manufacturers (Fisher, 2013). Some of the firms are testing the technology with the application of low-powered green energy. Essentially, the technology behind driverless cars has the potential for the future. However, the applicability of the driverless cars on the common roads has been questioned. In fact, some of the critics argue that operating driverless cars pose great risks to other road users (Fisher, 2013). Besides, the concerns that the technology is ahead of road regulation in most of the jurisdictions have been raised. While the technology is noble, most states and countries have not adjusted the road regulations to allow the vehicles to be operated (Fisher, 2013). Moreover, according to policymakers and regulators, new laws need to be enacted in order to make the technology a reality. With fast advancing technology and changes in the transport sector, there is a need to change some of the regulations that were used as far as the age of horse-driven carriages (Fisher, 2013). The violations of the road regulations are not the only issue with the driverless car technology. The majority still do not trust the technology, and most fears pronounced accidents in case the technological error (Fisher, 2013). Since cars are expected to carry those who cannot drive, there are increased chances of causing accidents. While the issues have been raised from various fronts, Google has defended the technology as being the safest inroads. According to the firm, safety is one of the most considered factors while developing technology. Besides, studies indicate that the accidents involving chauffeur technology used in driverless cars are extremely limited compared with accidents caused by human drivers (Fisher, 2013). Google Renewable Energy Google’s focus on renewable energy is based on the need for the production and utilization of green energy (Google, 2014). Google has put in place various projects aimed at attaining the goal of producing green energy. In fact, all projects of Google emphasize on saving energy. Developing the technologies aimed at extracting renewable and clean energy has been the major objective of the firm (Google, 2014). Through the utilization of Google.org platform, the firm has been involved in the development of solar, wind, and geothermal technologies aimed at tapping the renewable and clean energy. The Google.org has been pursuing projects that give attention to the development of solar-powered turbines that would produce enough electricity to power industries and meet the needs of firms and institutions that require large quantities of energy. Related to solar turbines, the firm is involved in the development of low-cost heliostats that concentrates solar energy (Google, 2014). The heliostats are large concave mirrors that track the sun and converges the sun’s rays to produce solar energy. The firm is also involved in various projects that develop technologies used in mapping the solar as well as the geothermal sources of energy around the globe. The major aim of the projects is to come up with new technologies that would enable firms and industries to generate clean and renewable energy (Google, 2014). Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Google aims to eliminate the power generated through the burning of coal or other carbon fuels. The power generated from fossil fuels accounts for over ninety percent of the total world energy. The burning of the fuel has also caused climate-related problems resulting from the greenhouse effects of the hydrocarbons being emitted into the atmosphere (Google, 2014). The eliminations of the problems associated with the current energy generation techniques are one of the ways through which Google’s renewable energy technologies are useful to humankind (Google, 2014). The renewable energy techniques developed by Google would be beneficial to all people across the globe. Besides the huge contribution to the reduction of global warming, the renewable and clean energy would be affordable to the majority of consumers (Google, 2014). In fact, the firm aims to develop ways through individual homes that can easily tap solar energy and economically utilize it to meet its energy needs. Google believes that the efficient tapping and application of solar energy can be achieved through developing energy-saving home appliances, solar cars, and other forms of equipment that can function without the use of powered energy (Google, 2014). The development of green and renewable energy technologies is within the broader goal of the firm geared towards reducing climate change (Google, 2014). In fact, the goal has seen the firm developing various programs that protect businesses against the adverse effects of climate change. Using the Google Venture platform, the firm has collaborated with various firms to develop technologies geared towards reducing global warming and sponsoring businesses to come up with technologies that are applicable to their own environments (Google, 2014). Through the initiatives, Google perceives renewable energy as a business opportunity apart from the environmental benefits. The continuous investments in the development of green energy are one way of securing the future for everyone. Google Home Automation Google has been involved in the development of new technologies that lead to the advancements of home automation (Khedekar, 2014). Home automation technologies vary from refrigerators that senses when the milk is running out and automatically orders for more to kettles that robotically brew coffee. The firm has been involved in these developments through its [email protected] platform. Through the platform, the firm has developed the technologies that connect the light bulbs as well as the coffee pots to the android phones. However, the firm is moving beyond home applications. The firm is currently involved in the development of much broader gargets using the internet through the Internet of Things platform (Khedekar, 2014). Currently, the firm is pursuing an open accessory development kit. The firm is collaborating with various accessory manufacturing firms to develop appliances that can easily be connected to the internet through android technology. In fact, Google is calling upon the accessory manufacturers to connect anything from small frills to larger appliances. In the programs, the firm is developing new technologies that would ensure the connection of anything from small gadgets to large machines (Khedekar, 2014). The firm’s home automation technologies are involved not only the development of home appliances but also energy-saving gadgets and smart home thermostats. The firm is currently involved in the development of home automation security. In fact, the firm is planning to develop Dropcam, a connected camera start-up that utilizes cloud services. The application of the cloud-connected security camera allows the users to record everything at all places using compatible devices (Khedekar, 2014). The firm is actually advancing into home security and automation. Using the Dropcam, the firm is putting together actions and activities into particular movements, including notifications for special alerts. The firm believes that home automation remains critical in saving valuable resources that can be utilized somewhere for other benefits. The NEST program that involves the development of smart home thermostat is one of the proven cases (Khedekar, 2014). The program has developed a device that saves quite an amount of energy while at the same time utilizing green energy that is critical in conserving the environment and reduction of carbon emissions. With home automation programs, Google is focusing on saving and the utilization of green energy. The automation of home appliances would also save people time, which can be utilized in other income-generating activities. Besides, the automation of home devices would also enhance security (Khedekar, 2014). The development of home toolkits that are connected to gargets such as iPhones and iPads and allow users to have control over their security cameras, switches, lights, home, and garage-doors is critical in enhancing security. We will write a custom Essay on Google’s Driverless Cars and Renewable Energy specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Making life easier and better is the major theme behind developing new gadgets that enhance home automation (Khedekar, 2014). Google believes that saving on valuable resources, such as time, would make life easier and better. Besides, the firm believes in the utilization of green energy as well as savings on the use of energy as the main component of making planet earth a better place to live. Above all, through the home automation, the firm wants to be part of the firms that make devices that secure, make easier, and better the life of humankind. Google Space Elevators Google is currently involved in the development of space technologies ranging from space elevators to techniques that would land man into other planets. Google is currently investing in technologies that would end up with an infrastructure that leaves the earth’s atmosphere into space. In fact, Google’s space elevators would enable direct access to space without the utilization of rockets (Miller

ISCC 499 AMU Industrial Control System ENVT & Active Cyber Defense Research Paper

ISCC 499 AMU Industrial Control System ENVT & Active Cyber Defense Research Paper.

(CO-7: Develop a policy to
implement functions that encompass putting programs, processes, or
policies into action within an organization). For this week’s
assignment instructions, please see below:Assignment Instruction:
You are tasked as the Cyber Security Director at your new organization
to develop a policy to implement functions that encompass putting
programs, processes, or policies into action within an organization REQUIREMENTS:4 – 6 Pages in length in APA format (not including a cover page and reference section)Cover PageBackground SectionAnalysis of current research on the subject matterRecommendationsReference SectionMISCELLANEOUS:Use current and real-world data to make your points, not just the textbook Your
report may focus only on the topic of your choosing – imagine yourself
working on one aspect of the report while team members complete the
other areas following the same structure.
ISCC 499 AMU Industrial Control System ENVT & Active Cyber Defense Research Paper

Concord University Programming & Basic Arithmetic Functions Lab Report

Concord University Programming & Basic Arithmetic Functions Lab Report.

I’m working on a python multi-part question and need a sample draft to help me learn.

directions provided!# these are the basic arithmetic functions you will be using for this challenge

# function: add
# input: two integers/floats
# processing: adds the two supplied values
# output: returns the sum (integer/float)
def add(a,b):
return a+b

# function: sub
# input: two integers/floats
# processing: subtracts the two supplied values
# output: returns the difference (integer/float)
def sub(a,b):
return a-b

# function: mult
# input: two integers/floats
# processing: multiplies the two supplied values
# output: returns the product (integer/float)
def mult(a,b):
return a*b

# function: sqrt
# input: one integer/float
# processing: computes the square root of the supplied value
# output: returns the square root (float)
def sqrt(a):
return a**0.5

# function: square
# input: one integer/float
# processing: raises the supplied integer/float to the 2nd power
# output: returns the square (integer/float)
def square(a):
return a**2

# these are the two points you will be using

# point 1
x1 = 0
y1 = 0

# point 2
x2 = 100
y2 = 100

# compute the distance between the two points above using the distance formula.
# you may ONLY use the functions above to do this – no math operators are allowed!
# your calculation must also be done on a single line.
distance = ______________________

print (distance) # answer should be 141.4213562373095

distance formula:

Part 2
Write two functions called <strong>’maximum'</strong> and <strong>’minimum'</strong> – these function should accept two arguments and <strong>return</strong> the larger/smaller of the two supplied values. For the purpose of this program you can always assume that the arguments being supplied are numeric.. Your program should work perfectly with the following code:a = 5
b = 10
c = 15
d = 20

ans1 = maximum(a,b)
ans2 = maximum(a,c)
ans3 = maximum(a,d)
print (ans1,ans2,ans3) # 10 15 20

ans4 = minimum(d,c)
ans5 = minimum(d,b)
ans6 = minimum(d,a)
print (ans4,ans5,ans6) # 15 10 5

ans7 = maximum( maximum(a,b), maximum(c,d) )
print (“The biggest is:”, ans7)Challenge 3# write a function called ‘<strong>simple_sort_version1′</strong> that accepts two values. you can assume
# that your two values will always be the same data type (all ints, all floats or all strings).
# sort these two values in ascending order and <strong>return</strong> them in that order.
# you may use any function that you’ve written so far in this assignment if you’d like to (maximum, minimum, etc)

# your function should work perfectly with the following lines of code
a,b = simple_sort_version1(10,20)
print (a,b) # 10 20

a,b = simple_sort_version1(20,10)
print (a,b) # 10 20

a,b = simple_sort_version1(30,30)
print (a,b) # 30 30Challenge 4# next, write a new function called ‘<strong>simple_sort_version2</strong>’ that accepts three values. you can assume
# that your three values will always be the same data type (all ints, all floats or all strings).
# sort these values in ascending order and <strong>return</strong> them.
# you may use any function that you’ve written so far in this assignment if you’d like to (simple_sort_version1, maximum, minimum, etc)

# your function should work perfectly with the following lines of code
a,b,c = simple_sort_version2(10,20,30)
print (a,b,c) # 10 20 30

a,b,c = simple_sort_version2(10,30,20)
print (a,b,c) # 10 20 30

a,b,c = simple_sort_version2(30,20,10)
print (a,b,c) # 10 20 30

a,b,c = simple_sort_version2(30,20,20)
print (a,b,c) # 20 20 30

Part 2aFor this step you are given three functions – go ahead and copy these functions into a new file called “digitalclock.py”:# function: horizontal_line
# input: a width value (integer) and a single character (string)
# processing: generates a single horizontal line of the desired size
# output: returns the generated pattern (string)
def horizontal_line(width,char):
return width*char + “n”

# function: vertical_line
# input: a shift value and a height value (both integers) and a single character (string)
# processing: generates a single vertical line of the desired height. the line is
# offset from the left side of the screen using the shift value
# output: returns the generated pattern (string)
def vertical_line(shift,height,char):
pattern = “”
for i in range(height):
pattern += shift*” ” + char + “n”
return pattern

# function: two_vertical_lines
# input: a width value and a height value (both integers) and a single character (string)
# processing: generates two vertical lines. the first line is along the left side of
# the screen. the second line is offset using the “width” value supplied
# output: returns the generated pattern (string)
def two_vertical_lines(width,height,char):
pattern = “”
for i in range(height):
pattern += char + ” “*(width-2) + char + “n”
return patternNext, create a file called ‘LastName_FirstName_Assign6_part2.py’ – make sure this file is in the same folder as your newly created ‘digitalclock.py’ file. Import your module then run the following code – you should be able to see a series of graphical patterns that match the output below:import digitalclock

print (“Horizontal line, width = 5:”)
temp = digitalclock.horizontal_line(5, ‘*’)
print (temp)
print ()

print (“Horizontal line, width = 10:”)
temp = digitalclock.horizontal_line(10, ‘+’)
print (temp)
print ()

print (“Horizontal line, width = 15:”)
temp = digitalclock.horizontal_line(15, ‘z’)
print (temp)
print ()

print (“Vertical Line, shift=0; height=3:”)
temp = digitalclock.vertical_line(0, 3, ‘!’)
print (temp)
print ()

print (“Vertical Line, shift=3; height=3:”)
temp = digitalclock.vertical_line(3, 3, ‘&’)
print (temp)
print ()

print (“Vertical Line, shift=6; height=5:”)
temp = digitalclock.vertical_line(6, 5, ‘$’)
print (temp)
print ()

print (“Two Vertical Lines, width=3; height=3:”)
temp = digitalclock.two_vertical_lines(3, 3, ‘^’)
print (temp)
print ()

print (“Two Vertical Lines, width=4; height=5:”)
temp = digitalclock.two_vertical_lines(4, 5, ‘@’)

print (temp)
print ()

print (“Two Vertical Lines, width=5; height=2:”)
temp = digitalclock.two_vertical_lines(5, 2, ‘#’)
print (temp)
print ()Expected Output:Horizontal line, width = 5:
*****

Horizontal line, width = 10:
++++++++++

Horizontal line, width = 15:
zzzzzzzzzzzzzzz

Vertical Line, shift=0; height=3:
!
!
!
Vertical Line, shift=3; height=3:
&
&
&
Vertical Line, shift=6; height=5:
$
$
$
$
$
Two Vertical Lines, width=3; height=3:
^ ^
^ ^
^ ^
Two Vertical Lines, width=4; height=5:
@ @
@ @
@ @
@ @
@ @
Two Vertical Lines, width=5; height=2:
# #
# #

Part 2b
As you can see, you have three “primitive” functions for generating simple shapes (horizontal lines, vertical lines and parallel vertical lines). Your next task is to write 10 new functions that generate the digits 0-9 using your three line functions. These functions should be stored in your ‘digitalclock.py’ module. The goal here is to render the digits as they would appear on a digital display:
Each function should accept a “width” argument to control how wide the number should be as well as a single character. You can assume numbers will always be printed with a height of 5. For example, here is the function for the number 1:
# function: number_1
# input: a width value (integer) and a single character (string)
# processing: generates the number 1 as it would appear on a digital display
# using the supplied width value
# output: returns the generated pattern (string)
def number_1(width, character):
pattern = vertical_line(width-1, 5, character)
return patternAnd here’s a sample program that calls the function a few times (test this in your main program, not in your module):
print (“Number 1, width=5: “)
temp = digitalclock.number_1(5, ‘*’)
print(temp)
print()

print (“Number 1, width=10: “)
temp = digitalclock.number_1(10, ‘*’)
print(temp)
print()

print (“Number 1, width=2: “)
temp = digitalclock.number_1(2, ‘*’)
print(temp)
print()And here’s the expected output:
Number 1, width=5:
*
*
*
*
*

Number 1, width=10:
*
*
*
*
*

Number 1, width=2:
*
*
*
*
*

Here’s a sample program that prints all of the numbers (0-9).
temp = digitalclock.number_0(5, ‘*’)
print(temp)
print()

temp = digitalclock.number_1(5, ‘*’)
print(temp)
print()

temp = digitalclock.number_2(5, ‘*’)
print(temp)
print()

temp = digitalclock.number_3(5, ‘*’)
print(temp)
print()

temp = digitalclock.number_4(5, ‘*’)
print(temp)
print()

temp = digitalclock.number_5(5, ‘*’)
print(temp)
print()

temp = digitalclock.number_6(5, ‘*’)
print(temp)
print()

temp = digitalclock.number_7(5, ‘*’)
print(temp)
print()

temp = digitalclock.number_8(5, ‘*’)
print(temp)
print()

temp = digitalclock.number_9(5, ‘*’)
print(temp)
print()And here’s the expected output:
*****
* *
* *
* *
*****
*
*
*
*
*
*****
*
*****
*
*****
*****
*
*****
*
*****
* *
* *
*****
*
*
*****
*
*****
*
*****
*****
*
*****
* *
*****
*****
*
*
*
*
*****
* *
*****
* *
*****
*****
* *
*****
*
*

Part 2c
Write a function called ‘print_number’ that prints out any desired number to the screen. This function should also be placed in your ‘digitalclock.py’ module. Here’s the IPO for this function:
# function: print_number
# input: a number to print (integer), a width value (integer) and a single character (string)
# processing: prints the desired number to the screen using the supplied width value
# output: does not return anythingAnd here’s some sample code that you can use to test your function:
digitalclock.print_number(0, 5, ‘*’)
digitalclock.print_number(1, 6, ‘*’)
digitalclock.print_number(2, 7, ‘*’)
digitalclock.print_number(3, 8, ‘*’)
digitalclock.print_number(4, 9, ‘*’)
digitalclock.print_number(5, 10, ‘*’)
digitalclock.print_number(6, 11, ‘*’)
digitalclock.print_number(7, 12, ‘*’)
digitalclock.print_number(8, 13, ‘*’)
digitalclock.print_number(9, 14, ‘*’)And here’s the expected output:
*****
* *
* *
* *
*****

*
*
*
*
*

*******
*
*******
*
*******

********
*
********
*
********

* *
* *
*********
*
*

**********
*
**********
*
**********

***********
*
***********
* *
***********

************
*
*
*
*

*************
* *
*************
* *
*************

**************
* *
**************
*
*
Part 2d
Write two new functions that simulate the addition and subtraction operators. Each of these functions should accept a width value as an argument (integer) and a single character (string) — the function should then return the generated pattern. You can assume the operators will always be 5 units high. Again, these functions should be placed in your ‘digitalclock.py’ module. Here’s some sample code:
temp = digitalclock.plus(5, ‘*’)
print(temp)
print()

temp = digitalclock.minus(5, ‘*’)
print(temp)Which will generate …
*
*
*****
*
*
*****
Note that your “plus” sign may look odd if it is rendered using an even size value – for example:
# rendered using a width of 6
*
*
******
*
*
To fix this you should double up the vertical line in the center for even sizes, like this:
# rendered using a width of 6
**
**
******
**
**

Part 2e
Write a function called “check_answer” which will determine if a given addition or subtraction problem was solved correctly. This function should be inside of your “digitalclock.py” module. Here’s the IPO notation for the function:
# function: check_answer
# input: two numbers (number1 & number2, both integers); an answer (an integer)
# and an operator (+ or -, expressed as a String)
# processing: determines if the supplied expression is correct. for example, if the operator
# is “+”, number1 = 1, number2 = 2 and answer = 3 then the expression is correct
# (1 + 2 = 3).
# output: returns True if the expression is correct, False if it is not correct
Here’s a sample program that you can use to test your function:
answer1 = digitalclock.check_answer(1, 2, 3, “+”)
print (answer1)
answer2 = digitalclock.check_answer(1, 2, -1, “-“)
print (answer2)
answer3 = digitalclock.check_answer(9, 5, 3, “+”)
print (answer3)
answer4 = digitalclock.check_answer(8, 2, 4, “-“)
print (answer4)And here’s the expected output:
True
True
False
FalsePart 2f
Finally, put everything together and write a program that lets the user practice a series of random addition and subtraction problems. Begin by asking the user for a number of problems (only accept positive values) and a size for their numbers (only accept numbers between 5 and 10). Also prompt them for a single character to be used to generate their patterns – only accept single character strings (i.e. ‘a’ is OK, but ‘apple’ is not). The generate a series of random addition and subtraction problems – display the numbers to the user with your digital display functions. Then prompt the user for an answer and check the answer using your check_answer function. Your program should also keep track of how many correct questions the user answered during their game. Here’s a sample running of the program:
How many problems would you like to attempt? -5
Invalid number, try again

How many problems would you like to attempt? 5
How wide do you want your digits to be? 5-10: 3
Invalid width, try again

How wide do you want your digits to be? 5-10: 5

What character would you like to use? foo
String too long, try again
What character would you like to use? *

Here we go!

What is …..

*****
*
*****
*
*****

*
*
*****
*
*

*
*
*
*
*

= 4
Correct!

What is …..

*****
*
*****
*
*****
*****
*****
*
*
*
*

= -5
Correct!

What is …..

*
*
*
*
*
*****
*****
*
*****
*
*****

= 0
Sorry, that’s not correct.

What is …..

*****
*
*****
*
*****

*
*
*****
*
*

*
*
*
*
*

= 3
Correct!

What is …..

*****
*
*****
*
*****

*
*
*****
*
*

*****
*
*****
*
*****

= 4
Correct!

You got 4 out of 5 correct!
Part 3: Extra Credit
You can add any of the following features to your game for extra credit. These are optional features and are not required to receive full credit on the assignment!:
Add multiplication problems to the game. You will have to update your check_answer function as well as add a new operator function to display the multiplication sign. Note that the visual representation of your multiplication sign does not need to be “perfect” – try and come up with a function that somewhat looks like a “X” or “*” character.
Add division problems to the game. You will have to update your check_answer function as well as add a new operator function to display the division sign. For division problems you need to ensure that the result of the problem you present is a whole number. For example, the following would be valid division problems for this game:2 / 2 = 1
4 / 2 = 2
9 / 3 = 3However, the following would NOT be valid since the answers are not whole numbers:5 / 2 = 2.5
9 / 8 = 1.125
8 / 3 = 2.6666666 (repeating)Ensure that the division problems you supply to your players always yield a whole number result. You may need to generate a few different numbers in order to do this (hint: while loop!).
Add in a “drill” mode to your game. If this mode is activated by the user they will be re-prompted to solve a problem that they got incorrect. Points are turned off in “drill” mode since the user can attempt a problem multiple times. Here’s an example:How many problems would you like to attempt? 2
How wide do you want your digits to be? 5-10: 5
Would you like to activate ‘drill’ mode? yes or no: yes

What is …..

*****
* *
* *
* *
*****

*
*
*****
*
*

*****
*
*****
*
*****

= 1
Sorry, that’s not correct.
= 2
Sorry, that’s not correct.
= 3
Correct!

What is …..

*****
* *
*****
* *
*****

*
*
*****
*
*

*****
*
*****
*
*****

= 13
Correct!

Thanks for playing!
Keep track of statistics by problem type. For example, at the end of your program you could display a display like the following that summarizes the performance of the player:Total addition problems presented: 5
Correct addition problems: 4 (80.0%)

Total subtraction problems presented: 4
Correct subtraction problems: 3 (75.0%)

No multiplication problems presented

Total division problems presented: 1
Correct division problems: 0 (0.0%)If you implemented “drill” mode you should modify your statistics display to include information about how many “extra” attempts it took so solve those problems. For example:Total addition problems presented: 5
# of extra attempts needed: 0 (perfect!)

Total subtraction problems presented: 4
# of extra attempts needed: 1

No multiplication problems presented

Total division problems presented: 1
# of extra attempts needed: 5
Concord University Programming & Basic Arithmetic Functions Lab Report