Get help from the best in academic writing.

Synthesis and Purification of Acetylsalicylic Acid argumentative essay help Social Psychology

Synthesis and Purification of Acetylsalicylic Acid (ASA or Aspirin) Background Salicylic acid is a phenol as well as a carboxylic acid. It can therefore undergo two different types of esterification reactions, creating an ester either with the hydroxyl or with the acid. In the presence of acetic anhydride, acetylsalicylic acid (aspirin or ASA) is formed. Correspondingly, an excess of methanol will form methyl salicylate, which is also an analgesic. In this experiment, we shall use the former reaction to prepare aspirin. Salicylic acid will not react significantly with acetic acid to produce aspirin.

Acetic acid anhydride, however, is more reactive than acetic acid because the acetoxy group (-O2CCH3) is a much better leaving group than the OH- of acetic acid. The reaction has one complication, however, in that an esterification can occur between the phenol and acid portion of adjacent salicylic acid molecules. Further, more molecules can bind to the remaining free substituents on these molecules to create a macromolecule, or polymer. The polymer is formed as a by-product. Acetylsalicylic acid will react with sodium bicarbonate to form a water-soluble sodium salt, whereas the polymer remains insoluble.

This difference can be used to purify the aspirin product. The most likely impurity in the final product is salicylic acid, which can be either unconsumed reactant, or the result of hydrolysis of the aspirin product. Salicylic acid is removed during the purification steps as well. Salicylic acid, like most phenols, forms a highly colored complex with ferric chloride, and is easily detected. Aspirin does not form the colored complex because the hydroxyl has been acetylated.

Provide tabulated and experimental MP’s for product. Report mass and moles for the reactant and product, and calculate yield % on a molar basis. Mechanism The mechanism is called nucleophilic acyl substitution. It is similar, but not identical, to the hydrolysis on pg 802. The entering nucleophile is salicylic acid, not water. On the resulting tetrahedral intermediate, the H from salicylic acid moves to the middle O on the anhydride. Finally, the leaving group is acetic acid, not chloride. No base is involved. Provide structures of all intermediates in your lab report.

Global Stratification

Identify and explain three (3) differences between the modernization and dependency theories. Write a thoughtful paragraph for each difference identified (3 paragraphs total).
Grading criteria:
Students can gain up to 5 points per paragraph written, and 5 points for the bibliography (list of sources consulted).
Each paragraph must identify and explain one difference between the theories.
Each paragraph must demonstrate that the student completed the required readings and videos. Each paragraph must contain a direct reference or quotation to some of the required readings.
Each paragraph must be original, using student’s own work or ideas.
A complete list of used-sources must be included after the 3 paragraphs. Sources must be listed using APA or ASA format.
A plagiarism check software will be used. Plagiarism will result in a grade of 0.