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Sullivan University Personal Self Critique Essay

Sullivan University Personal Self Critique Essay.

I’m working on a english writing question and need an explanation to help me learn.

Submit a two-page, typed self-critique of your Introductory speech.This assignment should be in essay format. This assignment is due Sunday evening by 6PM EST.Cover the following areas in your self-critique:1. Describe how well you performed delivering this speech. Explain what worked well for you and what you would have done differently.2. Was your introduction effective? Did you accomplish your purpose? (Attention getter, startling statement, use of a quotation, arousing curiosity, etc.)3. Was your speech effective? Did you use your visual aid(s) effectively?4. Describe your level of confidence while you were delivering this speech. Did you suffer from any speech anxiety? How did you cope with any speech anxiety?5. Was your conclusion memorable? Did you do any of the following: review the main points of your speech, end with a quotation, and make a dramatic or memorable statement?6. What did you like about your delivery? What areas in delivery do you need to improve?
Sullivan University Personal Self Critique Essay

English assignment.

Read through the list of research topics (located in the Appendix), or by clicking the link here, on which to write a research paper. Select three (3) topics that interest you most and identify two (2) credible sources for each topic. Note: This is one (1) of several parts that will build toward a final draft of your persuasive writing research paper.Write a one to two (1-2) page paper in which you:Explain the reason for selecting topic one (1), identify the audience, and provide a preliminary thesis statement. Explain the reason for selecting topic two (2), identify the audience, and provide a preliminary thesis statement. Explain the reason for selecting topic three (3), identify the audience, and provide a preliminary thesis statement. Identify and document six (6) credible sources (two (2) for each topic) that you would expect to use. Note: Wikipedia and other Websites do not qualify as academic resources.Your assignment must follow these formatting guidelines:Be typed, double spaced, using Times New Roman font (size 12), with one-inch margins on all sides; references must follow APA or school-specific format. Check with your professor for any additional instructions.Include a cover page containing the title of the assignment, the student’s name, the professor’s name, the course title, and the date. The cover page and the reference page are not included in the required page length. The specific course learning outcomes associated with this assignment are:Recognize the elements and correct use of a thesis statement. Associate the features of audience, purpose, and text with various genres.Recognize correct APA documentation and reasons to document and avoid plagiarism. Write clearly and concisely about selected topics using proper writing mechanics. Use technology and information resources to research selected issues for this course.
English assignment

Evaluation of the Multiverse Theory. The Multiverse Theory is the theory that states there might be multiple or even an infinite amount of universes besides our own. Parallel universes began with the big bang that made our universe as well. Maybe, the universe we know is our universe. Maybe there is another universe which also has an “Earth” and we’re living on Earth-2. These multiverses are also known as “meta-universes” or “omniverses.” The word “multiverse” was originally used back in 1895 when American philosopher and Psychologist William James used them to discuss the “Multiverse Conundrum” in his essay, “Is Life Worth Living?” James said, “Truly, all we know of good and duty proceeds from nature… [which] is all plasticity and indifference – a moral multiverse, as one might call it” and then this new word was created. A century later, and James’s neologism has been used by physicists in a, somewhat, different context. Nowadays ‘multiverse’ refers to the possible existence of many universes. In Dublin, Ireland in the early 1950s, physicist Erwin Schrödinger gave a lecture where he stated, what he was about to say might seem crazy. In this lecture, he described that when his equations seem to display different histories, he stated that they were “not alternatives but all really happening simultaneously,” starting a discussion about alternate universes. Multiverses have been discussed in cosmology, physics, astronomy, religion, transpersonal psychology, and literature (mainly in science fiction and the fiction genre). The Multiverse has also been called “parallel universes,” “alternate dimensions,” “quantum universes,” or “parallel worlds.” Some Physicist says that the Multiverse Theory is not a legit theory and claims that this theory is pseudo and should not be discussed in the science community. Prominent physicists, such as Neil deGrasse Tyson and Stephen Hawking, are advocates to the discussion of the Multiverse theory. Other physicists are against it because of the lack of evidence in this theory. In an article on, author Elizabeth Howell states that the universe we know and love is only fourteen billion years old. Stating that the universe’s age is a finite amount and it is “obviously not infinite”. That statement in that article is the authors argument on disproving the chance of multiple alternate universes. Howell says that is the “key problem”. Seeing that the age of the universe is a finite number, that would “limit the number of possibilities for particles to rearrange themselves”. Some other physicists would disagree. Since it is called multiverse, there are different types of universes. Brian Greene, an american theoretical physicist and string theorist, has created nine types of multiverses. The first multiverse is the Quilted universe. The Quilted universe only works in an infinite universe. An infinite universe, has an infinite amount of space. So in the quilted multiverse, ever possible event will happen an infinite amount of times but every event moves at the speed of light, preventing us from being aware of the events happening at the same time as another one. The second universe he discusses is the Inflationary universe. The inflationary multiverse is an alternate universe composed of “pockets”. This universe continues to expand but at a slower rate. The third multiverse James discusses is the Brane multiverse. This multiverse suggests that our entire universe exists on a membrane which is currently floating in a “higher dimension” or a “bulk”. In these bulks there are membranes with their own universes. These universes can interact with each other and when they collide, the energy produced is more than enough to cause a big bang. The cyclic universe also has these ‘membranes’ but they have collided causing a string of Big Bangs. This multiverse bounces back and pass through time until they are ultimately pulled back together causing yet another collision, destroying the old and creating new contents. The next multiverse that Greene talks about is the Landscape multiverse. This multiverse relies on string theory’s Calabi-Yau spaces. Fluctuations in this quantum universe changes the shapes to a lower energy level, creating a pocket with a set of laws different from the space in the surrounding area. A Calabi-Yau is a type of manifold that yields application in theoretical physics. Calabi-Yau is used particularly when in discussion about the superstring theory. The Quantum universe is an alternate universe that creates a new universe when a diversion in events occur. As in many-worlds interpretation of quantum mechanics. Basically, in this multiverse, new universes are created when events that could have different outcomes happen. The seventh type of multiverse that Greene considers is the holographic multiverse. This multiverse assumes the holographic principles. The holographic principles states that “everything that happens in a space can be explained in terms of information that’s somehow stored on the surface of that space.” This principle is not a direct aspect of the string theory or M-theory but applies, broadly, to theories about gravity in any kind of spaces. The second to last type of multiverse is the Simulated multiverse. This universe is basically what the whole Matrix trilogy is all about. The simulated multiverse exists on extremely complex computer systems that can easily replicate another world. This multiverse exist strictly on a computer generated universe. This is where we get the “glitch in the matrix” joke. The final multiverse that Brian Greene considers is the Ultimate multiverse. The Ultimate Multiverse contains every single mathematically possible universe with different laws of physics and constants. Cosmologist, Max Tegmark, states that “[our] external physical reality is a mathematical structure”. This physical universe is not simply described by mathematics, it is mathematics or a mathematical structure. Tegmark states “In any mathematical structure complex enough to contain such substructures,” they “will subjectively perceive themselves as existing in a physically ‘real’ world.” This multiverse is most closely related to the simulated multiverse due to the notion that it is not an actually physical universe but a parallel world that has been generated. Where does this leave us? Until we can find definite proof to these alternate universe then the Multiverse theory will continue to be a subject of intense debate in the science community. The study of this theory was very interesting due to the fact that there are so many different types of potential alternate universes. Greene’s interpretation of the different types, in my opinion, are far more in depth than Tegmark’s simple 4 types that group multiple types of universes into just 4 categories. Greene sees each universe as it’s own entity and should be categorized in that way. Citations: ❖ Greene, Brian (24 January 2011). “A Physicist Explains Why Parallel Universes May Exist”. (Interview). Interviewed by Terry Gross. Archived from the original on 13 September 2014 ❖ Kragh, H. (2009). “Contemporary History of Cosmology and the Controversy over the Multiverse”. Annals of Science. 66 (4): 529–551. ❖ Williams, Matt. “What Is the Multiverse Theory?” Universe Today, 26 Apr. 2017, ❖ Brian Greene. The Hidden Reality ❖ Araujo, Eduardo Silva. Inflation and Multiverse. ❖ James, William. “Is Life Worth Living?” Full Text of “Is Life Worth Living?”, ❖ “String Theory: Insight from the Holographic Principle.” Dummies, ❖ “The Universe Is Made Of Mathematics.” Philosophy Now: a Magazine of Ideas, Evaluation of the Multiverse Theory

Basic Wage Component Of Pay Packet

INTRODUCTION Compensation Management is the most important concept from the organisation’s point of view. Today, it is the biggest problem for every organistion to retain and attract the employees. So, to remove these problems an organisation should have a deep knowledge about Pay-packet composition. Pay packet is a comprehensive term consists of several elements. Its compositions are – Basic wage, Dearness allowance, House rent allowance, City compensatory allowances, annual statutory bonus, Incentive, Bonus (Fixed Variable and variable), various other perks, Benefits, Medical, Conveyance Etc. The pay-packet remains the important element of human resource management to retain and motivate employees. It is must for every organisation that they should evaluate their Pay packets due to lot of factors like: trade unions, competitions, legal framework, market situation and public policy etc. Therefore, organisations are finding the need to develop various incentive schemes and payment by results systems to make pay directly related with performance. To-day it become essential for every organisation to give the fair pay packet to the employees for their work either because of competitive pressures, legislation or wage settlements, and the need to attract and retain the right people. That’s why organisations are searching for means to find innovative approaches to make pay packet performance oriented and attractive. CONCEPT OF WAGES, SALARY AND PAY- PACKETS Concept of wage Payment made to labour is generally referred to as wages. It can be time-rated or piece-rated. It can be rate per hour, per day, per week, per month or per year. In Price-rated system, it can be by completion of job-task and wages fixed for per unit of performance. Concept of Salary Money paid periodically to persons whose output can not easily be measured, such as clerical staff as well as supervisory and managerial staff, is referred to generally as salaries. Concept of Pay-Packet is a comprehensive term and consists of several elements like basic wage, dearness allowance, house rent allowance, city compensatory allowance, annual statutory bonus, incentive bonus and various other perks and benefits etc. BASIC-WAGE COMPONENT OF PAY PACKET The basic wage provides and stable base to the wage structure. It is the price to be paid to get a given job done. This could be on monthly, weekly or daily basis. Basic wages is built upon the statutory minimum wage, through the awards of the Industrial Tribunals and directives of the Pay Commission at National and State Levels and the collective bargaining. The minimum wages, according to the recommendations of the 1949 Report of the Fair Wages Committee appointed by the Government of India should provide not merely for bare subsistence of life but for the preservation of efficiency of workers by providing some measure of education, medical requirements and amenities. It was after the end of the Second World War that the Industrial Tribunals and Courts have set the pattern of basic wages in Industries through awards. Basic wage of Industrial worker is based on a “Standard-Budget” concept or a family of four, should include food, clothing, housing and fuel. This is also known as Need Based Minimum Wage. The underlying assumptions behind the basic wage legislation are that the industry does not have the right to exist unless the minimum needs of workers are met. The Committee on Fair-Wages (1948) and 15th session of I.L.C. (1954) propounded certain wage concepts such as minimum wages, fair wages, living wages, and need based minimum wages. Minimum wages- not merely for basic subsistence but also for the preservation of efficiency and providing some measure of education; medical etc. Fair-wage – while the lower level of fair wage is the minimum wage the upper-limit is the capacity of the industry to pay. Between these two limits, the actual wage can depend on (I) the productivity of labour (ii) the prevailing wage rate (iii) National income (iv) the place of industry in national economy. Living-wages – It represents and inclined decency, protection against ill health, requirements of essential social heads and insurance against some future misfortune etc. Living wage is a concept enshrined in our constitution and state will make all efforts to attain it. The concepts of Nominal/Money wage and Real Wage also require explain in brief. • Nominal/Money wage is the earning in cash or its equivalent • Real wage is the money wages discounted by cost of living index to denote the purchasing power of the wages. Differentials in basic wages are normally based on a set of criterion which the Fair Wages Committee suggested. They are as follow: • The degree of skill • The strain of work • The experience involved • The training required • The responsibilities undertaken • The mental and physical requirements • The disagreeableness of the task • The hazard on the work • The fatigue involved Basic wage is generally practiced through scales of pay. An employee draws his basic pay in a range provided in the scales. He also gets increments on periodical basis. Basic pay generally remain static, unless an employee moves upward (gets promotion) or downward. (gets demotion). DEARNESS ALLOWANCE COMPONENT OF PAY PACKET The words dearness allowance primarily suggests and refer to allowance paid to employees in order to enable them to face the increasing dearness of essential commodities. The system of D.A. for employees began during Second World War when Government sanctioned a scheme of grain allowance to their lowest paid employees. Gradually, it was extended to all classes of employees as a means to protect, to some extent, the real income of wage-earners and salaried employees from the effect of price-rise and inflation. Instead of increasing wages, DA is paid to neutralise the rise in prices. The assumption behind DA rise is that if the prices go back to the earlier level, the DA can be reduced or withdrawn. In other countries, where similar practice exists, it is known as a practice of inflation adjustment or cost of living allowance (COLA). Even in India, Sec.-3 of Minimum Wages Act refers to it as cost of Living Allowance. DA forms a variable component of Pay-Packet, since rate of dearness increases more than once every year, whereas the basic pay scales are revised after longer spells of time. The scheme of DA is having usually three parameters – (I) Index factor (ii) the time factor (iii) the point factor. The Index is usually the All India Consumer Price Index (AICPI) Number for Industrial Workers (Base 1960 = 100 AICPI). The allowance may go up with the revision in the index based on average for a selected period to off-set the temporary fluctuations in the index. Also, a doze of DA is related to certain prescribed increase in the number of the Index points. There are different patterns of calculating DA, using the above parameters – The Central DA – Applicable to Central Government employees and employees of certain central PSUs. In this pattern incident of neutralisation goes upto 100% for lower slabs. The Industrial Pattern – Applicable to most of the PSUs and also some private sectors. The DA is paid at the rate certain rupees (say Rs.3) for per point increase in the Price Index. DA system in Banks and LIC is yet another pattern which is different than above types. It has better benefits than IDA pattern. PAYMENT BY RESULT INCENTIVE PAYMENT Wage is “a fair day’s remuneration for a fair day’s work”, i.e. standard performance. An incentive wage is described as “a method of payment for work of an acceptable quality produced over and above a specified quantity or standard”. Payment-by- Result (PBR) refers to a method which provides, for the “direct linking of workers earnings to a measure of their performance”. Where pay is the contingent upon performance, employees give their best under incentive conditions rather than non-incentive conditions. The incentives can be financial or non-financial and both types of their role under certain conditions. PBR system (wage-incentive being one) can be distinguished on the basis of unit of accountability for performance and classified into three categories (i) individual performance (ii) group performance (iii) enterprise performance. Individual Payment-by-result – The purpose is to accomplish higher-level of performance with promise of extra remuneration for extra effort over the standard. Several individual PBR systems are in vague. Some of the well known systems are price-rated system, premium bonus system (standard hour/measured work day plans) or work-improvement system. Group payment by result scheme – The PBR schemes discussed above can be applied on group basis also. Group PBR is appropriate where jobs are interdependent; where it is difficult to measure individual performance separately and where group pressures influence the output of the members of the group. There should be objective system of measurement of the group performance and members must be aware of it. Enterprise-level schemes – These schemes emphasis gain sharing arising through redirection in labour and other costs. The gains arising out of improvements in performance over and above the base or norm is shared between the employees and the organisation according to pre-determined ratio. Managerial Incentive Plans Managerial employees get the following types of additional incentives – • Commission on a percentage of profit • Company’s share on concessional rates • Bonuses in cash or kind (discount coupons, paid holidays, etc.) STATUTORY BONUS Payment of Bonus Act, 1965 ensures payment of bonus each year. This ranges from 8.33% to 20% of wages. The Act compels even the loss-making industries to pay 8.33%. For profit-making companies, the Act provides formula to declare annual bonus, which has to have the ceiling of 20%. In this sense, the annual bonus has become a sort of “deferred-wage” every employee gets its. The method of calculation of annual bonus is given below: First gross profit is to be calculated in the manner specified in the First and Second Schedule of the Act. From the gross profit so worked out the available surplus is to be computed by deducting prior changes, such as (a) depreciation admissible under Section 32 (1) of the Income Tax (b) development rebate, or investment allowance, or development allowance deductable by employer from his income under the Income Tax Act (c) direct taxes payable by the employer on income, profits, and gains during accounting year (d) actual dividend payable on the preference share capital, and (e) 8.5 return on paid-up capital and 6% return on reserve shown in the balance sheets at the commencement of the accounting year. In the case of banking company the return on paid-up capital and reserves to be deducted is to be i % less and (go such further sums as are specified in respect of the employer in the Third Schedule of the Act. From the “Available Surplus” so computed, 67% of it in case of foreign companies and 60% in case of other companies are to be constituted as “Allocable Surplus” for payment of bonus to the employees covered by the Act. Every employer whose establishment is covered by the Act, has to pay a minimum bonus equivalent 8.33% of the salary and wages including dearness allowance during the accounting year, or Rs.100 to all eligible workers over 15 years of age, and Rs.60 in case of workers below 15 years of age, whichever is higher, irrespective of the fact whether there is any allocable surplus or not. Minimum amount of bonus is to be paid in proportion to the number of days actually worked. If in any accounting year the allocable surplus exceeds the amount of minimum bonus payable to the employees, the employer shall pay to every employee in respect of that accounting year bonus which shall be an amount in proportion to the salary or wage earned by the employee during the accounting year subject to a maximum of 20% of such salary or wage. In computing the allocable surplus for this purpose the amount of set on and set off from the previous years will be taken into account. Although this Act is applicable to all those persons who receive monthly pay upto Rs.3500, but in the case of person with monthly pay between Rs.1600 and Rs.3500 only pay of Rs.1600 is to be taken into account for working out the amount of bonus payable to them, for this purpose the term pay includes basic pay and dearness allowance. The employee not covered by the Act, also get an amount equivalent to bonus either on Ex-gratia or Reward or by any other name. Therefore, bonus has become an integrated part of pay-packet. ALLOWANCES, FRINGE BENEFITS AND SOCIAL SECURITY The Pay Packet includes, such extra benefits, in addition to the normal wages or salary compensation or incentive payment etc., are referred to loosely as Allowances and Fringe benefits. They form substantial part of pay-packet and an employee decides his employment keeping the allowances and fringe benefits also in view. Allowances Successive wage settlement/awards have brought of a number of allowances which form integrated part of pay-packet. Fringe-Benefits The general objective of the organisation for offering fringe benefits to the employee is to attract, retain and motivate him. The specific objectives are related to the nature of each benefit. For example, extra-increments and accelerated promotions on acquiring higher and relevant qualification is intended to enhance qualifications and skill mix of the employees. Similarly nutritious food (milk etc. is given to make good of the efficiency losses and restore stamina to work. There are many other considerations for instituting and expanding employee’s fringe- benefits. For example paternalistic or humanistic considerations, statutory requirements, concern for security hazard of industrial life, tax considerations, utilisation of leisure time, inculcating some of involvement, competitive market conditions to attract and retain good performers. Paternalistic or Humanistic consideration – Basically voluntary with welfare orientation to supplement wage compensation with certain infrastructures or facilities to provide for health; education, and housing as also social, cultural, religion, recreational activities, etc. Statutory requirements – Since 1940s social welfare provisions have been incorporated in different legislations – canteens, rest-sheds, cretches, maternity and paternity provisions etc. Concern for security – The need for catering to the social security needs of the employees, specially after retirement, come under this – Provident Fund, Gratuity and Pension Schemes are the main Housing-Scheme, Medicare after retirement and many other security schemes are coming in this area. Hazard of Industrial Life – To avoid depletion of saving in illness, accident etc. certain provisions have been made – workmen compensation Act and the ESI Act etc. are the examples. Large organisations have gone for normal health care service of their employees and their family. Some have made good hospitals; some have gone for dispensaries and some for Medicare schemes. Tax Considerations – Organisations develop tax planning to avoid tax obligations by restructuring the pay packet – A significant portion of the remuneration is split into variety of expenses like house-rent, medical, transport entertainment, education, interest-free loans, loans at concessional rate, etc. The purpose is to enable the employee to have maximum value for a given remuneration package. The tax-free extra list is ever expanding more prominently in Private Sectors and MNCs for their managerial staff. But tax authorities are taking exception of going beyond certain limit. Utilisation of leisure time – Besides shortening of working hours and the phenomenon of extended week-ends the importance of leave and holidays for rest and recreation to maintain agile body and creative mind is on increase. In view of this, organisation are not only providing for paid leaves of different kinds (casual, privilege, sick, special casual leave, etc.) but also granting facilities for leave travel (usually in form of reimbursement of travel expenses for holiday travel in a year to two). To make it convenient and cheap, organisations have gone for constructing holidays homes at resorts or hire hotel or guest houses etc, for their employees and their families. Some of the private sectors and MNCs organise foreign trips for holiday along with family. Inculcating sense of involvement – organisations have gone for novel fringe benefits to elicit employees sense of involvement. Most of them have been modeled on pattern with Japanese organisations – company’s uniform (clothes, shoes, tie, watches, etc.), concessional lunch for every one in company’s canteen; subsidised picnics etc. are the examples. Competitive considerations – competitive pirating is common phenomenon. Organisations face problem of attracting and retaining. Also, organisations located in backward areas may face additional problems. Hence, a variety of incentives and benefits are offered- township, reimbursement of educational expense of children, self-lease houses, special allowances or pay (disturbed area allowance, construction allowance, difficulty allowance, etc.) are given. In addition, membership of clubs, professional associations, sponsorship for training and conferences abroad, buy back of company’s houses, car, furniture at discounted rate etc. are also given. UNDERSTANDING THE TRENDS OF PAY-PACKET In this competitive-age, where job-hopping, is very frequent, the organisations are realising the need to be sensitive to mould the pay and fringe-benefits to suit the needs of the individual employees rather than offer a common, standard pay package with the result, flexible compensation packages (known as Ala Carta or In-Basket) are gaining widespread acceptance among managerial employees. Such practices are very much prevalent in MNCs and some big private sectors. But such flexible pay- package is still to be common practice in India. In flexible compensation package, the total pay-packet is decided or negotiated and employee is given option to distribute it under different items like pay, house-rent, conveyance, entertainment, journal/book allowance, membership in club/professional India, furnishing allowances, drivers’ salary etc. Most of the items constitute expenses that do not form the part of taxable income: there are some items which a particular employee may need and a particular employee may not need. He has a range of choice and he plans his choosing keeping his needs and tax-element in view. Flexible compensation often extends and goes beyond fringe benefits in traditional sense. QUESTIONS Q1. What do you understand by the concept of wages? Explain the concept of basic wage through examples? Q2. Why dearness allowance is an integral part of pay packet, explain how is it administered? Q3. Define and differentiate between bonus and fringe benefits, how are they linked to social security. Q4. What are the hazards of industrial life, explain with examples?

Organizational Structure Challenges

assignment writing services The concept to organization is born when two or more people work together in order to achieve a common goal. Purpose of an organisation is to create responsibilities and positions by which an organisation can carry out the work. Organisation may be formed in different sizes. All people working in the same organisation have their own functions, attitudes and techniques to apply for achieving their common goal. Organisation is a word derived from Greek word “oragon” which means tool. It is used in both daily and scientific English in various ways. “Organization is a particular pattern of structure, people, tasks and techniques” (Leavitt, H.J. 1962) In order to manage and control the resources, an organisation needs to be structured. It is formal system that makes the organisation to run smoothly and helps to focus the common goals and objectives. It gives a clear idea about the chain of command that need to be prioritised when a problem arise. It also defines what people are responsible in the organisation for different reasons. A solid structure provides the framework to deliver on sales strategy. The structure of an organisation can be done by function, by product, by environment, by customers, by process. This structure can be tall/flat, formal/informal, centralised/decentralised, organic/mechanistic etc. So the structure of an organisation is the formal representation of how the organisation is managed and it is very important. Therefore the importance can be immeasurable for any organisation attempting to function towards a single goal. 3.0 Flat Organisational Structure 3.1 Flat Organisational Structure Flat organisational structure is a structure where there are no levels or very few levels between managers and staff. In this structure the most trained employees get involved with decision making process. Employees are not supervised by many levels of management. It is designed to minimise bureaucracy. Flat structure is also known as horizontal structure. This structure generally occurs in a small organization or in a small part within a large organization. Communication between employees and managers are held on regular that allows rapid change and problem resolution. Every feedback and opinions of employees are considered. There is an understanding bonding that takes place in this structure. 3.2 Characteristics of Flat Organisational Structure A flat organisational structure is basically a hierarchical structure that can be pointed by a pyramid shape. But the base of the pyramid is much wider with few layers between the top management and bottom line employees. The command chain in this structure is short but the span of control is wide. The leading position in this structure is president or chief executive officer. 3.3 Advantages of Flat Organisational Structure Flat organisation structure has many advantages. Some of the advantages are mentioned below: As there are minimum management levels, flat structure is cost effective as the company is paying fewer people to get the work done. Improved communication between managers and employees. Having fewer levels, employees can directly report to managers and share new ideas which helps the managers to make decision quickly. All employees along the manager have full control of every task that is required to be completed. Managers and employees stay close to customers and therefore can respond quickly to changes of customer demands and changes. 3.4 Disadvantages of Flat Organisational Structure Besides the advantages, flat organisational structure has some disadvantages as well. Some of the disadvantages are stated below: Flat structure may hold back the growth of an organisation to a certain level. Employees may have more than two bosses which can confuse them during the time of reporting. They may be confused thinking of which of the bosses will be the best to report. In situation where there is more than one boss, there could be a power struggle of having maximum control on employees. Flat organisational structure is mainly for small organisation e.g. Partnerships, some private limited companies, cooperatives. 4.0 Tall Organisation Structure 4.1 Tall Organisational Structure Tall organisational structure consists of many management levels and supervision. The chain of command is long. Employees are only related to the department managers. All managers and employees are supervised by their senior managers. Because of many numbers of levels in this structure, it cause problems with communication and therefore takes long time for decision making. The top of all the management level is usually called chief executive officer. 4.2 Characteristics of Tall Organisational Structure A tall organisational structure is a hierarchical representation with many levels. However, tall organisational structures not often cross more than eight levels of management. In this structure the command chain is long but span is narrow relatively to flat structure. Top level management holds most power and as a result employees are more controlled. 4.3 Advantages of Tall Organisational Structure There are many advantages of tall organisational structure. Some of the advantages are noted below: All employees are closely supervised as the span of control is narrow. Each manager manages small number of employees. Management structure is clear. The responsibilities of each level manager are clear and different. The success of every employee including managers is clear and therefore, tall organisational structure has clear promotional ladder. 4.4 Disadvantages of Tall Organisational Structure Besides advantages tall organisational structures have many disadvantages as well. Some of the disadvantages are given below: As the employees are closely supervised by their managers, so the employees have less freedom and responsibilities. Decision making process could be slow as approval may be required from various levels of managers. Every communication needs to take place through different levels of management. As there are many management levels, tall structure is expensive as the organisation need to pay more money to managers than subordinates. Any changes are responded slowly as employees are the only person who stays closer to customers and therefore to report any changes employees have to go through different levels of management. 5.0 Tall Vs Flat Organisational Structure Tall organisational structures are mostly adopted by mature companies as roles, tasks, accountability, responsibilities and even governance are clear. A company needs to be concerned of what the employees are doing and why they are doing it. Tall structure has two purposes: transparency of roles and objectives, and controlling cost. All managers in every level manage small number of employees. As a result employees have clear concept of their works. Different management level has different works to do. Most big companies like Tesco, Sony, and Apple are the examples who have adopted tall structure. This has helped the company to gain success. Tesco PLC is such one of the successful companies. It is a retail chain which was founded in 1919. They have more than 2484 stores in UK. In order to manage and run smoothly Tesco is following tall organisational structure. With an interview with one of the store managers of Tesco it has known that they have six management levels in their structure from checkout assistant to chief executive officer. After the chairman, the top position is CEO. All managers in every level have small number of employees. As a result the duties of every staff are clear and focused. Any major decision in Tesco is announced by the top management. By adopting tall organisational structure Tesco is able to focus their goals more effectively and gain enormous success. On the other side, flat organisational structure is mostly adopted by small organisations. Many big organisations may also have flat structure at the beginning end of their life cycle. In a flat structure normally there are well focused employees who know who their boss is. They also have mindset of cooperation, flexibility, working over boundaries, problem sharing opportunities. Flat organisational structure helps the companies to save cost and stay close to customers. Small organisations like the local street shops are the examples that have flatter structure. PFC, a street chicken shop, is an example who has flatter structure. With an interview with the manager it is known that in their structure they have manager and few employees. Managers and employees both work together in order to bring success for the company. Sometimes the managers are the owners of the company in flatter structure. Organisations can also have flat structure within their tall structure Starbucks is one of examples. The largest coffee shop “Starbucks” was first established in Seattle, Washington. Starbucks effectively entered within the European Union including UK in May 1998. Starbucks specializes in selling coffee, whole coffee beans, hot and cold drinks. They are one of the successful companies in coffee industry. With an interview with a manager it has been known that within the whole organization, Starbucks operates both tall and flat structure. In stores Starbucks maintains flat functional structure where as in corporate sector they operate tall structure. Starbucks have only two levels in their flat structure which they operate in stores. The manager is the top person and baristas (Sales assistant) are the staffs. The baristas and managers both work together inside a store and stay very close to customers. Any problems, changes and feedbacks from baristas or customers are taken into consideration by the managers and dealt very quickly. Generally senior baristas are promoted to managers when a manager resigns. By adopting a flat structure within a store has saved cost of the company. The company is paying less money as there are few managers. Baristas and managers have a good understanding which helps to get all the jobs done in the store. All baristas have clear concept of what to do and where to report anything as there are only one manager. On the contrary Starbucks have tall organisational structure in corporate sector. There are foul levels of management above store management. The top position is the chief executive officer. By adopting the tall structure in corporate sector has enabled Starbucks to manage all sectors of the company smoothly and therefore gain success. 6.0 Conclusion All organisations must need to have a structure. Both organisational structures have some something good and bad sides. If a company wants the employees to be cooperative, better alignment and engagement across the structure, then flat structure is better. Employees have strong voice and any changes are easily adapted in this structure. This encourages the employee’s independent thinking and teamwork. Flat structured companies much need to transform to tall structures when it begin to grow larger. For organisations that are big in size a tall structure can be good. It helps the company to manage all division in same pace. But if a tall structure is handled badly it could be unpleasant and authoritarian. Well handled tall structure is disciplined and liberate.

Sony Music Entertainment SWOT Analysis

Sony Music Entertainment Sony Music Entertainment, also known as Sony Music is controlled by Sony Corporation of America. Sony Music is one of the biggest four record companies, ranked as the second biggest global record music companies. Sony has managed to reach at the level of being one the biggest music companies in the world and remain at this stage. Sony Music has collaborated with numerous of artists and others more to come. Sony Music Entertainment contains the music labels: Columbia, Columbia Nashville, Epic, Jive, RCA, Legacy Recordings, Victor Records, Masterworks, Arista, Arista Nashville, Bluebird Jazz, BNA Records Label, Burgundy Records, J Records, LaFace Records, Provident Label Group, U.S Latin, Verity Records and Windham Hill. Porter’s five forces Porter’s five forces are the rivalry among competitors, the threat of potential entry, the bargaining power of suppliers, the bargaining powers of buyers and the threat of substitutes. The most competitive force between Porter’s five forces is the rivalry between producers and sellers in the music industry. The music record industry constitutes 4 significant segments: * Major recording studios: Major companies are firms that have large numbers of artists under contracts with different types of music, such as hip-hop, rock, jazz, country, etc. Major companies may be EMI, Sony Music, Columbia and work internationally. * Independent labels: Independent labels are companies that have fewer artists under contracts, recording one or two music styles and mostly work regionally. * Micro labels: Micro labels have an amount of about 10 artists and focus on a particular music style. * Vanity labels: Vanity labels are companies that focus on independent artists. It is the last segment of the music industry that struggles to become one of the other segments. Rivalry among competitors Sony Music has 3 biggest competitors: EMI, Warner Music Group and Universal Music Group. The competition of these four companies depends on the popularity of the artist and their songs. On this case, if the artist is very popular and promises reassured sales, then the price doesn’t play a significant role. On the other hand, if the artists are not known enough then the price is at the same stage of importance as the competition. Furthermore, the rivalry between the competitors is affected by the advertisement and promotion of the songs. There are a large number of competitors that are similar in size, consumer offerings, market and growth. Threat of potential entry The threat of is the weakest force. Even if a new music recording company enters the market, it’s very difficult to reach the levels of the existing company. In the music industry there are millions of music record firms globally but still the top four remain unbeatable. Bargaining power of suppliers The power of suppliers depends on the popularity of artists. Sony specializes on already famous artists, therefore is difficult to compete, except the other three big organizations. Bargaining power of Buyers * In August 2005 Sony Music was accounted as 32.8% out of 71.7% of retail music sales. ( * Due to economic crisis, people have difficulties on buying CD’s Threat of substitutes People prefer listening songs through Internet (YouTube), on radio, on TV channels and other rather than buying the CD. Internet has become a substitute of CD records, through piracy and downloads. This is very an important matter in music record industry, even if they try to fight it, there will always be this competition. SWOT Strengths The second biggest major music company Globally known and recognized A portfolio of successful artists An organized and clear website Channels of distribution: radio, TV, Internet, music record shops Weaknesses Global music piracy (it’s the biggest issue that worries all music record companies) Opportunities Future successful CD releases with existing artists Releasing MP3 songs Threats The music pirates will drive music record companies to a decrease of their sales Nowadays, music is fashion-obsessed. A wrong selection of an album release may result badly to the company Physical sales are decreasing due to digital music. People are more attracted to download a song rather than buy the whole album. The music record industry has lost £180m last year in UK. The 95% of music on the Internet is downloaded illegally. (IFPI) Conclusion According to statistics, Sony Music Entertainment is one of the most successful companies in the music record industry. Despite the music piracy that arises in the present time, Sony Music strives to handle this matter legally and commercially by persuading the people especially young to stop and avoid piracy. This is a big threat to the music record industry and it has to be dealt with strategic manner. Companies such as iTunes (Apple) have reduced music piracy, since in order to download a song it has to be bought first. In order to stop this crime, so that the music record companies can function properly and get back on their feet with their sales increasing, some services (Kazaa, Limewire, Bearshare) has to be shut down. The 45% of users of such services has dropped after all US and international legal actions have taken place. References 1. Music Industry [online]. Wikipedia. Last accessed on 10 December 2009 at: 2. EMI SWOT, Music Piracy [online]. Bridgewell. Last accessed on 12 December 2009 at: 3. Sony Music Entertainment [online]. Wikipedia. Last accessed on 12 December 2009 at: 4. Facts and Figures [online]. Sony Music. Last accessed on 13 December 2009 at: 5. CCM Music Recording Company [online]. Last accessed on 11 December 2009 at: 6. ITunes claims to be stopping teen music piracy [online]. Gadgetell. Last accessed on 12 December 2009 at: 7. Internet Piracy: The facts [online]. International Federation of the Phonographic Industry (IFPI). Last accessed on 12 December 2009 at: 8. Online Piracy [online] Guardian. Last accessed on 11 December 2009 at:

I need a help with my HW

I need a help with my HW.

Your assignment is to write “My ethical philosophy of Life. This paper is due on the last class day, Thursday, December 7th at class time.Note, I must receive a hard copy of this paper on 12/7. This can be your general ethical philosophy of life, or your ethical philosophy of life before and after this course, or your ethical philosophy of life as it is relevant to some of the issues we discussed, or your ethical philosophy of life last year as compared to now, or, if something important has occurred in your life, your ethical philosophy of life after this “life changing” event. So, you have a number of different avenues you can take. The best papers I’ve received are students, “ethical philosophy of life.” I am always amazed at the lives of students that I’ve taught. Some students have had lives of hardship, struggle and pain and they’ve survived and continue to be survivors.Be creative in this assignment. It is your reflections, not a research paper. Write your ethical philosophy of life however you wish. It’s up to you.It may be the only time in your life that you’ll be asked to write your ethical philosophy of life. I suggest that you keep a copy of this paper for your reference. Look at it next year, 5 years from now or 20 years from now. See how you saw yourself in December of 2017. It might be interesting!Also, I often have students write about very personal issues in such a paper. I want you to be certain that anything you write is only read by me and is absolutely confidential.
I need a help with my HW

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