The fight between the rebels and the government continue; the rebels wanting the current president Bashar Al-Assad to step down, while the government maintains their support to the president instead of the people. The rebels fight for what they believe will win them more democracy and freedom. They feel repressed by their current leader and government, and want a change so that the people will have a stronger voice in the government. The oppression resulting from unjust dictatorship has shaped Syria politically, economically, and socially.
When the Middle East has huge headlines in the news, most likely Syria has been involved. Syria has been entrenched in a fierce civil war and the politics are just as bad. Syria has been a country that has been at the focal point of most of the Middle Eastern politics recently. The Syrians are recently going through a civil war that has completely ravished the country as a whole. As the country is as unstable as ever, the government has had many opportunities to make things right and it hasn’t worked exactly to plan. “It’s been two years since repressed voices called for freedom in Syria” (Watson, Ivan.
CNN News. ) And nothing has gone to plan for the revolutionaries. The revolutionaries thought that the call to action for the regime to step down was going to be enough. Sadly they were wrong, once someone has absolute power; they seldom give it back up without a very bloody fight. As the fighting continues, the regime of Syria has not said or taken the correct measures to keep this a national revolution; now countries are giving money and supplies to the revolutionaries to overthrow the regime of Syria. This civil war has now become a global situation and everybody knows what’s happening there in Syria.
The Syrian rebel leader, General Salim Idris, has said that the rebels will stay and finish the job of releasing the Syrian people until the current President Bashar Assad steps down. The regime has hit a new low with regards to morale in efforts to end the uprising that the rebels, in the eyes of the regime, have prolonged with their antics of a new Syria with democracy. “We want a Syria where every Syrian can live in peace and liberty. This is our dream, this is what we are fighting for,” Idris said. (Fox News. ) The rebels want a democratic Syria, and the President is making it very hard for the people to achieve their goal.
Whether he’s doing it to outlast the rebels, or wait till an opportunity arises for him to be the leader of Syria, undisputed. Maj. Gen. Mohammed Ezz al-Din Khalouf told Al-Arabia TV, ‘that many of those still with Assad’s regime have lost faith in it’. ” (Middle East. Fox News. ) Even the people fighting for the regime have lost interest and predict the end of President Bashar Assad’s reign. High ranking officials have now become rebels in order to finally bring peace back to Syria. The political tyranny in Syria has destroyed its government, but in the process also damaged its society.
The population of Syria has been oppressed in many ways such as martial law which “enables the state to arrest people preventively” (Zahler 94) which took affect in 1963 once the Ba’ath party took control in Syria. The Ba’ath party has since been oppressing it’s citizens which is why the citizens began to revolt. Syria’s population is made up of many ethnic and religious groups including Kurds, Armenians, Assyrians, Christians, Druze, Alawite, Shias, and Arab Sunnis. A major reason this battle has been so vicious and long-lasting is because Assad is a Shia Muslim, while the majority of the population is Sunni Muslim.
He is also being supported by countries such as Iran and Russia. This civil war has had a large impact on the country’s population causing oppression to be wide spread and nonstop. “The uprising has since turned into an increasingly sectarian struggle between armed rebels and government soldiers and militias. An estimated 70,000 people have been killed. Around half the refugees are children, most of them aged under 11, and the numbers leaving are mounting every week, the United Nations refugee agency said in statement” (Arie). This shockingly low age of these refugees is causing a wave of illiteracy and poverty.
Since Syria has lost such a large amount of their population, what people are left are residing in the streets, are homeless, and get a large amount of their resources from humanitarian aid. This increase in refugees and large amount of humanitarian aid are a direct result from the revolts against the Assad regime and is just one example of how the citizens of Syria have been oppressed. ”In addition to the refugees, more than two million of Syria’s 22 million people have been internally displaced and more than four million need humanitarian assistance, UNHCR says” (Holmes).
This increase in assistance costs the Syrian government millions, which is money they do not have. This is why countries like the United States have been sending in food and money to aid those in Syria. “The United Nations agencies are the main conduit for international aid, including most of the total of $385 million that Washington has directed to the cause in 2012 and 2013” (Barnard). Although the United States does give such a large amount of money to aid Syria, it is not enough. Thousands are dying every day because there is no source of power in Syria, which is very detrimental because hospitals are now nonexistent.
There has been a large decrease in the availability of gas and other sources of electricity making transportation of goods impossible. Not only has this conflict affected the citizens who live within Syrian borders, but it has also greatly affected these citizens once they flee and become refugees in countries such as Jordan. ” In Jordan, a country of six million, the refugee influx has strained energy, water, health and education services to the limit” (Holmes). This drain of resources is causing an epidemic of poverty and death which can only be a direct cause of the unjust dictatorship rule of the Asads.
Of all the tragedies that have been inflicted on the citizens of Syria, the most damaging is that of the death toll. More than 60,000 have recently died in Syria. Not only are these deaths in large quantity but they are also done in an executioner type way to make sure the governments sends out the message that they are not a force to be reckoned with. “At least 65 people were found dead Tuesday in the contested Syrian city of Aleppo, many of them bound and shot execution-style, according to opposition activists” (“Timeline: Unrest in Syria”).
These deaths are aimed at young children and women and the military does not hesitate to show their power. “At least 45 women and children were killed in the Syrian city of Homs late Sunday… The LCC described the killings as a ‘massacre orchestrated by the regime’ of President Bashar al-Assad” (Abdenine). This is just one of the latest reports of mass murder that has taken place in Syria. These murders are a prime example of how the oppression in Syria has not only damaged the life of the citizens, but has destroyed families and futures.
Not only is the political injustice and dictatorship in Syria harmful to the economy but it is also very detrimental to the Syrian citizens. This civil-war is projected to cause damage to the Syrian population for the next few decades and the country may not be able to rebuild completely for centuries to come. The economics of Syria are just as bad as the politics and the oppression of the citizens. The GDP is so bad that it’s considered repressed. With the civil war taking place, most people are more worried about their lives that they’ve completely forgotten about their shops and products that they used to sell.
Since Syria’s independence on April 17, 1946, the country has always struggled with a weak economy. With only a few roads and railroads built under the French occupation, and dry, barren lands, Syrian infrastructure was ill-equipped to make much economic progress in its new freedom. In addition to this problem, the war between the rebels and government keeps the economy at the bottom. With a GDP growth at a -3. 4%, the country is ranked with the fourth lowest economy in the Middle East.
Because of President Bashar Al-Assad’s harsh actions to cling onto power, the entire country ends up paying the price. Reconstruction is a problem that needs attention to, but is being set aside by Assad. With 589,000 buildings destroyed from military planes, and thousands more damaged, the estimated price of reconstructing them is about $40 billion. “Who will pay these bills? Nobody” (Fox News) states Haytham Manna, a Syrian civilian. These buildings are factories, hospitals, and schools; all destroyed in the chaos of war, and putting many out of work; another problem Assad has yet to address.
With the current war between the rebels and Assad, vital sources of profits have gone, and much of the tight economic situation has slammed low-level merchants and businesses. Assad states that he cares for his followers, but followers or not, both sides are receiving the harsh blow of war; and as long he continues the war, the more his people suffer. Now Syrians cross the border to Lebanon to provide for their families and even then finding a job can be a difficulty. People who have once worked in Aleppo and Damascus, find themselves go home empty-handed, due to the halt of construction.
The president shows no signs of helping the people, and continues to fight for what he thinks is right, disregarding the current state of the country. The current currency is weakened, and has now inflated to 68 Syrian pounds for one U. S. dollar, instead of 47 pounds at the beginning of the war. By June, the Syrian central bank states that inflation has reached 36 percent. And despite having a colossal foreign debt of $22 billion, Assad shows no worries of paying off the debt, and continues focusing on the war. Now the people are paying for Assad’s faults.
Farmers are unable to plant and harvest anything because of the high price of fertilizer, further stunting the growth of Syrian’s economy. Fertilizer isn’t the only thing that has grown price-wise, but now everyday necessities have become hard to obtain, and basic food staples have now tripled in price. “We could barely buy a pack of bread. We’re suffering from hunger…” (KippReport) says Mohammed Mahou, a father of three. Assad views the rebels as the betrayers of Syria, and sees it as a war “between the nation and its enemies, between the people and the murderous criminals” (CBS News); the “murderous criminals” being the rebels.
Furthermore, not only are the rebels against Assad, but international leaders also opposes his position as Syria’s president. Yet Assad continues ignoring international demands for him to step down from presidency, and refuses to speak unless they stop funding and arming rebels trying the overthrow him first. Assad recognizes the rebels as a mere problem, and doesn’t try to understand why they wish to overthrow him. All the problems in Syria are due to his actions, but Assad blames the rebels for the cause of the crumbling country.
Even with all the international leaders supporting the rebels, Assad still is blind to the fact that he is the one destroying the country. With the current situation in Syria, one hopes it will end soon. But with Assad blind to his falling country, the end of this civil war has still yet to come. Homeless, jobless, and broken down, the people of Syria face a difficult challenge ahead. And with more and more harm is inflicted on the country, which will first collapse is yet unknown; the war, or the country.
Identify and explain three (3) differences between the modernization and dependency theories. Write a thoughtful paragraph for each difference identified (3 paragraphs total).
Students can gain up to 5 points per paragraph written, and 5 points for the bibliography (list of sources consulted).
Each paragraph must identify and explain one difference between the theories.
Each paragraph must demonstrate that the student completed the required readings and videos. Each paragraph must contain a direct reference or quotation to some of the required readings.
Each paragraph must be original, using student’s own work or ideas.
A complete list of used-sources must be included after the 3 paragraphs. Sources must be listed using APA (Links to an external site.) or ASA (Links to an external site.) format.