’The Relationship Between Critical Thinking and Confidence in Decision Making’ for new graduate nurses. The authors aim to prove that no correlation exists between higher order reasoning of new graduates and their ability to make sound clinical choices in relation to patient management. Critical thinking in the nursing field is defined as decision making based on the analysis of clinical problems through reflection and reasoning to ensure optimum patient outcomes.
US and UK studies found no link between critical thinking and clinical decision making while Korean research identifies a positive correlation. Underlying the significance of Hoffman and Elwin’s study is the lack of evidence supporting a link between the two. The hypothesis states no relationship exists between confidence in decision making and critical thinking for graduate nurses. The sample population comprised 83 graduates from 11 universities across metropolitan and regional NSW, Australia.
Using correlation design over twelve months, responses from two groups were collected using the 80 question Watson & Glaser Critical thinking assessment tool (WGCTA), a ‘Confidence in decision making scale,’ 0-5 range, and demographic questionnaires. Data was collected and analysed using SPSS spreadsheet and database respectively. Results demonstrate a weak negative correlation between critical thinking and decision making for new nursing graduates. As scores for critical thinking increased a reduction in confident decision making was observed.
Therefore graduates can be grouped as those who think too critically and those who think less critically. The first group of individuals may reach accurate clinical conclusions but time taken may adversely affect patient outcomes. Conversely, a graduate who thinks less critically may be overconfident taking less time to consider clinical variables, ultimately placing patients at risk. The hypothesis is therefore rejected. Recommendations are made to encourage a future clinical environment supportive of practitioners who question decision making.
Firstly, a need exists for postgraduate training opportunities which reinforce the study findings. Secondly, research addressing the shortfalls of sampling design in this particular study should be conducted. Criteria | Evaluation | Author Credentials & Bias| Strength: Analysis of Hoffman & Elwins paper shows the authors are well positioned to research and report on the link between critical thinking and decision making in the nursing field. Both parties’ posses their masters degree in nursing and are registered for practice with Hoffman holding an additional Bsc.
In addition to academic qualifications both parties are employed as nursing educators. Weakness: Bias may exist in the authors findings. As both Hoffman and Elwin are nursing professionals and educators the papers scope & objectivity can be questioned. Recommendations for future training and research may be seen as self-serving. The inclusion of a third party professional from outside the nursing field may provide a complimentary perspective. | Accuracy and Consistency of Data| Strength: Data has been gathered using recognised reporting tools that are based on established criterion.
The use of these tools may encourage future researchers to employ the same methods to promote accuracy and consistency when comparing existing data with that collected during future research. Weakness: The accuracy and consistency of data within the research paper can be questioned. Variations in reported sample size exist in the report and will lead readers to doubt the validity of additional data. | Data Collection/Analysis| Strength: The set of instruments used in data collection can be considered sound.
The combination of graduate background information and recognised tools such as the WGCTA and ‘Confidence in decision making scale’ allows for consistency in comparison with previous research findings. Correlations found in the data can therefore be considered significant. Weakness: As the authors acknowledge the use of a ‘convenience sample’, the reader should conclude that study results are generalised and not representative of regional, state, or national populations.
Increased sample size, equal number of rural and metropolitan graduates, and more detail on individual’s age, gender, and learning institution would increase data credibility. Graduate IQ or GPA may also play a role in critical thinking and/or decision making and be included as an additional variable. | Analysis Methods and Relevance of Data| Strength: The author’s reference list cites 16 papers from various countries around the world. This indicates that widespread and applicable investigation into the relationship between critical thinking and decision making in graduate nurses has been conducted. Methods of analysis such as he WCGTA and ‘Confidence in Decision-making Scale’ employed in earlier research allows for comparison of findings. Weakness: Despite the relevance of resources and suitability of analysis tools, some may be considered out of date. Although studies cited in the literature review are as recent as 2000, Watson & Glasers’ critical thinking appraisal tool dates to 1980. In addition Rhodes’ work from 1985 gave rise to the ‘Confidence in Decision-making Scale’. The use of these tools in an environment as dynamic and ever changing as nursing could suggest lack of research on behalf of the authors, or a desire to reach preferred conclusions. Sample Size| Strength: The small sample size of 83 graduates participating in the twelve month study allows for close communication between researcher and subject. This may result in improved data quality highlighting local trends and issues specific to the region. It should also be noted that participants contributed to the study over the twelve month period as there is no mention of withdrawal. Weakness: The use of a ‘convenience sample’ comprising such small numbers cannot be considered representative of target populations at regional, state, or national levels.
An increase in the number of participants to represent a greater proportion of the local graduate population would improve both integrity and usability of study findings. | Criteria| Evaluative comments| 1. What difficulties did you encounter completing this task? | Initial comprehension of the paper was difficult and time consuming but central to the task. When evaluating the paper many of my selected criteria specifically sample size, data collection, and data analysis contained elements which overlapped. This made it difficult to stay on track. | 2.
What did you find challenging, but interesting about this task? | Separating the content from the exercise itself. I’m really not interested in details relating to the nursing profession but skilled summarising and critical thinking/evaluation are academic fundamentals. | 3. Why would TPP 101 have set this type of a task? What are the learning outcomes of this task? (See your course outline). | To establish academic skills that can be built on. Skills developed here will assist in completing Task 2. Learning outcomes for participants are to understand, think, learn, communicate, and value. 4. How will you be able to use the skills formed in this task in your future studies? | These skills will be applied not only to Task 2, but to most if not all future assessment pieces. Active critical thinking/assessment outside of university is also of value. | 5. Define three new words that were new to you in this journal article. | 1. Meta-Cognitive – awareness and understanding of one’s own thought processes. 2. Negative Correlation – as the values for one variable inrease, the values of the second variable decreases. 3.? |
Understanding between entrepreneurs and small business owners.
Understanding between entrepreneurs and small business owners..
The purpose of this project is for you to demonstrate an understanding between entrepreneurs and small business owners. You will also be relating how a business contributed to the economy in the 1990’s. Outcomes Met With This Project: discuss the financial, economic, regulatory, sociopolitical, and technological factors as they relate to a dynamic business environment identify the critical business functions and how they interact in order to position the organization to be effective in the current business environment explain the importance of the integration of individuals and systems to organizational effectiveness Skill Building: You are also completing this project to help you develop the skills of critical thinking, writing and developing a personal brand. Writing is a critical skill because in business it is important to convey information clearly and concisely and to develop a personal brand. Developing a personal brand is important because it is the ongoing process of establishing an image or impression in the minds of others especially those in positions above you. Having a strong personal brand can lead to opportunities that include promotions. Case Scenario: Read the following case scenario and answer the questions that follow: In 1994, Leslie Blodgett became CEO of a small bath and body retailer of mineral-based powder makeup, Bare Escentuals, located in a town in California. Although Bare Escentuals was the first company to offer mineral-based products, the colors of the products did not fit well with the skin tones of women. Having worked for Neutrogena and Max Factor, Blodgett set out to formulate beauty products that worked harmoniously together. The new line of makeup was known as BareMinerals and consisted of six blushes, six eye shadows, five powder foundations and brushes. The mineral-based foundation product was unconventional and provided light to maximum coverage for all skin types, which appealed to men and women of all ages. Products did not contain chemical additives, preservatives, oil, fragrances, waxes or binders that could lead to skin irritation. Two years passed and Blodgett was losing hope that the product line was going to be successful. After watching the TV shopping network, QVC, Blodgett devised a plan to go on QVC to sell BareMinerals. The first airing resulted in sales of $45,000 of products. Blodgett had her in and continued to sell on QVC selling $1.4 million of product an hour. She further expanded the business by doing Infomercials, which allowed more time to explain the products and application process. Widening the distribution channel, Blodgett offered events at boutiques and specialty cosmetic stores, and solicited input from customers for product and marketing ideas. Blodgett learned that the business required taking care of customers and hiring people who loved people because the business was about helping women feel good about themselves. Business at Bare Escentuals was booming and the company was growing at a fast pace. In 2006, the company went public. Headquarters was moved to New York.
In 2010, after 16 years at the helm, Blodgett sold the company to Shiseido, a Japanese-based cosmetic company, for almost $1.7 billion. To Blodgett, the deal made sense because Shiseido had distribution channels in 87 countries and had the knowledge to expand further into Asia. Blodgett wanted to be more involved in the creative side of the business so she stepped down as CEO and took a position reporting to the Chief Operating Officer (COO) of Global Business at Shiseido. Instructions: You will use the following steps to complete this project. Make sure to complete each step to ensure the highest possible grade. Note that you are using the case scenario facts and the course material. External sources are not permitted. Step 1: Create Headings You will use the following headings for this project. Make sure that each heading is in place and use the headings as a guide to write each section of the project. Introduction Entrepreneur Versus Small Business Owner Entrepreneurial Traits Demonstrated by Blodgett Entrepreneurial Categories Bare Escentuals’ Contribution to the Economy in the 1990’s Factors of Production Conclusion Step 2: Write an Introduction paragraph The Introduction paragraph is the first paragraph of the paper and will be used to describe to the reader the intent of the paper explaining the main points covered in the paper. This intent should be understood prior to reading the remainder of the paper so the reader knows exactly what is being covered in the paper. Write the introduction last to ensure all of the main points are covered. Step 3: Entrepreneurial Traits You learned about entrepreneurs and small business owners. Although these terms may appear synonymous, they are not. As CEO of Bare Escentuals, Leslie Blodgett could be depicted as an entrepreneur. Using the course material to support your ideas and reasoning: Differentiate between an entrepreneur and a small business owner. Discuss how Blodgett demonstrated entrepreneurial traits. Discuss the different categories of entrepreneurs and identify which category best fits Blodgett.
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