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Tata Motors in Egypt’s Business Sector Report

Introduction After recent damaging events, Egypt has been trying to become economically attractive and attract investment once again. It adopted an internationalistic approach, seeking financial aid from other countries. The reforms have been successful, improving the market’s attractiveness to various businesses. As such, investment has come in, and Egypt is currently on a path to recovery with the assistance of other nations. Nevertheless, the effects of the political and economic instability from several years ago remain prominent, and further support is necessary before the country can be considered safe for foreign companies to operate. Businesses should investigate the area in detail before they determine whether Egypt is suitable for their purposes. This report presents an analysis of the country’s political, economic, connective, and risk environments to help the TATA Motors company determine whether it should invest locally. Egypt and Internationalism Egypt has depended on the help of foreign nations to recover faster and to do so, it has had to accommodate the needs of these countries. According to Key Messages of Egypt VNR 2018 (2018), the country has been conducting economic and social reforms as well as infrastructure updates. The World Bank in Egypt (2019) describes its Country Partnership Framework that requires the elimination of extreme poverty and the sharing of prosperity. Key Questions on Egypt (2019) highlights how the International Monetary Fund is providing financial aid to Egypt to improve various aspects of the economy. By 2019, most of the significant changes have been completed, though the overall process is still ongoing (Arab News 2019). However, the changes have not been entirely successful in addressing Egypt’s issues in spite of the aid that they brought. Egypt’s reforms consist of short-term reductions in spending for the sake of long-term growth and stability, qualities valued by investors. According to Al-Youm (2019), the changes began with the floatation of the pound as required by the IMF in 2016 alongside general public enterprise changes and energy subsidy removal. Egypt – Trade Agreements (2019) describes Egypt’s various deals with other African countries as well as the EU that help facilitate its economy. As a result, Egypt: the economy is gathering strength (2017) notes that the country’s economy is growing as the government ensures that the poor are protected. Annor (2019) highlights that people’s lives have not improved noticeably yet, but new employment opportunities should arrive soon. However, Egypt’s population may not be content to wait until the reforms are complete, especially if its perception of the situation does not match the news coverage. Throughout the current government’s term, local activists and reporters have noted its practices, particularly those opposed to human rights. Egypt events of 2016 (2017) highlight the state’s suppression of dissent as well as its tendency of unjustly detaining people and treating them inhumanely. Egypt market challenges (2019) highlights Egypt’s reluctance to follow international law, particularly with regards to commercial disputes, a factor that lowers its investment attractiveness. Ulf Laessing (2019) claims that the country’s population began protesting in September due to the lack of tangible economic improvement over the years. Keeler (2019) adds that the demonstrations call for the president’s ousting and grow more heated due to the government’s efforts to suppress them by arresting people. The protests contribute to the government’s instability and reveal its inability to integrate into the international community satisfactorily. Egypt’s Competitiveness Figure 1: Egypt’s Competitiveness (Egypt 2019). Overall, Egypt is not particularly attractive compared to the rest of the countries in the Middle East and North Africa. Egypt (2019) notes how its institution quality is below average, most likely due to the political unrest and the social service overhaul. The country’s infrastructure also has issues, and Omran (2018) highlights how massive investment is necessary to meet its needs. The macroeconomic environment is fragile (see figure 1), though the age of the dataset may motivate this factor. The slight weakness of the health and primary education systems may also be driven by the reform of the social services, though it should be noted that the local standards in the matter are relatively high. Overall, there are considerable grounds for improvement in all four categories, and currently, Egypt cannot compete locally or globally. The country’s higher education and training facilities do not meet the standards set by its neighbors. Higher education (2019) notes that Egypt’s public universities are often overcrowded and that disadvantaged students often cannot study at the best facilities. The local goods market is slightly inefficient, possibly due to the added costs that result from the nation’s inferior infrastructure. The country’s labor market is significantly inefficient, and Ebaidalla and Ali (2018) note that workers tend to lack health insurance in spite of sickness-inducing circumstances, which drives people out of many fields. Lastly, Egypt’s financial market development is one of its two characteristics that match the average, likely due to the government’s improvements. Egypt’s GDP growth rate (2019) notes that the country has been able to maintain a steady 5% increase rate. Overall, this section shows significant potential for optimization and improvement, though the current government’s ability to achieve it is questionable. The ninth pillar, technological readiness, shows results below the regional average, as well. Al-Aees (2019) notes that Egypt’s industry is mostly non-digital, and the government’s efforts to introduce IT solutions are hampered by the expenses necessary to achieve the goal. The country’s market size is considerably larger than average, and Egypt – market overview (2019) describes it as the third biggest importer in the Middle East. Business sophistication is low, likely because of the lack of digital measures in company operations. Lastly, innovation in Egypt is below average for the area, and Egypt – global innovation ranking (2019) ranks it near the 100th total rank in innovation out of the world’s 137 economies. Overall, Egypt’s market size is its only significant competitive advantage in the region, and in most other aspects, it is behind most of the countries in Africa and the Middle East. Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Egypt’s Connectedness As mentioned above, Egypt’s government has been putting much effort into establishing connections with other countries. Altman, Ghemawat, and Bastian (2019) claim that the nation’s overall connectedness grew significantly in 2018, leading to a 27-rank increase to the 97th spot. Nevertheless, its position worldwide is weak, as it is in the lower half of the rating. The country has been conducting efforts to connect with prospective trade partners, particularly those in the Middle East (see figure 2) and promote its image worldwide. Egypt looks to the future (2019) claims that Egypt is promoting its tourist destinations by partnering with the American company, CNN, and conducting a worldwide promotional campaign using the latter’s reach. Additionally, the country has been working to increase its exports to various parts of the world and reduce its dependence on imports, though the latter initiative is not seeing significant successes. Figure 2: Egypt’s Global Connections (Altman, Ghemawan and Bastian 2019). Egypt is a prominent manufacturer of a variety of goods, but the political upheaval that created its current state has hampered its ability to export these products. Egypt targets to quadruple exports (2019) discuss the nation’s ongoing growth in the outward flow of resources and notes that it does not match its manufacturing capabilities. 16.8% increase in value of Egypt’s exports (2018) highlights Egypt’s significant rises in exports of many different varieties and notes that Italy has displayed the most growth at approximately 50%. It should be noted that these statistics represent a return to Egypt’s economic output levels before the events of 2011 rather than fast growth. However, they show that the country is putting significant effort into improving its position and succeeding at the task, which is a positive indicator for a potential investor. Egypt has also been working to reduce its imports, which decreases connectedness but benefits the country financially by making sure that money stays in the local market. Mounir (2019) claims that its efforts have been successful, with exports growing and imports shrinking, which has resulted in its current stable GDP growth. However, according to Adly (2019), Egypt remains a net fuel and food importer and lacks the natural resources necessary for the operation of many industries. Therefore, it has to rely on imports for many of its companies and is likely unable to achieve the goal of complete self-sustenance. Furthermore, Wally and Beillard (2019) claim that as the nation’s farmland shrinks, it becomes more reliant on exports of food products such as rice. Overall, Egypt is likely to remain a significant importer in the region, and with its export growth, the nation is positioned to increase its connectedness further. Main Business Risks The current political climate in Egypt and its effect on the country’s economy are the most significant risks for TATA Motors’s investment plans. Ullah (2019) highlights the issues that have been prevalent in the country for years, though, as an Indian company, TATA Motors may be less concerned over bad publicity from local activists. However, these concerns have escalated into widespread public unrest, which threatens any business that tries to operate in the country. According to Reid (2019), the demonstrations have already led to the elimination of any growth Egypt has been able to achieve in 2019. Furthermore, Egypt ETF plunges (2019) claims that the influence could be sustained and increase over time if protests persist. As such, it is currently risky for a business to invest in the country, and the initiative is likely to incur significant damage if put into practice. Additionally, Egypt’s economy is subject to another issue that is likely to manifest in the future, namely, the results of its water conflict with Ethiopia. According to Lazarus (2018), the latter country is constructing a dam that may decrease the supply of water carried to Egypt by the river Nile. Due to Egypt’s current water scarcity issues, the effect of such a situation may be devastating for the nation’s economy. Hendawi (2019) quantifies the potential loss in “millions of acres of farmland and hundreds of thousands of jobs”, a massive risk that should concern any investor. Sisi says the Nile water issue a matter of life and death (2019) notes that Egypt has been proposing plans that would minimize the harm while allowing Ethiopia to construct its dam and benefit from it, but the other country remained unresponsive. The two nations will likely reach a compromise that satisfies both parties eventually, but currently, the conflict remains a significant risk. The third and final point of concern is Egypt’s market itself, as it has numerous issues that lower the country’s attractiveness. As shown in figure 3, the nation’s residents have been increasingly able to find jobs over the years, but the rate remains high. With the recent tensions, it is possible that this tendency to decrease will no longer exist, at least temporarily. Furthermore, the market has had other issues such as inefficiency and the lack of innovation. Omran (2019) discusses other nations’ efforts to help Egypt increase its innovative efforts, but it is unlikely that the initiative will produce any results soon. Overall, TATA Motors should expect to operate in a market with high unemployment and a lack of modern technology among its partners, and both factors can damage its economic performance. Figure 3: Egypt’s Unemployment Rate Trends (Unemployment rate records 2019). Conclusion Egypt’s efforts to recover from the financial harm caused by the events of 2011 have been succeeding up until the autumn of 2019. The country has worked to embrace globalism and increase its connectedness, though there is still a considerable amount of work remaining. The country remains mostly below average in competitiveness, though its excellent market size has led companies to recognize it as attractive. With that said, the recent events, compounded by existing issues such as the water conflict, have created an unattractive environment for investors. TATA Motors should pay attention to these issues as much as any other company. As such, the business shouldn’t invest in the region at the moment, though the area warrants constant attention in case of future improvements. We will write a custom Report on Tata Motors in Egypt’s Business Sector specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Reference List Ulf Laessing, K 2019, ‘Egypt’s investment allure tarnished as protests challenge reforms’, U.S. News, Web. Annor, I 2019, ‘Egypt’s economic reforms, Africa News, Web. Al-Youm, 2019, ‘Economic reform program concludes in 2019: Egypt’s PM’, Egypt Independent, Web. Arab News 2019, ‘El-Sisi tells Egypt most painful economic reforms are over’, Web. Al-Aees, S 2019, ‘Egypt eyes digitalisation of industry, but faces challenges’, Daily News Egypt, Web. Omran, H 2018, ‘Egypt requires $675 bn of investments to meet its infrastructure needs: G20’, Daily News Egypt, Web. Ebaidalla, EM and Ali, MEM 2018, Chronic illness and the labour market in Arab countries, Web. Egypt looks to the future through highly innovative tourism campaign with CNN combining storytelling and data 2019, Web. Not sure if you can write a paper on Tata Motors in Egypt’s Business Sector by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Altman, SA, Ghemawat, P and Bastian, P 2019, DHL global connectedness index 2018, Web. Egypt targets to quadruple exports in 5 years 2019, Egypt Today, Web. Mounir, H 2019, ‘GDP growth rate to continue moving onwards and upwards: CBE’, Daily News Egypt, Web. Wally, A and Beillard, MJ 2019, Egypt adds rice to its grain imports of wheat and corn, Web. Adly, A 2019, ‘Satisfying the IMF won’t solve Egypt’s problems’, Bloomberg, Web. Lazarus, S 2018, ‘Is Ethiopia taking control of the River Nile?’, CNN, Web. Hendawi, H 2019, ‘Egypt hardens rhetoric on Ethiopia’s Blue Nile dam’, The National, Web. Sisi says Nile water issue a matter of life and death for Egypt, wants Sudan removed from terror list 2019, Ahram Online, Web. Egypt ETF plunges amid political unrest, rising protests 2019, Web. Ullah, A 2019, ‘UK minister in Egypt for investment talks as mass trial of activists continues’, Middle East Eye, Web. Reid, D 2019, ‘5 big risks that the world’s fragile economy doesn’t need right now’, CNBC, Web. Omran, H 2019, ‘RITSEC launches regional initiative for knowledge, innovation: Finland’s embassy’, Daily News Egypt, Web. Egypt: the economy is gathering strength 2017, Web. Unemployment rate records 8.1% in Q1 2019 2019, Egypt Today, Web. Keeler, D 2019, ‘Emerging and growth markets, September 29th 2019’, The Wall Street Journal, Web. The World Bank in Egypt 2019, Web. Key messages of Egypt VNR 2018 2018, Web. Egypt market challenges 2019, Web. Egypt events of 2016 2017, Web. Egypt – trade agreements 2019, Web. Key questions on Egypt 2019, Web. Egypt 2019, Web. Egypt – market overview 2019, Web. Egypt GDP growth rate 2019, Web. Egypt – global innovation ranking 2019, Web. Higher education 2019, Web. 16.8 % increase in value of Egypt’s exports in 2017: CAPMAS 2018, Daily News Egypt, Web.
ECON 100B UC Santa Barbara Marginal Value Product & Lemon Model Questions.

1.Suppose a firm produces output under perfect competition from labor and capital, and the wage the firm pays for labor falls. Explain why the firm will hire labor to the point where the marginal value product of labor equals the wage both before and after the fall in the wage, but the firm’s adjustment to the lower wage is not simply a shift along the initial marginal value product curve for labor. 2. A person who buys a new car, drives it home, and then decides after a week or two to sell it typically ends up with a large loss: the price they sell it for is typically much lower than the original purchase price. Explain this with the Lemons model. 3. A coronavirus vaccine that prevents infection may soon become available. Describe the positive externality such a vaccine generates, and explain why the market outcome is therefore that too few people get vaccinated. You may assume vaccine supply occurs at a constant marginal cost.
ECON 100B UC Santa Barbara Marginal Value Product & Lemon Model Questions

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This assessment includes two short cases.Case 1:The Lexington Company produces gas grills. This year’s expected production is 20,000 units. Currently, Lexington makes the side burners for its grills. Each grill includes two side burners. Lexington’s management accountant reports the following costs for making the 40,000 burners:Cost per UnitCost for 40,000 unitsDirect materials$8.00$320,000Direct manufacturing labor4.00160,000Variable manufacturing overhead2.0080,000Inspection, setup, materials handling8,000Machine rent12,000Allocated fixed costs of plant administration, taxes, and insurance80,000Total costs$660,000Lexington has received an offer from an outside vendor to supply any number of burners Lexington requires at $14.80 per burner. The following additional information is available:Inspection, setup, and materials-handling costs vary with the number of batches in which the burners are produced. Lexington produces burners in batch sizes of 1,000 units. Lexington will produce the 40,000 units in 40 batches.Lexington rents the machine it uses to make the burners. If Lexington buys all of its burners from the outside vendor, it does not need to pay rent on this machine.If Lexington purchases the burners from the outside vendor, the facility where the burners are currently made will remain idle. The allocated fixed plant administration, taxes, and insurance will not change.Required:Q1-1. Describe the decision for Lexington to make.Q1-2. List all alternatives that Lexington can take regards to the 40,000 burners.Q1-3. Evaluate the alternatives. Show your calculations and clearly identify relevant costs information.Q1-4. What are qualitative factors that Lexington should consider when deciding whether to outsource?Case 2:Slugger Corporation produces baseball bats for kids that it sells for $36 each. At capacity, the company can produce 50,000 bats a year. The costs of producing and selling 50,000 bats are as follows:Cost per BatTotal costsDirect materials$13$650,000Direct manufacturing labor5250,000Variable manufacturing overhead2100,000Fixed manufacturing overhead6300,000Variable selling expenses3150,000Fixed selling expenses8100,000Total costs$31$1,550,000Additional information:Suppose Slugger is currently producing and selling 40,000 bas. At this level of production and sales, its fixed costs are the same as given in preceding table. Bench Corporation wants to place a one-time special order for 10,000 bats at $23 each. Suppose Slugger will incur no variable selling costs for this special order.Required:Q2-1. Describe the decision for Slugger to make.Q2-2. List all assumptions when Slugger makes the special order decision.Q2-3. Should Slugger accept this one-time special order? Show your calculations and clearly identify relevant revenues and costs information.Q2-4. What other impact should Slugger consider in deciding whether to accept this special order?5 hours ago
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Grand Canyon University Disability Comparison Template Worksheet

Grand Canyon University Disability Comparison Template Worksheet.

Special education teachers are part of the assessment team that determines eligibility for special education services. There are 14 major eligibility categories defined by the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA). For each of these disability categories, educators must have general knowledge of the guidelines for eligibility, characteristics, causes, effects on learning, and how often the disabilities occur within a defined population in order to contribute to team collaboration and consult articulately with staff and parents/guardians. Additionally, there are specific conditions, such as dyslexia, that are included within each of the broad categories, and special education teachers must be well informed about the potential effects on learning for each specific disorder.Use the information in the textbook and study materials to complete the “Disability Comparison Template” to summarize information for the categories of disability under IDEA as well as for common, specific learning disabilities. The first category, Autism, is completed for you.APA format is not required, but solid academic writing is expected.Categories of Disability Under Part B of IDEA | Center for Parent Information and Resources ( of Specific Learning Disabilities | LD Topics | LD OnLine
Grand Canyon University Disability Comparison Template Worksheet

MMHA 6500 Walden University Changing Nature of Healthcare Reform Discussion

assignment writing services MMHA 6500 Walden University Changing Nature of Healthcare Reform Discussion.

Analyze the changing nature of the health care industry, including health care reform, the volume to value-based shift, and the industry’s emphasis on a culture of excellence. How have these changes impacted the type of workforce and types of positions where there will be more demand? What are the implications of the changing nature of workforce demands on human resource professionals? What impact does competition for quality employees have on human resource managersAnalyze the changing nature of health care reform. Evaluate the impact of these changes on workforce demands and the role of human resource. Support your post with specific examples. Resource:……
MMHA 6500 Walden University Changing Nature of Healthcare Reform Discussion

Broward College Writing a Graduation Letter to Yourself Paper

Broward College Writing a Graduation Letter to Yourself Paper.

Letter for Graduation (30 points/24%)
a. Your assignment is to write a letter to yourself on your graduation day. b. Consider the following questions as you compose your letter.
i. How do you hope you have changed in terms of knowledge and skills, and personally?
ii. What would you like to remind yourself about your inspiration for choosing this career?
iii. You will be preparing to take the NCLEX exam and to start your first job as a baccalaureate-prepared
nurse. Are there any words of encouragement that you would like to tell your future self? iv. Are there any words of caution you want to tell yourself—pitfalls to avoid? v. What kind of nurse do you hope you have become? What further growth and change do you envision
for yourself?for question v. you have to put nurse practitioner for what type a nurse I want to become.
Broward College Writing a Graduation Letter to Yourself Paper

Biometric Passport With Rfid Information Technology Essay

Radio-frequency identification is the use of an object typically referred to as an RFID tag applied to or incorporated into a product, animal, or person for the purpose of identification and tracking using radio waves. Some tags can be read from several meters away and beyond the line of sight of the reader. Radio-frequency identification comprises interrogators (also known as readers), and tags (also known as labels). The RFID device serves the same purpose as a bar code or a magnetic strip on the back of a credit card or ATM card; it provides a unique identifier for that object. And, just as a bar code or magnetic strip must be scanned to get the information, the RFID device must be scanned to retrieve the identifying information. RFID Works Better Than Barcodes: A significant advantage of RFID devices over the others mentioned above is that the RFID device does not need to be positioned precisely relative to the scanner. We’re all familiar with the difficulty that store checkout clerks sometimes have in making sure that a barcode can be read. And obviously, credit cards and ATM cards must be swiped through a special reader. In contrast, RFID devices will work within a few feet (up to 20 feet for high-frequency devices) of the scanner. For example, you could just put all of your groceries or purchases in a bag, and set the bag on the scanner. It would be able to query all of the RFID devices and total your purchase immediately. RFID technology has been available for more than fifty years. It has only been recently that the ability to manufacture the RFID devices has fallen to the point where they can be used as a “throwaway” inventory or control device. Alien Technologies recently sold 500 million RFID tags to Gillette at a cost of about ten cents per tag. One reason that it has taken so long for RFID to come into common use is the lack of standards in the industry. Most companies invested in RFID technology only use the tags to track items within their control; many of the benefits of RFID come when items are tracked from company to company or from country to country. Figure 2: Types of RFID tags Figure 3: RFID scanners History and technology background: Mario Cardullo’s U.S. Patent 3,713,148 in 1973 was the first true ancestor of modern RFID; a passive radio transponder with memory. The initial device was passive, powered by the interrogating signal, and was demonstrated in 1971 to the New York Port Authority and other potential users and consisted of a transponder with 16 bit memory for use as a toll device. The basic Cardullo patent covers the use of RF, sound and light as transmission media. The original business plan presented to investors in 1969 showed uses in transportation (automotive vehicle identification, automatic toll system, electronic license plate, electronic manifest, vehicle routing, vehicle performance monitoring), banking (electronic check book, electronic credit card), security (personnel identification, automatic gates, surveillance) and medical (identification, patient history). An early demonstration of reflected power (modulated backscatter) RFID tags, both passive and semi-passive, was performed by Steven Depp, Alfred Koelle, and Robert Freyman at the Los Alamos National Laboratory in 1973. The portable system operated at 915 MHz and used 12-bit tags. This technique is used by the majority of today’s UHFID and microwave RFID tags. The first patent to be associated with the abbreviation RFID was granted to Charles Walton in 1983. Miniaturization: RFIDs are easy to conceal or incorporate in other items. For example, in 2009 researchers at Bristol University successfully glued RFID micro transponders to live ants in order to study their behavior. This trend towards increasingly miniaturized RFIDs is likely to continue as technology advances. However, the ability to read at distance is limited by the inverse-square law. Hitachi holds the record for the smallest RFID chip, at 0.05mm x 0.05mm. The Mu chip tags are 64 times smaller than the new RFID tags. Manufacture is enabled by using the Silicon-on-Insulator (SOI) process. These “dust” sized chips can store 38-digit numbers using 128-bit Read Only Memory (ROM). A major challenge is the attachment of the antennas, thus limiting read range to only millimeters. Potential alternatives to the radio frequencies (0.125-0.1342, 0.140-0.1485, 13.56, and 840-960 MHz) used are seen in optical RFID (or OPID) at 333 THz (900 nm), 380 THz (788 nm), 750 THz (400 nm). The awkward antennas of RFID can be replaced with photovoltaic components and IR-LEDs on the ICs. Figure 4: Miniature RFID tag Modular Decomposition Our system requirements are very clearly and not expect to change frequently. So, we will use in our system “Waterfall model”. And because the requirements are well understood. Project Activities Task# Duration (week) Description T1 2 -Feasibility study of the system T2 2 -Requirement analysis -Requirement specification T3 6 -System design -Code programming -Interface design T4 2 -System testing -Feedback on system testing -validation of system Risks Management Risk type Possible risks Technology – Not all system familiar with RFID hardware’s and software’s. People -Key staff is ill and unavailable at critical times (Only one employee work in this system). Requirements -Customers fail to understand the impact of Requirements changes. Estimation -The time required to develop the software is underestimated. -The rate of defect repair is underestimated. -The size of the software is underestimated. Risks Analysis Risk Probability Effects Technology Low Serious People Low Catastrophic Requirements High Serious Estimation Moderate Serious Risk Management Strategies Risk type Strategy Technology Will choose the software