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Team Work Essay Sample essay help us Medicine and Health essay help

Teamwork is indispensable to the smooth running of many undertakings. administrations and companies. Much research has been conducted into the effectivity of squads and their parts to organizational success.

This essay considers one peculiar squad dwelling of two pupil nurses ( members A and B ) and 4 pupil radiographers ( members C. D. E. and F ) . all 3rd twelvemonth degree-level. whose undertaking was to bring forth a posting for appraisal over a one hebdomad period.

Theory and theoretical accounts of teamwork will be used to discourse all facets of this squad including squad functions. communicating. struggle and decision-making. Conclusions will so be drawn as to how the squad could hold been more effectual in their completion of the undertaking.

Throughout. more general considerations of squads and teamwork in administrations will be made where appropriate. Interprofessionalism will besides be considered.

This essay will utilize the footings squad and group interchangeably with the same significance.


The information for this essay has been gathered by the writer through personal experience. As the writer was portion of the squad concerned this is non a genuinely experimental survey. It does. nevertheless. let the writer to hold more penetration into the personal positions and feelings of the squad members.

A brooding journal was kept by the writer during this hebdomad entering all treatments. statements and sentiments to guarantee lucidity when remembering these. Many other members of the squad besides discussed their positions with the writer.

A figure of beginnings have been consulted for the background information and theory related to teamwork. Belbin’s self-perception stock list trial has been identified as a utile tool for measuring members of a squad and the balance of personalities and functions within. Each squad member completed this trial and the consequences are considered in item and with mention to other theories.


1 What are squads?

A squad is defined as:
A group of people who make different parts towards the accomplishment of a common end. ( Pritchard & A ; Pritchard. 1994. p. 13 ) .

The indispensable features of a squad have been described by Gilmore et Al ( in Pritchard & A ; Pritchard. 1994 ) as: The members of a squad portion a common intent which brings them together and steer their actions. Each member of the squad has a clear apprehension of his or her ain maps. and recognises common involvements. The squad works by pooling cognition. accomplishments and resources and all members portion duty for the result. The effectivity of a squad is related to its capableness to transport out its work and to pull off itself as an independent group of people.

2 Types of Teams

Groups can be defined as:
Formal: formed for a specific intent with regulations. ordinances and norms. Informal: where the intent is less precise.
Psychological: rank is dependent on people interacting with each other. ( Pettinger. 2000. p. 136 ) . The squad discussed in this essay is clearly a formal group as it was constructed by the class leaders and had a clear end to accomplish ( bring forthing a posting ) .

3 Team Size

There is a balance to be attained between squad size. part and engagement. The larger a group is. the more likely it is to divide into subgroups. nevertheless. a big group can pull on more cognition and expertness.

Steiner ( in Millward and Jeffries. 2001 ) suggested that as group size additions single member attempt declines as the less each member feels responsible for the result.

In this squad there were 6 members which proved ideal for the production of the posting as activities could easy be divided between the squad leting everyone an equal part. The squad did. nevertheless. divide into two subgroups of pupil nurses and pupil radiographers at the beginning of the hebdomad. It is non felt that this was due to the size of the squad but more likely personality and professional differences.

4 Why usage teamwork?

Teamwork is critical to wellness and societal attention as accomplishments and cognition can be used more efficaciously to supply the best patient result ( Newson. 2006 ) .

Research has shown that teamwork additions efficiency ( Thylefors et al. 2005 in Newson. 2006 ) . A squad can pool cognition and accomplishments and. if good motivated. make energy increasing a team’s efficiency beyond that of the persons.

Modern positions on teamwork besides consider the satisfaction of the work force by going more independent and cut downing hierarchal constructions ( Ovretveit et al. 1997 ) .

5 Team Development

The most normally used theoretical account to discourse squad development is Tuckman’s ( 1965 ) ( in Huczynski & A ; Buchanan. 2001 ) forming. ramping. norming and executing theoretical account. However. the squad concerned more closely followed the Cog’s laddermodel ( see appendix 1. for full description ) ( Walton. 1984 ) . 1. Polite phase ( twenty-four hours 1 )

The initial debuts of the squad members took topographic point during a java interruption. nevertheless. the undertaking was non clearly discussed at this phase and so functions were non yet defined. The members worked at a distance from each other to finish a hoarded wealth Hunt undertaking. 2. Why are we here? ( twenty-four hours 2 )

The ends were established and two subgroups ( pupil nurses. A and B and pupil radiographers. C. D. E and F ) emerged. 3. Command for power ( twenty-four hours 2/3 )
Conflict and competition within the group prevailed. At this phase two members of the group. A and C. became identifiable as leaders. 4. Constructive stage ( twenty-four hours 3/4 )
The squad did finally make this phase with activities being divided amongst members and all members take parting. Through doggedness and the acknowledgment that the posting was an assessed piece of work this squad was motivated plenty to get the better of old struggle and advancement. 5. Espirit ( twenty-four hours 4 )

By the concluding twenty-four hours of this undertaking the squad had developed a high degree of coherence. As all members were seen to be lending every bit to the undertaking and the posting was eventually coming together any struggle evaporated and was replaced by motive and satisfaction in accomplishment.

6 Team Functions

Belbin’s Inventory of Self-Perception is one of the most widely used analyses for squad functions ( Mullins. 2005 ) . ( See appendix 2. for a full list of function descriptions ) .

Eight squad functions are identified and organize a comprehensive list of all utile squad member features. with allowable failings.

The members of the surveies squad performed this trial:
| |A |B |C
|D |E |F | % Total | |Company Worker ( CW ) |15 |11 |17 |6 |15 |22 |21 | |Chairperson ( CH ) |2 |20 |3 |0 |10 |0 |8 | |Shaper ( SH ) |35 |6 |29 |6 |5 |3 |20 | |Plant ( PL ) |1 |5 |0 |29 |0 |9 |10 | |Resources Investigator |4 |2 |3 |1 |0 |2 |3 | | ( RI ) | | | | | | | | |Motivator-Evaluator ( ME ) |12 |8 |10 |10 |0 |3 |10 | |Team Worker ( TW ) |1 |15 |2 |4 |10 |25 |14 | |Completer-Finisher ( CF |0 |3 |6 |14 |30 |6 |14 | | |SH/CW |CH/TW |SH/CW |PL/CF |CF/CW |TW/CW | |

Surveies frequently show team members as belonging to their two favoured functions e. g. A as a shaper/ company worker ( SH/CW ) . Using this method the squad lacked a resource research worker and monitor-evaluator. However. if the tonss of the whole squad are represented as per centums so president ( CH ) and resource research worker ( RI ) are the least delineated functions:

Company Worker ( CW )
This was the most good represented function within the squad. 21 % . with four of the six members holding this as their secondary feature. A company worker is able to cover with the practical demands of a state of affairs and work good with a cross-section of people ( Rowe. 1996 ) . This makes them an indispensable member of the squad and frequently really promotable within administrations ( Belbin. 1981 ) .

Shaper ( SH )
The function of leading is frequently taken by the maker who can drive the squad towards the end ( Belbin. 1981 ) . However. this squad contained two dominant makers. A and C. who both attempted to take up the leading function. Belbin discusses how this can do struggle until one member suppresses these features as happened here. with A.

Teamworker ( TW )
This function was represented by two members. B and F. The features displayed were sociableness but a low laterality. Although TWs can be viewed as supplying merely a supportive function they are of import in a squad such as this with strong SH features to help morale and cooperation ( Belbin. 1981 ) .

Completer – Finisher ( CF )
It is of import for a squad to hold the CF function represented in order to help the coating of a undertaking ( Rowe. 1996 ) . Member E. who had the highest mark as a CF surely encouraged the group along when staggering and was really concerned with the clip restrictions on the undertaking. It is possible that without this member the squad would non hold completed the undertaking until the concluding twenty-four hours.

Plant ( PL )
Merely one squad member. D. demonstrated this as one of their top features and this represented 1 % of the squad as a whole. A PL is originative. although needs another function to pull out their thoughts ( Rowe. 1996 ) . In this squad. D. was non vocal with their thoughts until towards the terminal of the undertaking when many little determinations were finalised by the CF. E. promoting D to be forthcoming.

Monitor – Evaluator ( ME )
This function was represented by 10 % of the entire although no single held this as their primary or secondary feature. This was non peculiarly to the hurt of the group as the ME’s attributes lie in strategic planning and decelerate careful consideration of determinations ( Belbin. 1981 ) which did non use in this week-long undertaking.

Chairperson ( CH )
Merely one member. B. demonstrated CH as their function within this squad. Rowe ( 1996 ) suggests CHs do non work good with SHs and as this squad had two strong SHs. B tended to stamp down any leading qualities and deferred to their interpersonal accomplishments besides represented by their secondary function. TW.

Resource Investigator ( R )
RIs can frequently acquire a undertaking underway by making an initial enthusiasm ( Rowe. 1996 ) and utilizing all information available to reply any inquiries ( Belbin. 1981 ) . This team’s deficiency of an RI may hold contributed to the slow start made on this undertaking.

7 Communication

Communication within a squad is critical to guarantee effectual on the job pattern. keep relationships between persons and hence increase motive and morale ( Stott & A ; Walker. 1995 ) .

The ideal form of communicating is an unfastened flow of interaction with all members pass oning with others:

( Stott & A ; Walker. 1995. p. 271 )

However. in the studied squad the communicating form was surely non ideal in the early phases and could be more accurately represented as follows:

The squad had split into two subgroups. A and B ( pupil nurses ) and C. D. E and F ( pupil radiographers ) with communicating between the two groups about entirely by their unofficial leaders. A and C.

By the terminal of the hebdomad. holding over-come some struggle. the communicating form was really similar to the ideal.

Clark ( 2003 ) states that in effectual squads communication between the leader and squad members is unfastened. clear and direct. Although in this squad there was no formal leader. C. clearly established themselves as the unofficial leader most likely because they were the most effectual at showing this carnival. unfastened and decisive communicating.

8 Conflict

Loxley ( 1997 ) ( in Barrett et Al. 2005 ) refers to conflict as being interwoven with interprofessional coaction. Conflict can ensue from a figure of societal and professional factors:
Family state of affairs
Covering with struggle is uncomfortable and hard and can ensue in squads shaming togetherness or utilizing turning away techniques as a protection mechanism. Establishing land regulations such as those suggested by Drinka and Clark ( 2000 ) ( see appendix 3. ) early on can avoid struggle and had this squad used these possibly effectivity and surely morale would hold improved.

Group struggle can be utile as without it points of position can be masked and good solutions non made. Clark ( 2003 ) besides suggests that the more inhibited members of are group with feel more defeat as they tend to stamp down their struggle.

This was decidedly apparent in the squad concerned as D. E and F would non show their defeats to the whole squad but merely discussed them with their unofficial leader. C. in private. This resulted in more struggle within the squad as C attempted to vocalize the sentiments and concerns of D. E and F to the whole squad. as A proverb this as C being over-opinionated and became really defensive as a consequence.

C managed to decide this struggle state of affairs by staying composure. admiting A’s positions and rationally explicating why. although the thoughts were good. the squad should see an alternate way. By doing A warrant their sentiments and doing them believe of ways of work outing jobs instead than merely saying them C gained the regard of the whole squad and became the unofficial squad leader. with even A accepting this state of affairs.

9 Decision – Making

Decisions by groups can be made in a figure of ways:
By deficiency of response
By authorization regulation
By bulk regulation
By bulk regulation ( voting/ polling )
By consensus
By consentaneous ballot
( Schein. 1969 in La Monica. 1990 ) .

The squad concerned made their determinations utilizing a figure of these methods. Decisions made by ‘lack of response’ resulted in negative feelings of ego and towards other members when thoughts were bypassed in favor of others. No determinations were entirely made by ‘authority rule’ . although as many members were loath to aerate their positions within the whole squad state of affairs it may hold appeared to an perceiver that this happened. However. this was more like ‘majority rule’ as the quieter members of the group ( D. E and F ) had discussed their sentiments with C who so voiced them. In the concluding phases of this undertaking determinations were made by consensus as more members of the squad were relaxed in the whole group puting and all members were motivated in the undertaking at manus. Decisions were discussed more openly with all members instead than in the two subgroups and concluding determinations were of course arrived at without any trouble.

Hayes ( 1991 ) discusses how the importance of an person to acquire their preferable solution adopted by the group can go more of import to them than guaranting the best determination is made.

This phenomenon was clear in the studied group as A became rather aggressive and confrontational in their efforts to hold their solution accepted by the squad. A figure of members. D. E and F. found this peculiarly intimidating and would hold submitted to A’s thoughts. although they did non hold their virtue. had it non been for C. C used self-asserting behavior and logical treatment to avoid the incorrect determination being made. However. as A had built up the importance of holding their thoughts adopted so much. when they were non A became withdrawn from the group and appeared rejected.

10 Interprofessional Working

Collaboration between assorted subjects is of import within health care in order to supply a consistent. high criterion of patient attention ( Rowe. 1996 ) . In order for multidisciplinary squads to be effectual the administration and direction demands to be in topographic point. but more significantly there must be common regard and apprehension for each professional’s values. position. accomplishments and cognition ( Rowe. 1996 ) .

It has been suggested ( Millward & A ; Jeffries. 2001 ) that some healthcare squads exist in name merely and make non demo grounds of collaborative working underpinned by shared ends.

It could be argued that possibly nurses have more continuity of attention in their occupations and so had a more methodical but slower attack to this undertaking. The pupil radiographers appeared to be more task-driven and concerned with the clip restraints and so frequently favoured speedy decision-making over drawn-out treatments. possibly to the hurt of doing the right determination. In the terminal it was the radiographers’ determination that was followed through and their motive by clip forced the nurses to work more rapidly ensuing in completion in progress of the deadline.

Beattie ( in Soothill et Al. 1995 ) discusses how tribalism of professions is a barrier to effectual teamwork as it can be seen as an onslaught on traditional boundaries and in some cases can increase tribalism. Therefore an involuntariness to take part as portion of a multiprofessional squad can develop. as persons attempt to protect their individuality as a member of one peculiar professional ‘tribe’ .


It is of import to recognize and value single functions to promote the development of a balanced squad and increase individuals’ satisfaction by leting them to show their peculiar strengths and accomplishments ( Newson. 2006 ) . Confusion within the squad can besides be reduced and effectivity increased if all functions are represented every bit.

Although there were differences and struggle between the two professions within this squad it is felt that these were due to personality instead than professional differences. Although it could be argues that it is exactly these personality traits that cause persons to take the different professions in the first topographic point.

Atwal and Caldwell ( 1996 ) identifies assertiveness and assurance as indispensable accomplishments for an effectual squad member. This was borne out within the studied squad as the more inhibited members felt frustrated as they did non show their positions.

This essay has identified many countries for betterment with the squad concerned and suggests methods for usage in the hereafter to increase the team’s effectivity. Chiefly. if the squad had spent more clip sing themselves as a squad and how they would work as such instead than leaping consecutive to the undertaking so many of the jobs would non hold occurred.


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CASE 1 Making Macy’s Meaningful: Moves by the Retail Chain to Maintain Its Competitiveness

Complete the Discussion Questions and the Case Analysis for Case 1 Making Macy’s Meaningful: Moves by the Retail Chain to Maintain Its Competitiveness (Page 484).The purpose of the written case assignments is to help you become proficient in analysis-based decision making. The case analysis is your detailed, specific action plan to address such issues. Each recommendation should be supported by facts disclosed by your analysis of the case.Your case analysis needs to include:A title page
3-5 pages of case analysis using the following from the Case Analysis GuideSection A Discussion QuestionsAnswer the questions provided in the Discussion Section of the case study.

Section B Case Analysis Executive Summary
Problem/Issue Identification

A references page in APA format including 2-4 academic or business references, not including the textbook.
Your cases analysis will be 5-7 pages total including title and references pages. The analysis must be your own work in your own words, based on what you learned from the textbook and other academic sources.Submit your case analysis in a MS Word or PDF file. Grading CriteriaResponse to case questions (25%)
Demonstration of an understanding of the case details (executive summary) (20%)
Identification and analysis of the issues presented in the case (20%)
Recommendations (15%)