American sociologist who served on the faculty of Harvard University from 1927 to 1973. Parsons developed a general theory for the study of society called action theory, based on the methodological principle of voluntarism and the epistemological principle of analytical realism.
The theory attempted to establish a balance between two major methodological traditions, that of the utilitarian-positivist tradition on the one hand and the hermeneutic-idealistic tradition on the other. For Parsons, voluntarism established a third alternative between these two. More than a theory of society, Parsons presented a theory of social evolution and a concrete interpretation of the “drives” and directions of world history.
Parsons analyzed the work of Emile Durkheim and Vilfredo Pareto and evaluated their contributions within the light of the paradigm of voluntaristic action. Parsons was also largely responsible for introducing and interpreting Max Weber’s work to American audiences. Although he was generally considered a major structuralist functionalist scholar, in an article late in life, Parsons explicitly wrote that the term “functional” or “structural functionalist” were inappropriate ways to describe the character of his theory. 1] For Parsons “structural functionalism” was the term of a particular stage in the methodological development of the social science; it was never a name for any specific school or specific direction. “Functionalism” itself was a universal method and again not a name for any specific school. In the same way, the concept “grand theory” is a derogative term, which Parsons himself never used.
Case Study – Drone Attacks in Counter-terrorism
Case Study – Drone Attacks in Counter-terrorism.
A recent military tactic, implemented in counterterrorism, is the use of military drones in Pakistan to eliminate al Qaeda terrorists hiding in rugged tribal regions. The U.S. government and military hail this aerial tactic as highly successful and essential to defeating terrorists. Human rights advocates deplore the tactic as unnecessarily killing innocent civilians and committing human rights violations. Refer to Morality in Modern Aerial Warfare and Ethical Issues in Counterterrorism Warfare to assess the morality of using drones in Pakistan’s Frontier provinces. Also, you must conduct outside research on the use of aerial drones to support your argument for the use as morally just or morally unjust. All resources must be properly cited. Address the following: Assess the moral justifications for using aerial bombing in warfare. Discuss policies and restrictions that can be applied to make the use of drones morally acceptable. Explain how terrorists acting within a nation-state affect the justification for using aerial bombing, and whether or not the killing of civilians during drone attacks is an international war crime. Provide your opinion on whether or not you support the use of drones to attack terrorists within sovereign countries. The paper must be two to three pages in length (excluding the title and reference pages) and formatted according to APA style. You must use at least two scholarly sources other than the textbook to support your claims and sub claims. Cite your sources in text and on the reference page. For information regarding APA samples and tutorials, visit the Ashford Writing Center (Links to an external site.)
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