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Summary On Turkey Import Export Economics Essay

Turkey is officially known as the Republic of Turkey is a Eurasian country located in Western Asia mostly in the Anatolian peninsula and in East Thrace in South-eastern Europe. Turkey’s location at the crossroads of Europe and Asia makes it a country of significant geostrategic importance. In addition to its strategic location, Turkey’s growing economy and diplomatic initiatives have led to its recognition as a regional power in the Middle East. According to the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) , Turkey is expected to be the fastest growing economy among OECD members between 2011 and 2017, with an annual average growth rate of 6.7 percent. Although immigration from rural to urban areas since 1990 has been high, 24.5% of the population still lives in rural areas. The major cities and their populations are: Istanbul, the trade and finance centre, 12.9 million; Ankara, the capital, 4.7 million; Izmir a major player in the dairy, greenhouse and tourism sector, 3.9 million; Bursa, the centre of automotive manufacturing and food processing, 2.6 million; Adana, the centre of agricultural production,2.1 million; Konya, the canter of grain production, 2.0 million; and Antalya, the centre of vegetable production and tourism sector, 1.9 million. The population of Turkey is expected to reach 75.8 in 2013 and 77.6 million in 2015. Seventy-two percent of the population is under the age of 35 and 26% is under the age of 15. Parameter Value in Year 2010 : Population 74 million, Labour Force (Population) 25.9 million Median Age 29.2, GDP USD 736 billion, GDP Per Capita USD 10,079, Exports Value USD 120.9 billion, Imports Value USD 185 billion, Tourism Revenue USD 20.8 billion, Tourist Number 28.5 million people, Foreign Direct Investment USD 9.1 billion, Number of Companies with Foreign Capital 25,500, Inflation Rate 6.4%. Turkey’s largely free-market economy is increasingly driven by its industry and service sectors, although its traditional agriculture sector still accounts for about 25% of employment. An aggressive privatization program has reduced state involvement in basic industry, banking, transport, and communication, and an emerging cadre of middle-class entrepreneurs is adding dynamism to the economy and expanding production beyond the traditional textiles and clothing sectors. The automotive, construction, and electronics industries, are rising in importance and have surpassed textiles within Turkey’s export mix. Oil began to flow through the Baku-Tbilisi-Ceyhan pipeline, marking a major milestone that will bring up to 1 million barrels per day from the Caspian to market. Several gas pipelines projects also are moving forward to help transport Central Asian gas to Europe through Turkey, which over the long term will help address Turkey’s dependence on imported oil and gas to meet 97% of its energy needs. After Turkey experienced a severe financial crisis, Ankara adopted financial and fiscal reforms as part of an IMF program. Turkey’s public sector debt to GDP ratio has fallen to roughly 40%. Continued strong growth has pushed inflation to the 8% level, however, and worsened an already high current account deficit. Turkey remains dependent on often volatile, short-term investment to finance its large trade deficit. The stock value of FDI stood at $99 billion at year-end 2011. Inflows have slowed considerably in light of continuing economic turmoil in Europe, the source of much of Turkey’s FDI. Further economic and judicial reforms and prospective EU membership are expected to boost Turkey’s attractiveness to foreign investors. However, Turkey’s relatively high current account deficit, uncertainty related to monetary policy-making, and political turmoil within Turkey’s neighbourhood leave the economy vulnerable to destabilizing shifts in investor confidence. IMPORT REGULATION Overall, Turkey has a relatively free market for trade in goods and services as a result of liberalization measures introduced over the past two decades. Turkey follows basic WTO rules to regulate imports and tariff structures and has adopted the European Union (EU)’s common customs tariff for imports from third countries. Turkey signed a customs union with the EU in 1996, eliminating all duties and charges on goods imported from EU member countries, excluding services, public procurement and unprocessed agricultural products. Turkey has signed free trade agreements with various countries and extends preferential treatment for least developed countries and some developing countries. TARIFFS AND CLASSIFCATION OF GOODS Turkey’s tariff schedule is based on both the Harmonized Coding System (HS) and the Combined Nomenclature (CN) of the European Union within the framework of the Customs Union. Import duties are calculated on cost, insurance and freight (CIF) prices and are levied as a percentage on the landed value of the good. The importer is responsible for payment of the Turkish value-added tax (VAT), which is set at 18% for the majority of imports or 26% for luxury goods. Goods on which duty was paid on entry to an EU country can be admitted duty-free to Turkey and vice versa (with exceptions for agricultural goods and some industrial products). Clearance time is usually one to three days, depending on the type of freight. In the event of a classification dispute, the higher duty can be paid with the intent to seek reimbursement at a later date STANDARD The Turkish Standards Institute (TSE) is responsible for setting standards in Turkey. TSE approval is required to import any product covered under these standards. Many categories of products are subject to restrictions and special requirements such as narcotics (prohibited) and weapons (subject to strict license control). Items such as live animals, medicines and pharmaceuticals, food and plant products, organic chemicals, telecommunications equipment, ozone-depleting substances, explosives, banknotes and commercial paper, radioactive materials and temporary import of goods for exhibition may require additional permissions and certificates from government agencies. FOREIGN INVESTMENT IN TURKEY Foreign direct investment plays an important role in the Turkish economy. The Government has introduced reforms to improve the investment environment in Turkey, such as simplified procedures, new legislation and tax incentives to attract foreign investors. Under Turkey’s programme to privatize state enterprises, foreign investors benefit from the same rights and incentives as local investors. FREE TRADE ZONES IN TURKEY Turkey has numerous free trade zones, considered to be outside the jurisdiction of Turkish customs authorities. Goods can be imported duty-free, assembled, manufactured, stored, repackaged and re-exported without paying tariffs. Unlike many free zones around the world, Turkish free zones allow sales into the Turkish market, subject to a fee. EXPORT REGULATION TRANSIT – 1 Increased concern on the transit of dual-use items within Turkey as well as within the international community. Relevant Turkish legislation – 1 The related provisions of the under secretariat of Foreign Trade Communiqué 2003/12 on the Control of Exports of Dual-Use and Sensitive Items. The related provisions of the Customs Law no. 4458 dated 5 February 2000 which conforms with EU Customs Code (Council Regulation 2913/92). TRANSIT – 2 Relevant Turkish legislation – 2 Anti Smuggling Law no. 5607. Within this legislative framework, transits of items that are subject to export controls are treated on a case-by-case basis within the scope of interagency cooperation. ENFORCEMENT -1 Located in a sensitive geography where transit-trade and transit-shipment is common, customs enforcement and ground interdiction in general is of prime importance to Turkey. Customs authorities use an extensive database for enforcement purposes. New security systems have also been developed and established to prevent illegal trafficking of goods. ENFORCEMENT- 2 “Intelligence and Land Border Gates Vehicle Pursuit Program” has been developed. System currently operates at strategically important land border gates and seaports. All alerts and intelligence information about suspected vehicles, goods, firms, brokers and other actors are introduced into this program and forwarded to all regional units. ENFORCEMENT- 3 Fixed and mobile vehicle and container scanning systems Fixed, mobile and handheld radiation detection units Transit Vehicle Traction System / Monitoring of movements at the Control Centre in Ankara. System alerts enforcement officers when The vehicle leaves its specified route within Turkey, or The vehicle remains outside the path already specified, The mobile tracking unit is removed. EXPORT CONTROLS: COOPERATION ON THE GROUND We receive intelligence (either through own Intel channels or through international cooperation. Immediate action by MFA: call on board interagency task force. Depending on the intelligence: relevant export control authority intelligence insight sought if necessary military advice (including naval/air). Ability to confirm proper licensing/customs info. Intelligence needs to be on time and accurate. A CHALLENGE IN EXPORT CONTROLS-FREE ZONES-1 Constitutes a loophole within control systems. Can be exploited by proliferators. The transfer of sensitive items to other destinations is difficult to trace. The burden of the exporter country is increased In Turkey: transfer of dual-use items into free zones in Turkey are subject to licensing according to the export legislation. A CHALLENGE IN EXPORT CONTROLS-FREE ZONES-2 The items transferred into the free zones cannot be transferred out of the free zone without the permission of the under secretariat of Foreign Trade (UFT). “Import Certificate” and “End-user Certificate” is required for the transfer. If and when necessary, UFT consults other relevant institutions before granting permission. The UFT has the authority to deny or postpone the transfer. RECENTLY CHANGED REGULATIONS In December 2011 several amendments were made in the regulations which include : Official import controls of plant origin food and feed , Measurements to monitor certain substances and their residue on live animals and animal products, Food Hygiene , Food premises registration and approval , Food and Feed official control ,Pre-notification and veterinary checks of animal and animal products entering to the country, Specific rules for animal products official inspections, Veterinary checks on products entering to the country, Veterinary checks on live animals entering to the country, Domestic animal and animal products movements, Animal Hospital regulation , Veterinary checks on animal and animal products entering to the country, Animal welfare regulations, Protection and combating measurements against cattle leucosis, Protection and combating measurements against cattle anthrax, Surveillance of zoonose and zoonotic agents, related antimicrobial resistance and food borne outbreak, Criteria of livestock markets registration and inspections, Animal welfare during animal transportation, Animal by products that are not intended to use for human consumption, Sperm, Ovum and Embryo production centre establishment, Special hygiene regulation for animal products, Feed hygiene, placing on the market and use of feed, methods of sampling and analysis for the official control of feed, Turkish food codex, Maximum residue limits of pesticides, Flavorings and certain food ingredients with flavoring properties, Food additives, Microbiological criteria for foodstuff, labelling, Contamination, Materials and articles intended to come into contact with food, Import inspection regulating, In December 2012 amendments were made in the regulations which include : Bread and varieties of Bread, methods of sampling for chemical analysis for the monitoring of preserved milk, composition and labelling of foodstuffs suitable for people intolerant to gluten, sampling, testing method for dioxin and similar products, methods of sampling for chemical analysis of edible caseins and caseinates, indications or marks identifying the lot to which a foodstuff belongs TURKEY IMPORTS-EXPORTS EXPORT $133 billion (2011) $120.9 billion (2010) EXPORTS-COMMODITIES Apparel, Foodstuffs, Textiles, Metal Manufactures, Transport Equipment EXPORTS-PARTNERS Germany 10.1%, UK 6.4%, Italy 5.7%, France 5.3%, Iraq 5.3%, Russia 4.1% (2010) TURKEY EXPORTS BY PRODUCT in 2010 (In US DOLLORS ($)) Food and Live Animals – 6,512,339,000 Beverages and Tobacco – 736,445,000 Crude materials ,Inedible, Except fuels – 1,334,833,000 Mineral Fuels ,Lubricants and Related Material – 2,641,023,000 Animal and Vegetable Oils, Fats and Waxes – 405,300,000 Chemicals and Related Products – 2,801,266,000 Manufactured Goods classified chiefly by Material – 20,408,933,000 Machinery and Transport Equipment – 21,005,357,000 Miscellaneous Manufactured Articles – 15,947,496,000 Commodities and Transact-ions not classified elsewhere in the SITC – 1,106,838,000 ELECTRICITY EXPORTS (million kWh) – IN 2012 -1550 OIL EXPORTS – 68,450 bbl/day (2011) NATURAL GAS-EXPORTS – 649 million cu m (2011) IMPORTS $212.2 billion (2011) $185 billion (2010) IMPORTS-COMMODITIES Machinery, Chemicals, Semi-Finished Goods, Fuels, Transport Equipment IMPORTS-PARTNERS Russia 11.6%, Germany 9.5%, China 9.3%, US 6.6%, Italy 5.5%, France 4.4%, Iran 4.1% (2010) TURKEY IMPORTS BY PRODUCT SECTION YEAR 2010 (In US DOLLORS ($)) Food and Live Animals -1,615,878,000 Beverages and Tobacco -298,876,000 Crude materials, inedible ,except fuels – 7,660,516,000 Mineral Fuels, Lubricants and Related Materials – 15,764,234,000 Animal and Vegetable Oils, Fats and Waxes – 744,731,000 Chemicals and Related Products – 16,166,494,000 Manufactured Goods classified chiefly by Material – 19,989,660,000 Machinery and Transport Equipment – 37,808,892,000 Miscellaneous Manufactured Articles – 6,615,182,000 Commodities and Transactions not classified elsewhere in the SITC – 10,109,685,000 OIL IMPORTS – 581,000 bbl/day (2011) NATURAL GAS-IMPORTS – 38.04 billion cu m (2011) GROSS DOMESTIC PRODUCT (GDP) This entry gives the gross domestic product (GDP) or value of all final goods and services produced within a nation in a given year. A nation’s GDP at purchasing power parity (PPP) exchange rates is the sum value of all goods and services produced in the country valued at prices prevailing in the United States. GDP (PURCHASING POWER PARITY) $1.026 trillion (2011) $981.2 billion (2010) $906.9 billion (2009) Note: data are in 2011 US dollars Source: International Monetary Fund – 2011 World Economic Outlook GDP – REAL GROWTH RATE 4.6% (2011) 8.2% (2010) – 4.7% (2009) Variable: Gross domestic product, constant prices Units: Percent change Country-specific Note: See notes for: Gross domestic product, constant prices (National currency). Source: International Monetary Fund – 2011 World Economic Outlook Year Gross domestic product, constant prices 2008 0.659 2009 -4.826 2010 8.945 GDP – PER CAPITA (PPP) $14,600 (2011) $13,800 (2010) $12,900 (2009) Note: data are in 2011 US dollars Year Gross domestic product based on purchasing-power-parity (PPP) per capita GDP Percent Change 2008 13107.54 1.68 2009 12460.79 -4.93 2010 13577.11 8.96 GDP – COMPOSITION BY SECTOR Agriculture: 9.3% Industry: 28.1% Services: 62.6% (2011) AGRICULTURE SECTOR Agriculture has always been one of the most promising sectors for Turkey, both for the domestic economy and in terms of international trade. Around 40 percent of Turkey’s land area is arable and offers a large range of products such as grains, pulses, oil seeds, fruits and vegetables, cut flowers, poultry, dairy products, seafood, honey and tobacco. Grain production, livestock and fisheries/forestry account for 67 percent, 26 percent and 7 percent of the total agricultural production, respectively. Turkey’s agricultural imports in 2010 and 2011, excluding processed food, reached USD 6.49 billion (3.49 percent of the total imports) and USD 8.94 (3.7 percent of the total imports), respectively. Export were USD 5.09 billion (4 percent of total exports) in 2010 and USD 5.35 (3.9 percent of total exports) in 2011. The top Turkish exports are dried figs, dried apricots, sultana raisins, hazelnuts and hazelnut products. Turkey’s top imports are cotton, soybeans, hides and skins, feed ingredients, live animals and paddy rice. FOOD PURCHASING BEHAVIOUR The Turkish food sector is becoming more advanced due to retailer demands for higher standards and investments by food manufactures. Through the widespread presence of modern international and domestic grocery retail outlets such as Metro, Carrefour, Tesco and Migros as well as rising incomes, the consumption patterns of Turkish consumers have shifted away from bulk and raw foods towards packaged and processed foods, including ready-to-eat meals and frozen foods. An increase in the number of females working full-time and higher levels of disposable income has supported this trend. This is particularly the case in urban centres’. The major food consumption patterns have not changed as much in the rural areas and are still based on wheat and grain products and a variety of meat products. Consumers in the south east of Turkey mainly consume lamb, but in Central Anatolia and the West more consumers prefer beef. Milk consumption has not increased as quickly as milk production, which increased from 8 million MT in 2002 to 12.5 million MT in 2011, but the variety of milk products such as yogurt and cheese increased. There are still a lot of opportunities for investments in the dairy products sector but products should be adjusted to local tastes. Turkey should be considered a door to Middle Eastern market. Due to shared history and religion as well as common cultures, Turkish agriculture and food export to the Middle East increased dramatically in the past decade. The Halal and organic food subsectors are areas which could be ready for investments or partnerships in the region. Production in the food and beverage sector reached TRY 8,852 million in 2009, which constitutes 18-20 percent of the country’s production as a whole. The proportion of Turkish household expenditure allocated to food and beverages, which was around 23 percent and declined to about 21.9 percent in 2009, remains high compared with Western standards, which range between 15-20 percent. But Alcoholic beverages and tobacco expenditures increased from 4.1 percent to 4.5 percent in 2009-10. Total consumer spending on food, beverages and tobacco was estimated at around USD 145 billion in 2010. The Turkish economy grew 15.7 fold between 1980 and 2010 from TRY 70 billion to 1,105 billion whereas the food sector grew 14.8 fold from TRY 15 billion to 222 billion in the same period. Accordingly, the share of the food sector in Turkey’s GDP dropped to 20.1% in 2010 from 21.4% in 1998. The Turkish diet contains a large share of baked goods. Hence, the bakery subsector forms the majority (65 percent) of the total number of food and beverage companies in Turkey. In 2011 Turkey consumed 11,486,000 MT of bread and only 33,600 MT of packaged bread. Turkish consumers tend to buy bread from small bakeries when it is hot and generally don’t buy packaged sliced bread. Another important bakery product is the Simit (type of bagel) as well as salty cookie-like products. Modern bakery shops have begun to open, especially in Istanbul, but that is not widespread throughout Turkey. Moreover, due to the low quality of flour available in Turkey, pita style bread is popular in East and South East Anatolia. Therefore, the bakery sector in general offers a lot of opportunities for growth and development. FINDING BUSINESS PARTNERS IN TURKEY There are 467 foreign companies actively operating in the Turkish food sector. Cargill, Bunge, Nestle, Unilever, Coca-Cola, and Pepsi-Co are some of the most prominent ones. Restaurant franchises are one way of introducing new products. An increasing number of restaurant chains are opening in Turkey, especially in Istanbul. These include casual dining, fast food and cafes. While most of these companies’ source food ingredients produced in Turkey, some require specialized ingredients or imports of certain items that are not readily available. Exporters should check with importers to see if they are approved suppliers for franchises. Additionally, Turkey’s hotel sector has traditionally represented an important niche market for certain high-value food products that cannot be readily found throughout Turkey. Turkey attracts 30 million tourists every year, especially in Istanbul and Antalya. There are 336 five star and 543 four star hotels in Turkey and most of them are located in Antalya and Istanbul. Global hotel chains including the Marriot, Hilton and Sheraton have a strong presence in Turkey. Turkey is a major tourism destination for Germans, Russians, British and Scandinavian travellers. Five star hotels would like to offer more high-quality products to their customers. Fresh fruits and vegetables are readily available in Turkey but high quality meat (especially steak) and fishery products (especially shrimp and crab) can be extremely difficult to source. Trader associations are also very important contacts for those seeking to enter the market. The Feed Millers Association, Turkish Food and Drink Industry Association Federation, and Poultry Meat Producers and Breeders Association are examples of important trader’s organizations. (See Annex A for more details). A visit to Turkey to gain a first-hand information about the Turkish market, preferably coinciding with a major trade show such as FOODÄ°ST (See Annex C for more details), is a good way to get started before entering the Turkish market and meeting prospective importers. Similarly, international food shows such as ANUGA, SIAL and Gulfood area attracting more and more Turkish importers, and may also be a way to meet prospective customers. TRADE POLICY The major barrier to selling agricultural products to Turkey is high tariff rates. The tariff for beef cuts is bound at 225%, for milk is 150%, for white cheese is 80%, and for wheat and corn is normally 130% (depending on demand, the government can temporarily lower tariffs).Turkey and the United States signed an import protocol allowing imports of live dairy breeding cattle and for fattening cattle. However, neither a protocol for slaughter cattle, nor for cut beef has been negotiated. Another major barrier is a new Bio safety Law which has been enforced in Turkey since September 26, 2010. The law banned importation of any GMO products until the genes contained within go through a lengthy approval process. On January 26, 2011, Turkey’s Bio safety Board approved the three biotech traits for soybeans (A2704-12, MON89788,MON40-3-2) for feed use that were approved in the European Union at the time, allowing U.S. soybeans to enter Turkey for feed use only. Then on December 24, 2011, The Bio safety Board approved 13 corn (see annex D for more information) events for feed use. The remaining 9 events have been reviewed, but due to a negative recommendation by the committees, approval will be difficult. New import regulations were published in the Official Gazette dated December 30, 2011. Changes in these regulations reflected that fact that the Ministry of Food Agriculture and Livestock (previously known as the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs) was reorganized in 2011 and divided oversight of plant and animal products. According to the new import regime, plant and plant products no longer require control certificate (Find more details in Annex F) however the importer must pre-notify imports of material according to the information provided below. Some animal and animal products now require control certificates. A list of products which require control certificates is given in Annex E Most Turkish agriculture-related regulations, laws, communiqués, directives, and notifications are available on the website of the General Directorate of Food Control (GDFC) of the Ministry of Food, Agriculture and Livestock (MINFAL): www.gkgm.gov.tr. Some of the regulations have an English translation available on the same website. The legal infrastructure of agriculture is mainly based on communiqués rather than on laws. The reason for this is that the Turkish constitutional system does not allow laws to be adopted, amended or abolished easily. Therefore governments have traditionally preferred to publish communiqués or regulations in order to maintain flexibility. As you will see from table below, currently the main policy goal of Turkish food and agriculture officials is to harmonize the related laws and regulations with the EU Acquis Communitarians. Sometimes it appears that this concern overwhelms other concerns such as national interest and farmer interests. IMPORT DUTIES High tariffs on the majority of food items continue to hinder the growth of food imports from the United States (see Annex G for tariff rates of important products). Import tariffs on consumer food products range from zero to 225 percent, but most products face tariffs in the range of 40-50 percent. Turkey has considerable flexibility in raising or lowering tariffs. Consequently, tariffs are subject to review and change, especially on December 30. Tariffs can vary and often depend on whether there is a need to import or not. Turkey normally applies the highest/bound rates for some products such as meat cuts at 225%. Some products, however, like cereals, have high tariff rates at 130% although still below the bound rate of 180%. Due to high meat prices last year, allowed imports of carcass meat (but not cuts) and lowered the customs tax from 225% to 30% at first, then slowly raised the tariff back to 75% when meat prices dropped slowly. Where there is strong demand but a lack of domestic supply, the applied tariff can be very low such 8% for soybeans, and DDGS at 4.3%. Turkish corn producers and soy millers are calling on the government to raise the bound rate on DDGS but, since it is bound, they use non-tariff barriers such as standards that are difficult to meet. Two important government agencies receive special tariff quotas when acting as importer get special tariff quotas. The Turkish Grain Board (TMO) (www.tmo.gov.tr) usually procures grain from the domestic market but when there is a need to import the government allocates a special zero tariff rate import quota for TMO. The other institute is The Meat and Fish Institute (www.ebk.gov.tr), which acts to control domestic meat prices and also receives reduced tariff meat import quotas from the government when there is a need. CUSTOMS INSPECTION AND DOCUMENTATION Upon entry of the product at Customs, the importer should be prepared to present the approved control certificate if required as well as other normal import documentation such as the bill of lading, original invoice and certificate of origin. In addition, the importer should be prepared to present Customs with the exporting company’s analysis report for physical, chemical, microbiological and heavy metal content, and a certificate from the official food inspection agency of the country of origin stating that the product meets the quarantine requirements of the importing country. Turkish Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Livestock (MINFAL) officials take samples of the imported product to government laboratories for physical, chemical and microbiological analysis and confirm it matches the information supplied from the exporting country. Import of the foodstuff is allowed if the results of the analysis are found to be acceptable and consistent with Turkish regulations, and the imports have been approved by MINFAL. Results of the analysis are normally received within a few working days. If the inspection results do not match with Turkish requirements, the importer may request secondary sample tests. In the case that the secondary test results are also against the Turkish import requirements then the shipment is rejected by MINFAL authorities or they allow special treatments under specific circumstances.

UV Spectrophotometric Method: Captopril and Lisinopril

UV Spectrophotometric Method: Captopril and Lisinopril. 100 mg of Captopril was weighed accurately and transferred in to 100 ml volumetric flask. Drug dissolved in small quantity of 0.9% NaCl and sufficient quantity of NaCl solution to added to produce 100 ml of stock solution having a concentration of 1 mg/ml. Further 20 mcg/ml concentration was prepared by appropriately diluting the stock solution. The standard solution was scanned between the wavelength ranges of 200 to 300 nm in Shimadzu UV spectrophotometer to determine the wavelength of maximum absorbance. Maximum absorbance for Captopril was recorded at 227 nm. Preparation of the working standard solution and calibration curve 100 mg of Captopril was accurately weighed and transferred into 100 ml volumetric flask. Drug dissolved in volumetric flask using small quantity of 0.9% NaCl. The volume was made up with the NaCl to 100 ml to produce a stock solution having a concentration of 1 mg/ml. An aliquot of 5 ml of the stock solution was diluted to 50 ml to get a standard solution having a concentration of 100mcg/ml using NaCl solution. Working standard solutions ranging in concentration from 5 to 30 mcg/ml were prepared by appropriately diluting the standard solution with 0.9% NaCl. The absorbance of each working standard solution was measured at 227 nm using a Shimadzu UV spectrophotometer. Data for each and every experiment was obtained in triplicates and statistically analyzed. The Calibration curve for Captopril in 0.9% NaCl is shown in Fig: 4.1.1. UV Spectrophotometric Method of Lisinopril in Phosphate Buffer pH 7.4 100 mg of Lisinopril was accurately weighed and transferred in to 100 ml volumetric flask where it dissolved in small quantity of phosphate buffer pH 7.4. Sufficient volume of phosphate buffer pH 7.4 added to produced 100 ml of stock solution having a concentration of 1 mg/ml. A standard solution having a concentration of 20 mcg/ml was prepared by appropriately diluting the stock solution. The standard solution was scanned between the wavelength ranges of 200 to 300 nm in Shimadzu UV spectrophotometer to determine the wavelength of maximum absorbance. Maximum absorbance for Lisinopril was recorded at 217 nm. Preparation of the working standard solution and calibration curve 100 mg of Lisinopril was accurately weighed in to 100 ml volumetric flask and dissolved in small quantity of Phosphate Buffer pH 7.4. The volume was made up with the Phosphate Buffer pH 7.4 to 100 ml to produce a stock solution having a concentration of 1 mg/ml. An aliquot of 5 ml of the stock solution was diluted to 50 ml to get a standard solution having a concentration of 100mcg/ml using Phosphate Buffer pH 7.4. Working standard solutions were prepared in concentration range of 5 to 30 mcg/ml by appropriately diluting the stock solution with Phosphate Buffer pH 7.4. Measure the absorbance of each working standard solution at 217 nm by shimadzu UV spectrophotometer. Data for each and every experiment was obtained in triplicates and statistically analyzed. The Calibration curve for Lisinopril in Phosphate Buffer pH 7.4 is shown in Fig: 3.2.1. Solubility Determination For determination of solubility, excess amounts of Captopril and Lisinopril were taken into glass vials and dissolved in measured amount of different solvent to obtain saturated solutions. The same were kept at rest for 24 hours to get the equilibrium with the undissolved drug particles. The supernatant was filtered from these solutions to separate the undissolved drug particles then diluted suitably with the same solvents and the concentrations were measured [119]. Same procedures were followed for both drugs and data for each and every experiment was obtained in triplicates and statistically analyzed. Partition Coefficient The octanol/phosphate buffer partition coefficient of both the drugs was determined by shaking equal volume of octanol and phosphate buffer in a separating funnel for 10 min and allowing to stand for 24 hours. Aqueous phase was assayed before and after partitioning to get the partition coefficients [119]. Skin/vehicle partition coefficients were determined by dipping the skin in known concentrations of drug in water for 24 hours and estimating the concentration after partitioning. Data for each and every experiment was obtained in triplicates and statistically analyzed. pKa Determination The determination was made using a Digisun DI -707 pH meter with a glass electrode combined with a silver-silver chloride reference system. Solutions were made at different concentration levels and pH was noted the pKa was determined by the equation [120] H = (Ka. C) 1/2 Preparation of Pigskin Membrane Superficial skin of pig ear was used. Ear of freshly slaughtered pigs were procured from a local abattoir. From the outer regions of the ear, skin was detached carefully and separated from the underlying cartilage with a scalpel. Adhered fat removed from dermis side the help of a scalpel and isopropyl alcohol. At last, the skin was washed with tap water and stored at refrigerator in aluminum foil packing and was used within two days [121]. Preparation of Rabbit Skin Permission was grabbed from CPCSEA approved Institute Animal Ethics Committee (Reg. No. 1252/ac/09/CPCSEA). The rabbits were sacrificed by the I.V injection of chloroform [122]. Skin samples were taken from the back area of rabbits. From the skin, adherent fat and other visceral debris were detached. To equilibrate the skin, dermal side of full thickness skin was soaked in buffer (phosphate buffer, pH 7.4) for 12 hours at 4°C and used on the same day. Experimental Design For the study of effect of concentration and current densities on iontophoretic delivery, experiment was carried out with different donor drug concentrations and current densities. Different systems with diverse concentrations (Current density 0.5 mA/cm2) were designed as System A, System B, System C having concentration 25mg/ml, 50mg/ml and 75 mg/ml respectively. Moreover systems with diverse current densities (Concentration 25 mg/ml) designed as System A1, System A2, System A3 having current densities 0.25 mA/cm2, 0.5 mA/cm2 and 0.75 mA/cm2 respectively. Moreover to assess the effect of chemical enhancers and iontophoresis on delivery of Captopril and Lisinopril by transdermal route, permeation of drugs was studied using permeation enhancers and iontophoresis. Sodium lauryl sulphate, Dimethyl sulfoxide, Menthol, Oleic acid, Peppermint oil, and Poly ethylene glycol were used as permeation enhancers. Donor compartment contained 1 ml solution having 25 mg/ml of drug and 1 % w/w of enhancer. Cathodal iontophoresis was performed at current density 0.5 mA/cm2. Combine effect enhancers and iontophoresis on permeation of drugs studied also. In-Vitro Passive Permeation Studies Franz diffusion cell having a receptor compartment capacity of 10 ml were used for in-vitro permeation study. The excised pig/rabbit skin was mounted between the half-cells with the dermis in contact with receptor fluid (Phosphate buffer pH 7.4 / 0.9% NaCl) and was equilibrated for 1 hour. The area available for permeation was noted about 1.21cm2. Temperature was maintained at 37±0.5 °C in the receptor compartment. Under these situations, the temperature at the skin surface was approximately 32 °C. Donor cell was enclosed with an aluminum foil to avoid the evaporation of vehicle. Different solution of Lisinopril in phosphate buffer pH 7.4 and Captopril in 0.9% NaCl solution (each one ml) were placed in the donor cell. The complete assembly was placed on a magnetic stirrer and with the help of magnetic bead, the receiver fluid was stirred constantly. The sample solution was withdrawn from the receptor compartment at regular intervals and assayed for drug content [123]. Procedure of Iontophoretic Diffusion For iontophoretic permeation study, diffusion cell was modified as suggested by Glikfield [124]. Apparatus consist of a large receiving chamber of glass having two parallel ports on the topside and one sampling port on the side. Both upper chambers are prepared from open-ended cylindrical glass tubes, the outer diameters of which were correspondent to the inner diameter of the parallel ports for ensuring easy fitting. The lower 10 mm of these tubes were slightly constricted to allow a clearance of 1 to 1.5 mm on the side. Skin was tied at this constricted end, effective diameter increased and became just equal to inner diameter of the extended ports. Skins are tide in this manner so that it touched the receiving solution. Now as the battery was switched on, current flowed through the skin placed in donor anodal compartment into receiving solution below and the subsequently reached to the cathodal electrode through the skin tied to cathodal end. Donor solution was filled in one of the top chambers (depending on the polarity of the drug) and the other serve as return electrode chamber. In the present study, silver/silver chloride electrode was inserted into the donor compartment because similar charge repels each other, whereas silver plate was inserted into anodal chamber as return electrode. Direct current (0.25-0.75 mA cm-2) was used throughout experiment. The receptor fluid (5 ml) was withdrawn at regular intervals and replaced with fresh buffer to maintain sink condition. Samples were assayed by U-V spectrophotometer. Permeation Enhancement Studies Dimethyl sulfoxide, oleic acid, peppermint oil, menthol, poly ethylene glycol, and sodium louryl sulphate were used for enhancement of permeation. The donor compartment contained drug solution with 1% w/w concentration of different enhancers. Combined effect of chemical enhancers and iontophoresis also studied. Preparation of Gel formulation Gel formulations were prepared by soaking 5 g of HPMC overnight (12 hours) in a part of solvent mixture (ethanol: propylene glycol: water in ratio of 50:30:20). Separately dissolved 2.5 g of drug in the similar vehicle was incorporated to the polymer dispersion. Glycerol (5 % v/v) was added as humectant and volume was adjusted to 100 ml by adding the vehicle. Finally the mixture was stirred with the help of an electrical stirrer (500 rpm, 1 hour) to make sure uniform transparency [125]. Estimation of the Drug (Content uniformityUV Spectrophotometric Method: Captopril and Lisinopril

Marymount University Privacy and Confidentiality in Technology Information Essay

online homework help Marymount University Privacy and Confidentiality in Technology Information Essay.

(You the writer can choose the topic that you want to write about, try to refrain from writing about politics)Anything else should be fine. Read the instructions and follow the format.The Problem Identification essay, 2 pages, single spaced, establishes your ability to invent a scholarly research question from the larger and more complex problems of business ethics. This essay is, essentially, the 1st section of any longer piece of writing, and should exhibit your ability to: 1) Describe the overall context of the problem at hand.2) Describe the problem as it emerges from the context.3) Invent a research question or specific problem that you want to interrogate.-A Set-up for your Research Question, a brief lay-of the land narrative that provides a broad description of the problem at hand. This general comment shows what brings you to the issue, often by way of setting down the current scholarly debate, or by describing a scene from a film, book, or news event. -Set-up Sample: “The themes of citizenship and community are being discussed in many quarters of the left today. This is no doubt a consequence of the crisis of class politics and indicates the growing awareness of the need for a new form of identification around which to organize the forces struggling for a radicalization of democracy.-The Problem as you see it, which hints at the Research Question itself. This brief narrative frames the issue at hand so that you can then ask a specific question for your research.-Problem Sample: “I believe that the question of political identity is crucial and that the attempt to construct citizens’ identities is one of the more important tasks of democratic politics. But there are many different versions of citizenship and vital issues are at stake in their contest. The way we define citizenship is intimately linked to the kind of society and political community we want.”-The Research Question (#1 above) which can take the form of a stated problem (“In this essay I want to interrogate the ways ideology informs our identity-constructs”), or an actual question (“In what ways does ideology determine our identity?) This is the single most important component of your writing.-Research Question Sample: “How should we understand citizenship when our goal is both a radical and plural democracy? Such a project requires the creation of a chain of equivalence among democratic struggles, and therefore the creation of a common political identity among democratic subjects. For the term citizens to actually mean this and function in this way, what conditions must it meet?”-The Research Method and a glimpse of your Researched Argument. This optional narrative shows how you plan to address the question through research, and how your argument will emerge from your findings. Research Method Sample: “These are the problems that I will address, and I will argue that the key task is how to conceive of the nature of the political community under modern democratic conditions. I consider that we need to go beyond the conceptions of citizenship of both the liberal and civic republican tradition while building on their respective strengths.”Format:1)Set-up2)Problem3)Research Question4)Research Method
Marymount University Privacy and Confidentiality in Technology Information Essay

objective: To prepare an assessment interview and to evaluate the components of your interview You are a preschool teacher Essay

objective: To prepare an assessment interview and to evaluate the components of your interview You are a preschool teacher who is evaluating Aiden, a four-year-old student, in preparation for a mid-year parent–teacher conference. You completed an assessment of Aiden at the beginning of the school year and have informally tracked his progress since that time. Aiden appears to be a typically developing child. You will be conducting an assessment interview on the topic of comparative sizes as part of your evaluation. Prepare a five-question Level 5 assessment interview for Aiden that covers the topic of comparative sizes. Make sure that you incorporate a non-routine approach in at least three of your questions. For each question, identify the response you expect Aiden to give, and why. Attach your assessment interview to your initial discussion post. Then, write one paragraph to support your list of teacher behaviors of (the subject matter) and the development of her students. Suitable for the topic in 150-175 words.

Is Ethnic Conflict Inevitable Politics Essay

The issue of ethnic and ethnic conflict have always been an intriguing topic to dwell on since both these issues have compelling impact in the world of security, more so they have risen steadily after the end of the cold war. Ethnic conflict remains an issue that needs to be dealt with the right perspective in order for us to find the solutions to overcome any misconceptions that come with it. More often than not, in discussing the paramount issue of ethnic conflict, we tend to be misguided by what can be constituted as ethnic conflict or whether it can be associated with racial conflict collectively. On the same note, we cannot run from the fact that the argument of ethnic/ethnicity correlates with conflict, thus the vital concern arises: is ethnic conflict inevitable? In this relation, this essay of mine would be focusing on the standpoint that ethnic conflict is not inevitable, and the following pages would hopefully show the correlation of certain aspects and perspectives that would build the grounds to support my argument. What is ethnic conflict? To help us understand more on what is meant by the phrase ethnic conflict, first and foremost it is vital for us to be able to understand the meaning of ethnic first. As for this, let us take a look at the definition given by Horowitz (1985:17-18): “ethnic groups are defined by ascriptive differences, whether the indicium is colour, appearance, language, religion, some other indicator of origin, or some combination thereof.” On a different angle, ethnic can also be defined as a group of people who share the same inherited cultures and the way of life and are not influenced by biology factor (Macionis 1998:215), in which people from the same ethnic group would thus have similarities with respect to language, religion and ancestry. From this point of view, case in point would have to be the former Yugoslavia, with its three ethnic groups namely the Serbians, Croatians and the Bosnians. From the physical manner of appearance (in terms of race), all of them are similar but, in a true sense they have distinctive attributes from the aspects of language, culture and religion. Having said that, it would be a bit demanding to try to define the meaning of ethnic conflict. There are of course different school of thoughts and theories related to the connotation of ‘ethnic conflict’. Some say that the term ethnic conflict or ethnic warfare should not be coined at all on the pretext that it is being instigated by certain quarters of combatants or groups that intended to fight and kill on behalf of a particular entity or individual (Mueller 2000). To some extent this essay partially shares the same sentiment with Mueller’s argument. However on a similar note, this essay feels strongly that ethnic conflict carries with it the notion of prejudicial attitudes and actions by the intended states, constituents and political actors, whereby the long embedded series of injustice and feelings of oppressions and dissatisfactions escalades into acts of resentments and rebellions. Therefore, it is worth mentioning that this essay at the same time opposed strongly to the idea that ethnic conflict is derived from hundreds of years of hatred between religions and tribal unconformities. Case in Point In conferring the essential part of the term ethnic conflict, this essay shall establish the common grounds between ethnic conflict that happened in the former Yugoslavia and also in Rwanda. This is somewhat crucial in aligning to the idea that ethnic conflict is nonetheless not inevitable, whereby eventually it can be avoided if certain policies or strategies were to be implemented or being put in place. If we look at the Balkan states, the scenario is different with a complex history and shrouded with interwoven factors of history, ethnic structures and prejudice. One of the chief reasons why conflict (rather ethnic conflict) happened in the former Yugoslavia is due to their indisputable cultural diversity and also the act of upholding one’s status quo amongst the ethnics. The scenario is overwhelming, whereby in a relatively small country, there are four types of native languages and three religions, all of which relate mutually with cultures from seven bordering countries, but unfortunately, having five different citizenships in the autonomy of Slovenia, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Serbia, Macedonia, Montenegro and Croatia. The fall of the communist regime in 1980 had witnessed the Serbs, Croats and the Muslims to be entangled in ethnic conflict in the 1990s. In this relation, this essay firmly stood to the idea that the turning point that escalades and geared the Balkan states to be entrenched in a horrific conflict is none other than the act of political actors who chose power over humanity. After the fall of Socialism, the emergence of the extra radical Slobodan Milosevic had worsened the scenario. Milosevic always echoes the agenda of ‘national question’. The intended agenda contemplates the ideas to unite all the Serbs in one particular country, to be free and segregated from the non-serbians (Reidlmayer 1993). The domino effect that follows from that dreadful agenda resulted in the Albanian minority being outcaste from Serbia. Chains of events also witnessed the ‘ethnic cleansing campaign’ in which the Bosnians were killed and chased away from their homes, women being raped and men were sent to detention camps. On top of that, we can see the ultimate motive of Milosevic whereby he persistently try to widen and augment the influence and superiority of the Serbs in specific potent areas of education, economy, military and politics throughout Yugoslavia. At the end of the day, it boils down to the creation of unjust allocation of wealth and socio-economy disparity. To make matters worst, the economy and arms embargo by the west led by the US and the European Community had turned out to be in favour towards the Serbs resulting in the deterioration of ethnic conflict in the former Yugoslavia (Fogelquist, 1995). Moving on to strengthen the essay’s argument, let us shift the focus to the ethnic conflict that happened in Rwanda which had catapulted the horrible genocide in 1994. It is a well known fact that the ethnic conflict in Rwanda was between the Tutsis and the Hutus, through which the Hutus were the dominant side. If we look at the history part of it, the clash between them correlates with the aspect of colonialism. During that time, when the Belgians and the Germans colonised their land, the minority Tutsis had been given the opportunity to receive education and opportunity to be absorbed into the state administrative. However, this policy or action had been deemed as unjust by the majority Hutus. Hence, resulted in socio-economic inequality and left a deep scar with regards to the relationship amongst the ethnics. Moreover, the Hutus was being left out in terms of development and being less favoured. The defining moment came in 1961, when the Tutsis won the national election and this had caused uproar from the Hutus. Eventually it had culminated into a terrible ethnic conflict between the two ethnics and nearly a million life perished (Neil Weiner 1994). Fundamental Factors and How Ethnic Conflicts Can Be Avoided Based upon the findings and information given in the above case in point, this essay shall furnish several key factors that act as a catalyst for ethnic conflict to transpire. Nonetheless the following factors might differ between different countries. For starters, this essay believes that the underlying principle for any ethnic conflicts to manifest itself the different views or treatment being given to a people or individual by a different group of people/individual. Apart from that, a possible ethnic conflict could happen if certain quarters of people have the idea that the colour of your skin, differences in cultures, religions and social class can be put as a benchmark to differentiate social class or position in a society. Relatively speaking, discrimination is also a destructive medium that would escalate into ethnic conflict. This essay also opines to the fact that the establishment of ethnic/race based organisations would cause more harm than good in a sense that they only open their door to individuals from their own ethnicity and more often than not they only fight for the rights and importance of the people/ethnic that they are representing. The outcome for having these kinds of organisations would certainly be a negative one indeed, showing how great an impact of ethnicity that could happen within a society. At the end of the day, ethnic-based organisations/societies can be exploited to diverge themselves and to be polarised in a negative direction of echoing one’s ethnic superiority. Another fundamental factor is the prominent cultural diversity which contributes to the advancement of ‘status quo’ aspiration amongst ethnics. By having this kind of aspirations, the crucial part of national integrity is often being neglected; hence tension among ethnics would be spreading gradually. As continuity to the previous point, it is worth mentioning that the elites often manipulate ethnic or racial sentiments to gain political mileage or personal agenda by deceiving or spinning sensitive issues. As reported in the article Leave None to Tell the Story; Genocide in Rwanda, Human Rights Watch (March 1993): “This genocide resulted from the deliberate choice of modern elite to foster hatred and fear to keep itself in power. This small privileged group first set the majority against the minority to counter a growing political opposition within Rwanda…these few power holders transformed the strategy of ethnic division into genocide”. The power of the mass media is also one of the intrinsic elements that are worth highlighted in scrutinising the issue of ethnic conflict. In Rwanda for example, the radicals, political actors and the structured mass Medias employed the vulnerability of ethnicity as instruments to gain and gauge popular support so as to exclude political rivals (Aapengnuo 2010). The mass media plays a pivotal role in escalating the tension of ethnics, simply because people tend to believe to what they listen to or to what they are reading from, without seeking for the truth beyond it. That is the nasty reality of the mass media. In any ethnic conflicts or clashes, recorded throughout the world, from the former Yugoslavia, Rwanda, Sudan, Sri Lanka, just to name a few, they all share the same outcome; deaths, destruction of properties and social instability. Many innocent lives perished and the bitterness of the memory would always linger to those victims of the traumatic experience. The following details are views of this essay, to insinuate that ethnic conflict in a particular country can be avoided by implementing several strategies, new policies and corrective measures. One of the potent measures is by eradicating poverty holistically, without any favours towards any race and ethnics. In line with this, restructuring of the society must be done to reform the economic imbalances amongst ethnics. Therefore, ethnics should not be labelled or confined to specific settlements and economy activities. In other words, in any societies in the world, common interest with just treatment amongst ethnics/race should be put above the interest of certain group of people. The second measure that needs to be addressed in a serious manner is undoubtedly the freedom and rights of individuals. In this relation, human rights or the individual rights should be guaranteed by the constitution. Through this noble way, the creation of a just society would take place and every individual would be given equal rights, treatment and opportunity to savour the wealth of their nation. Consequently, the distribution of wealth should be done accordingly with no oppression against any other ethnics. To materialise this, any Political Organisations or Societies established on the grounds of ethnicity should be abolished. Instead, a coalition of multi ethnic’s political organisation should be embraced and fostered to create an organisation with common grounds and mutual understanding between members. The education systems also play a role in upholding peace and unity in a multi ethnic country. With knowledge comes power, thus a holistic education system which encompasses good values should act a catalyst to bind the younger generation with the same national agenda to create a sense of belonging towards their country. Through education, unity and understanding can be nurtured; therefore it would eventually eliminate the egocentric of one’s ethnic. Early detection is also the key to avoid the spreading of ethnic tension from becoming uncontrollable and difficult to address with. Clamping down the initial stage of ethnic tensions is a more viable and practical way, more over it is more cost effective (Aapengnuo 2010). To make this as a feasible method, the diligences of government officials / workforce is very crucial in carrying out their duties addressing the complaints, grievances and resentments from every ethnic group. If the people at large is satisfied with how the government deals with their complaints or unhappiness, the strain and flame of ethnic tension would subsequently be contained. Conclusion This essay believes firmly to the idea that ethnic conflict is not inevitable, in a sense that it can be prevented from happening or the spreading of it can be avoided. This essay also conveys two cases in point, namely the conflict in Yugoslavia and in Rwanda in order to give a clear perspective on what is meant by ethnic conflict and its causal effects. This essay also intend to conclude that in any recorded ethnic conflicts, a majority of them, if not all, have similarities on the contributing factors that led to the clashes. It is undoubtedly true that ethnic conflict is a complex matter to deal with. The problem lies within the myriads of historical aspects of politics, economy, social class and history. From the political point of view, the question or rather the problem of ethnics cannot be separated from the notion of distinguishing between the majorities and the minorities. In terms of economy, unequal portion of the economy cake will instigate or ignite the flame of ethnic conflict. The same goes to the differences in cultures, spoken languages, religions and accepted norms; all these are also contributing factors, which would worsen the situation if they are not to be dealt accordingly. Amidst all the arguments and perceptions, ethnic conflict can be prevented if certain pro-active measures and constructive policies are being implemented. In searching for an idealistic nation, of course there will be different point of views in achieving the intended goal. The differences of opinion amongst ethnics might be influenced by the reality of politics and the society itself. But again, it is up to the people of any multi-ethnic country to make a mature decision whether to let their country to be engulfed in conflicts or whether to live in unity with equal rights to every citizen. So, is ethnic conflict inevitable? The answer is no…

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