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Succession Management and Career Planning Essay

Introduction Due to competition and changing preferences, an entrepreneur must plan any business activity and micro manage the risks involved. Thus, this analytical treatise attempts to explicitly discuss my risk tolerance for starting a business. Besides, the paper examines the five factors of production and how businesses compete with each other. In addition, the paper presents the lessons learned and the most valuable concepts from the class videos. Risk tolerance The term sustainability refers to the ability to survive a risk level while at the same time within profitability mode. In business environment, sustainability is affected by the forces in the market, decision science, business structure, and real financial management both in short and long term. Therefore, a business must put in place stringent measures and strategies aimed and monitoring risk modules within feasible levels in order to effectively manage its operations strategies (Nickels et al. 25). Reflectively, there is a need for a certain level of operational risks in the business management matrix in order to track any changes and success of different business strategies. I may tolerate operational risks which involve threats associated with processes, people, and technological elements of running the business. The essential human input requirement towards the entry planning and development phases is part of the operational risk that has a positive impact on the stability of a business. Notwithstanding, the diversification of the workforce in a business may ensure flexibility in the definition of the interdependent components that translate to the realization of an elastic business operation. The above risk will ensure that my business has an up-to-date policy on safety and change strategies (Nickels et al. 35). It will also ensure that the content of the policy is made available to all stakeholders in the business. In addition, the risk will facilitate the establishment of clear reporting, investigation and resolution procedures. Factors of production Technology The mechanization of production demands that the production system matches production efficiency, while assuring quality of the supplied goods. Technology delivers on both efficiency and quality in the production of goods and services. With the appropriate technology, decisions can be made reliably and in a timely manner to ensure quality and efficiency in production. Quality improvement, as a result of technology, will be used to measure, assess, and improve the production channel. The success in quality improvement and efficient and cost effective production management is dependent on the alignment of the production soft skills and sustainability strategy to appropriate technology (Nickels et al. 15). Labor Labor basically refers to the mental and physical skills of persons that are accessible and exploitable in generating goods and services. Knowing how to improve quality is crucial in the growth of a business enterprise. Improved quality has great reward to business owners. Since the employees and other forms of human talent are permanently employed in the production process, they should be engaged in the production process to ensure that the company optimizes labor as a factor of production towards efficiency. Besides, in order to avoid crisis and unavoidable production breakdown, the human skill or talent should be engaged on a daily running of the production cycle (Hisrich, 21). Capital Capital, as a factor of production, refers to all forms of aids, finance, and initial cost outlay that a business activity needs to roll out its production chain. These aids facilitate constant and continuous production of goods and services for consumers. All businesses require capital for operation. Sources of capital can either be short term or long term. A business needs sources of capital to meet seasonal or temporary fluctuations in the position of funds. Working capital management is important to ensure that a business does not tie excessive cash flows in working capital. Further, it enables management to ensure that sufficient production of goods and services is maintained (Hisrich, 17). Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Natural resources Natural resource as a factor of production refers to all natural reserves that are employed constantly in the process of production. Among the examples of natural resources are land, business structure sites and naturally existing raw materials that are needed to complete the production process for goods and services. Without the natural resources, a business can neither exist nor support the production process (Hisrich, 22). Entrepreneurship ability Entrepreneurship ability as a factor of production refers to ability to combine the other factors of production such as capital, natural resources, labor and technology to create a sensible and sustainable process of producing goods and services. Entrepreneurship ability provides foresight which is very crucial since it gives a business rough perspective and an overview of the future concerning the expected and unexpected changes and challenges in the production of goods and services. How businesses compete Businesses compete with each other through the production of competitive products in terms of quality, price, quantity, and packaging. Besides, businesses design attractive advertisement and engage in corporate social responsibility to ensure customer loyalty and preference over their competitors (Hisrich, 19). Important concepts from the videos The main measures of entrepreneurship skills are scored on motivation, personal attitude and aptitude. Action planning in entrepreneurship is of importance to create solution oriented task and strategy implementation secession for quantifying task orientation levels. Thus, a budding entrepreneur must possess task orientation leadership skills at an individual task management level in reviewing actual and expected outcome of any business opportunity. Therefore, psychological stability is a recipe for success in the field of entrepreneurship since the entrepreneur will have to sometimes work under pressure while at the same time monitoring the quality of his or her services (Rothwell, 31). Works Cited Hisrich, Ronald. Entrepreneurship, New York: McGraw-Hill Education, 2011. Print. Nickels, Williams, James McHugh and Susan McHugh. Understanding business, London, UK: McGraw-Hill Education, 2012. Print. Rothwell, William. Career planning and succession management: developing your organization’s talent for today and tomorrow, Westport: Greenwood Publishing Group, 2005. Print. We will write a custom Essay on Succession Management and Career Planning specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More
FP 5006 CU Revenue Sources for Healthcare Facilities Essay.

Prepare a lecture for an introductory health care finance class on types of revenue sources for health care organizations. For each revenue source, explain the purpose of the program, how the organization is reimbursed, and the benefits of the program. Note: The assessments in this course build upon each other, so you are strongly encouraged to complete them in sequence.SHOW LESS By successfully completing this assessment, you will demonstrate your proficiency in the following course competencies and assessment criteria:

Competency 1: Develop financial strategies to address dynamic environmental forces. (L24.2, L24.5, L17.2)

Explain the benefits of reimbursement programs.

Competency 2: Analyze the cost and revenue implications for organizational changes due to environmental forces. (L18.2, L12.1)

Analyze the reimbursement process that health care organizations must undertake.

Competency 4: Communicate in a manner that is scholarly, professional, and consistent with expectations for professionals in health care administration. (L6.1, L6.2, L6.3, L6.4)

Explain the purpose of health care reimbursement programs.
Write content clearly and logically with the correct use of grammar, punctuation, and mechanics.
Format citations and references using the APA style.

Competency Map
CHECK YOUR PROGRESSUse this online tool to track your performance and progress through your course.

Toggle DrawerContext
Sustainable health care organizations are charged with balancing clinical and fiscal facets of the operation. It has become increasingly important for health care leaders at all levels within an organization to become comfortable with financial statements and basic accounting principles. As an early careerist, you may be involved in conversations to evaluate existing and new health care service lines. You may be asked to participate in various financial activities such as team budgeting activities, developing a departmental budget, or contributing to strategic planning or finance department meetings. As a mid or advanced careerist, you may be evaluating higher-level organization financing options, determining cash flow needs, or perhaps presenting financial information to the CEO and board. SHOW LESSRegardless of your position within the organization, a basic understanding of health care finance is a critical success factor for effective and responsible health care leadership.
Toggle DrawerQuestions to Consider
To deepen your understanding, you are encouraged to consider the questions below and discuss them with a fellow learner, a work associate, an interested friend, or a member of your professional community. SHOW LESS

What types of accounting are you familiar with? How have you used it or seen it used?
How can you use knowledge of revenue sources to help in financial forecasting?

Toggle DrawerResources
Suggested Resources
The resources provided here are optional and support the assessment. They provide helpful information about the topics. You may use other resources of your choice to prepare for this assessment; however, you will need to ensure that they are appropriate, credible, and valid. MHA-FP5006: Health Care Finance and Reimbursement Library Guide can help direct your research. The Supplemental Resources and Research Resources, both linked from the left navigation menu in your courseroom, provide additional resources to help support you.

Harrison, C., & Harrison, W. P. (2013). Introduction to health care finance and accounting. Clifton Park, NY: Cengage Learning/Delmar. Available in the courseroom via the VitalSource Bookshelf link.

Chapter 1, “Overview of the American Health Care System,” pages 3–22.
Chapter 2, “Paying for Health Care,” pages 23–38.
Chapter 3, “The Rising Costs of Medical Services and Health Care Reform,” pages 39–56.

SHOW LESSAdditional Resources for Further Exploration
You may use the following optional resources to further explore topics related to competencies. This tool enables you to practice learning health care finance and accounting commonly used terms.
Health Care Finance Flashcards  | Transcript.
This website contains information on care coverage, facility reimbursement, and costs of care. (n.d.). Retrieved from
This website contains comprehensive information on Medicaid and CHIP coverage and reimbursement. (n.d.). Retrieved from
This article discusses managed care plans including HMO, PPO, and POS plans and provides links to helpful websites.
U.S. National Library of Medicine: Medline Plus. (n.d.). Managed care. Retrieved from…
This is the website for the leading association for health care finance leaders with links to industry initiatives, education, forums, and publications.
Healthcare Financial Management Association. (n.d.). Retrieved from

Assessment Instructions
Look in the Capella University Library and on the Internet to find resources on Medicare, Medicaid, and managed care. Specifically, you need information on what each program is, how it works, and how organizations receive reimbursements from each. You will need these resources to complete this assessment. For the purpose of this assessment, suppose you work for a large health care organization that partners with the local college on a number of initiatives. As a part of that partnership, you have been asked to be a guest presenter for an introductory health care finance class. You need to explain sources of health care revenue and how the reimbursement process works. You need to prepare a 45-minute lecture on that topic. There is no prescribed format for this assessment, but you must reference at least three resources and follow the APA guidelines. Just be sure that your assessment is organized logically and your information is presented clearly.Requirements
Write a 45-minute lecture plan for an introductory health care finance class. (You will not be evaluated on whether your lecture plan is actually 45 minutes in length.) The three types of revenue sources you will cover are the following:

Managed Care.
For each of the revenue sources, you must do the following:
Explain the purpose of the program.
Analyze the process of reimbursement for health care organizations.

What steps must be taken in order to receive reimbursement for services?
How complicated is each step?
What kind of information is required from the organization?
How long does it take to receive reimbursement?

Explain the benefits of the program for both patients and health care organizations.

FP 5006 CU Revenue Sources for Healthcare Facilities Essay

Attitudes Towards Women in the Labour Market. A number of studies have analyzed variation in people’s attitudes towards women’s labor market participation and the division of labor among men and women in the Western world. Generally, citizens in Western countries show increasing support over time for women’s labor market participation, with some differences of opinion related to age, gender, education, etc. Cross-national studies also document differences across nations, which partly can be related to differences in their welfare states. A common finding is also that people’s attitudes to the domestic division of labor between men and women seem to be more traditional than the attitudes towards women’s employment, but again, there are cross-national differences. For researchers of gender role and women employment values, South-East European countries, such as Croatia, are interesting in many ways. During the 1990s there was a major change in their political and economic systems, from the former federative socialist republic of Yugoslavia to present-day independent states of Croatia, Serbia and Montenegro, Slovenia, Macedonia and Bosnia-Herzegovina. The dissolution of Yugoslavia, accompanied by the wars in Croatia and Bosnia-Herzegovina (and later by systematic violence in Kosovo), brought new emphasis on nationalism and re-traditionalization, mostly in the form of resurgence of religion. In Croatia, religiosity dramatically increased during the war (1991-1995). Such a turn toward the sacred is not unusual consequence of war and related destruction (Sekulic, Hodson, Massey 2002). In addition, under the nationalist government that was highly supported by Catholic Church (Partos 1997), being Croat often equaled with being Catholic. In that sense Croatia, as most ex-Yugoslav societies, differs from other post-communist societies of Eastern Europe, in spite of the fact that they all share the same experience of the post-communist transformation, and the social costs associated with this transition (Dragicevic, 2003) Unemployment dramatically increased in the 1990s. Official data show a 3.5 fold increase in unemployment in Croatia during the 1990-1999 period (Lokin, 2000:220) and a high percentage of unemployed were women. In 1997 women constituted 52.7 percent of the unemployed (Bejakovic, 2005). Also, the level of job security decreased significantly, and women appear to be particularly vulnerable to the macroeconomic and social changes brought about by the transition, since the legal provisions securing the job during maternity leave in many cases became illusory (Brunnbauer, 2000). Together with political attempts at re-traditionalization of the family institution, the market-oriented transition, which resulted in loss of security and decreasing quality of public services, may have had an impact on people’s gender attitudes and values. These processes might have strengthened the old gender role models assigning men to the public life of work and politics and women to the private life of housework and motherhood (Bracewell, 1996). Attitudes toward women’s employment and gendered division of labor. How important is family socialization in that respect? There are a number of studies, many North American, of the effects of mother’s employment on their children and the attitudes their children later develop to gender roles and maternal employment (see Willetts-Bloom 1994 for an overview). The findings of this research are however, ambiguous: Whereas some studies find positive effects of maternal employment on their children’s attitudes, in particular for the daughters, so that the daughters of working women also wants to work, other studies find no significant results, and some report conflicting results. Many of these studies were undertaken in the 1970s and 1980s, when married women’s increasing employment prompted raising concerns that mother’s employment would have negative effects on their children. REVIEW OF LITERATURE This chapter reviews some of the studies with working women. Many studies have concentrated on the status of women in an unorganized and organized sector. The present review limits itself to status of women in organized sector, which are relevant to the study. A review of literature was added to this study by referring to different journal and studies conducted by different individuals to show relevance to the study. A cross-national study of 23 countries, including several eastern European countries, concluded that there are three clusters of countries, which represent three distinct patterns of attitudes towards women’s employment: the work-oriented countries, the family accommodating countries and the motherhood centered countries (Treas and Widmer 2000). The Eastern European countries that were included (Hungary, Poland, Slovenia, Bulgaria, and the Czech Republic) were grouped together with Spain and Ireland in the motherhood-centered cluster. In these countries, “comparatively strong support for mother’s full-time employment is combined with even stronger preferences that women with children stay at home” (Treas and Widmer 2000:1425). To a certain extent, this apparent ambivalence/contradiction between liberal attitudes toward women’s employment and traditional attitudes toward mothers as the primary care givers can also be found in other countries. For instance, the Scandinavian countries have a high level of female employment, including a high level of labor market participation also among mother’s of young children, yet the attitudes towards the domestic division of labor are still surprisingly traditional (Sundstrøm 2000:202). Henley (1979) stated that the feminine stereotype depicts women as being more concerned than men about their bodies, their clothing, and their appearance in general; as is often the case, there is both truth and reason to the stereotype. Women are subject to a great deal more observation than men; their figures and clothing; their attractiveness is the criteria by which they most often are judged. Not surprisingly, then women are more conscious than men of their visibility. This difference translates into both a power and a sex difference. Rosen and Jerdee (1979) in their study stated that women were seen less favourably in terms of the knowledge, aptitudes, skills, motivation, interests, temperament, and work habits that are demanded in most managerial roles. Modernization is a concept in the sphere of social sciences that refers to process in which society goes through industrialization, urbanization and other social changes that completely transforms the lives of individuals. The concept of modernization comes from a view of societies as having a standardevolutionarypattern, as described in thesocial evolutionismtheories. According to this each society would evolve inexorably from barbarism to ever greater levels of development and civilization. The more modern states would be wealthier and more powerful, and their citizens freer and having a higher standard of living. This was the standard view in the social sciences for many decades with its foremost advocate beingTalcott Parsons. This theory stressed the importance of societies being open to change and saw reactionary forces as restricting development. Maintaining tradition for tradition’s sake was thought to be harmful to progress and development. This approach has been heavily criticized, mainly because it conflated modernization withWesternization. In this model, the modernization of a society required the destruction of the indigenouscultureand its replacement by a more Westernized one. Technically modernity simply refers to the present, and any society still in existence is therefore modern. Proponents of modernization typically view only Western society as being truly modern arguing that others are primitive or unevolved by comparison. This view sees unmodernized societies as inferior even if they have the same standard of living as western societies. Opponents of this view argue that modernity is independent of culture and can be adapted to any society. Japan is cited as an example by both sides. Some see it as proof that a thoroughly modern way of life can exist in a non-western society. Others argue thatJapanhas become distinctly more western as a result of its modernization. In addition, this view is accused of being Eurocentric, as modernization began in Europe and has long been regarded as reaching its most advanced stage in Europe (by Europeans), and in Europe overseas (USA, Canada, Australia, New Zealand etc). According to the Social theorist Peter Wagner (Social theorist), modernization can be seen as processes, and as offensives. The former view is commonly projected by politicians and the media, and suggests that it is developments, such as new data technology or dated laws, which make modernization necessary or preferable. This view makes critique of modernization difficult, since it implies that it is these developments which control the limits of human interaction, and not vice versa. The latter view of modernization as offensives argues that both the developments and the altered opportunities made available by these developments, are shaped and controlled by human agents. The view of modernization as offensives therefore sees it as a product of human planning and action, an active process capable of being both changed and criticized. Modernization is most likely one of the most influential happenings in society. Attitudes Towards Women in the Labour Market

James College Diversity Cultural Competence and Human Rights Analysis

James College Diversity Cultural Competence and Human Rights Analysis.

After watching the YouTube Video: Hispanics in America The History Channel 20th Century Mike Wallace:What information in the YouTube video regarding diversity and human rights within the Hispanic population did you learn about or were not aware of before?From your field education experience, describe observations you’ve made on ‘within group diversity’, features of culture, identity, difference, and social context among your Hispanic clients.How will the information in the YouTube video help you to provide culturally competent service delivery to your Hispanic clients?Describe how you can apply leadership in advocacy for human rights and social and economic justice for Hispanic children and families. Use APA style citations to reference readings discussed in your video discussion. These references can be from both the assigned readings and outside sources.This assignment is tailored to field internship for a social worker.
James College Diversity Cultural Competence and Human Rights Analysis

The relationship between cannabis use and mental health disorder

essay help online free Abstract This assignment evaluates the relationship between cannabis use and mental health disorder related to it in Australia. Recent national data reflects that cannabis use was at its peak in 1998 when over 60% of people aged 20-29 were reported having used cannabis. Since then various studies have found co relation between cannabis use causing no mental health issues and cannabis use causing schizophrenia and psychosis. Recent studies have found that cannabis is recognized in Australia as the third most prevalent drug of dependence following alcohol and tobacco. About 10% of people who try cannabis will develop dependence at some point in their life. Studies have found relationship between weekly frequency of cannabis use and mental illness such particularly psychosis, schizophrenia, anxiety and depression ( Introduction Cannabis is a plant contains a psychoactive molecule that produces a high associated with this drug. The psychoactive product contains dried flowers and leaves of plants selected to produce high levels of tetrahydrocannabinol ( There is a significant and growing research on the relationship between mental illness and cannabis use in Australia. The evidence supports the association between mental illness and regular cannabis use. The evidence states that regular cannabis use from young age will increases the risk of mental illness since there is genetic vulnerability to psychosis being which can be triggered by cannabis use. Evidence shows that cannabis use facilitates schizophrenia in people who have family history of mental illnesses. The average first use of cannabis users is now 14.9 years. This is of a very important concern in Australia as this is the age at which there are psychological changes in brain. Psychosis is an abnormal condition of the mind in generic psychiatric term for a mental state is often described as a loss of contact with the reality. This disorder can disable the normal functioning of the brain. This malfunction in brain causes people with elevated risk of death by suicide. Thus it is important to analyse the evidence carefully in order to make conclusions and recommendations (Hall et al, 2004). Relationship between Mental Illness and Cannabis. Certain pockets of Australian population consume cannabis in form of heating or ignition combined with inhalation of smoke or oral consumption of the plant itself mixed into a food medium. The other way that individuals consume cannabis is by vaporization, which causes the active ingredients to evaporate into gas without burning the plant material. This is generally done by boiling the ingredients of cannabis plant. Once these vapours are inhaled, it produces various short term and long term effects. The short term effects range from sleepiness, difficulty keeping track of time, impaired or reduced short term memory. In my general practice I have observed that the patients consuming high amount of cannabis find it hard to communicate and focus. They are generally slower to react and have increased heart rate, heart palpitations and show signs of psychological dependence on cannabis drug consumption. Their reasons for addiction generally range from recreational purposes and sometimes to escape their present hardships in life (Personal Communication, Clinical Placement, 2010). Evidence shown by scientific research shows that potential harm of cannabis use is generally and especially in vulnerable groups such as Aboriginal, young people, people belonging to poor socio economic background. The habit starts from peer pressure and gradually becomes an addiction. Rates of cannabis use by people with mental illness such as anxiety and depression also show heavy use of cannabis use.(Castle, 2004) The self medication hypothesis states that people experiencing signs of mental health disorder consume cannabis in order to alleviate or increase symptoms. There have been longitudinal studies to determine whether the mental illness is related to cannabis use. The hypothesis covers two scenarios -that cannabis initiates mental disorder that were previously lying inactive and that cannabis causes mental health illness who would not otherwise develop them. Thus research has been conducted on biological mechanisms such as effects of cannabis on brain chemistry and its effects on people without genetic predisposition to mental illness. Other social effects are taken into consideration when researching on cannabis users exposed to factors such as poor mental health, substance using peers, school dropout, unemployment and crime. It is a difficult to justify the effects of cannabis on an individual if many variables co exist both for the cannabis user and people with other social vulnerabilities including family difficulties. Thus it is possible that there is a common genetic factor that predisposes individuals to cannabis use and mental illness (Patton et al, 2002). According to D’Souza et al (2004) there is little dispute that cannabis can produce short term recurrences of pre existing psychotic symptoms. However there is no evidence relating to the fact that cannabis actually causes schizophrenia or other psychotic illness in long term (Johns, 2001). Research also shows that cannabis can also amplify a pre existing thought in an individual. These thoughts tend to overwhelm the individual causing severe reactions by individuals including suicide and self harm in extreme cases. In order for ascertain the research Hill (1965) states that following criteria must be met: Strength, consistency, specificity, temporality, biological gradient, coherence and plausibility. Every case needs to support each criteria to make the hypothesis stronger. Relationship between Cannabis consumption and Psychosis A recent study conducted by Hldes et al (2006) states that there is a two way relationship between psychosis and cannabis which states that regular use of cannabis is associated with higher risk of psychotic relapse. Many longitudinal studies have found that the mental illness particularly psychosis leads to increased use of cannabis. Research conducted by Hall et al (2004) states that most common symptoms related to the individuals with psychosis smoking cannabis were sudden confusion which were generally related to delusions and hallucinations. Their emotional state became unstable and showed signs of paranoid symptoms. These findings have been supported by individuals suggesting that they took large doses of cannabis product. Most of these people had no family history of psychosis. Their symptoms were gone once the individuals stopped their cannabis intake. These symptoms were seen back within days once the individuals started cannabis consumption again. Thus this evidence supports the hypothesis that the regular use of cannabis increases chances of psychosis in an individual. On the other hand the other hypothesis can be argued that cannabis intake does not support psychosis. There have been number of studies conducted that have compared people with people who have mental illness post cannabis use and who have developed mental illness prior to cannabis consumption. There is always a little variation in the results. According to Mental health council of Australia, there have been number of researches that have been conducted investigating the cannabis use among individuals with psychotic disorders and found that they were not significantly different from the general population. A range of motive can be grouped into following four categories: coping with unpleasant affect (to relieve emotional distress), enhancement (to have fun), social interaction (to affiliate with others), confirming (to fit in) ( The evidence obtained shows that the first two tend to be heavy cannabis consumers and the later two are just recreational. The first two consume cannabis to relieve themselves from emotional distress, psychotic symptoms and medication side effects which lead them to consume heavy amounts of cannabis in order to feel that state of mind and emotion. People with psychosis initially use substance to change their emotional state and facilitate social contact. They then develop dependence on this substance stating,” If I don’t smoke then I will not be able to cope.” These individuals then have belief that cannabis is the only way out thus worsening their psyche and this will lead to worsening cannabis dependence (Spence in Castle and Murray, 2004) Conclusion Various cases and individual analysis state that there is a strong connection between cannabis consumption and psychosis. The hypothesis states individuals consuming cannabis have developed symptoms of psychosis and these individuals have normalised once they stopped consuming cannabis. Thus, there is some evidence that suggest that cannabis consumption will impact the psyche of an individual but these findings are inconclusive at this stage as it fails to take into consideration other variables such as socioeconomic background, mental state, lack of family and community support. Relationship between Cannabis Consumption and Schizophrenia Schizophrenia is a mental illness caused by disintegration of thinking process and disorientated emotional response. It usually consists of hallucinations, paranoid, disorganized speech and thinking process with social and occupational dysfunction, withdrawal from reality, social apathy ( According to research by Mental Health Council of Australia relationship between Schizophrenia and cannabis use is growing though by no means comprehensive. Schizophrenia affects one percent of the Australian population. Smaller but substantial bodies of research exist such as depression and anxiety. In some cases, Schizophrenic patients had previous symptoms of psychotic illness (Hall et al, 2004). In research conducted on 100 young people consuming high amount of cannabis, 49% male with an average age of 19.3 years were identified at ultra high risk of psychosis. Schizophrenia was the symptom with presence of other acute psychotic symptoms. This research is very difficult due to the fact that there are many variables that co exist both cannabis users with mental health illness and non cannabis users with mental health difficulties have similar behavioural problem. Most of them have substance abuse history, unemployment and life time on benefits past. It can be possible that these are the common genetic factors in both cannabis users with mental health issues and non cannabis users with mental health issues ( Longitudinal studies show that continuous cannabis consumption in people with schizophrenia is associated with worse mental health outcome in terms of more severe symptoms and thus there is a greater chance of relapse and more psychosocial issues. Thus frequent cannabis use is associated with a higher risk of psychotic relapse and a more increased risk of cannabis relapse (Hides et al, 2006). Studies conducted by Arsenault et al, (2004) cite cross national surveys from USA, Netherlands and USA found rates of cannabis consumption among people with Schizophrenia was double than those of general population. Thus following conclusions were derived from these findings: Evidence of self medication of cannabis because of pre existing Schizophrenia due to the mental health issues caused by schizophrenia related to negative symptoms may be a factor in continuous Cannabis consumption. There have been consistent longitudinal studies stating that cannabis precipitates schizophrenia and many other psychosis related symptoms in people who are vulnerable because of their family background. The rate of schizophrenia has remained stable or decreased with increases in cannabis use over the past few decades. Overall longitudinal studies conducted by Nemesis study from Holland and New Zealand have made these findings that conclude that cannabis can be considered a casual factor in schizophrenia. Research has found that alleged increases in cannabis use over past two decades have not affected increase in rate of schizophrenia. However vast number of people who consume cannabis have not developed schizophrenia and vast number of people who have schizophrenia have not got schizophrenia because of their cannabis consumption (Degenhardt et al, 2004). Conclusion Cannabis consumption may affect small percentage of population that is vulnerable socially and mentally. The pattern of cannabis use leading to clinically significant impairment or distress has manifested by a need for increased amounts of the substance to achieve intoxication or desired effect. That effect is then reduced by continuous use of the same amount of substance. Individuals then consume larger amount of substance to achieve that similar feeling and these persistent efforts start to affect the psyche of the individuals. Schizophrenia is more prevalent in individuals with poor socio economic background and history of substance abuse. Cannabis causes changes in neurotransmitter systems that make depressed mood more likely but greater evidence supports that this problem is due to individual behaviour pattern. Evidence from both hypotheses is limited and there needs to be well designed longitudinal studies including studies that examine cannabis use on older Australians to further narrow the relation between cannabis use and schizophrenia (Degenhardt et al, 2004).

The Positive Effects A Nuclear Reactor Politics Essay

“Providing incentives for energy efficiency and clean energy are the right thing to do for our future – because the nation that leads the clean energy economy will be the nation that leads the global economy. And America must be that nation.” (Obama) This was the endorsement made by the President of the United States in January of 2010 during his annual State of the Union Address of adding more nuclear power facilities around the United States. Nuclear power is the energy source of the future, and Louisa County is on the cusp of becoming one of the frontrunners in the nation in this aspect with its partnership with Dominion Power Electric Company to add a third reactor to its nuclear power plant situated on the shores of Lake Anna. Lake Anna was originally built to fuel the nuclear reactors that began commercial use in 1978 (Unit One) and 1980 (Unit Two). The lake is used to provide the water necessary to fuel this power station and its use and output will soar to new heights in the coming years. Already armed with two nuclear reactors on its power plant, the addition of a third reactor will only bolster Louisa County’s already advantageous position in the alternative energy game. In adding a third reactor at the Dominion Electric Power Plant on Lake Anna, Louisa County will put itself in a position to be the benefactor of numerous Federal aides, it will also create more jobs to be added to the local economic structure, and spark an influx of new businesses opening in the Lake Anna region as a result of this jump in population. More people will be attracted to the area, and more money will be brought into the county as a result, all of which will benefit the area while the recreational value of the lake and surrounding area will not be harmed, as some residents are fearful will happen. All of these factors bode well for the local economy and the citizens of Lake Anna and Louisa County. In times where oil and coal are insufficient in appeasing worldwide energy needs, nuclear power is an efficient alternative. They are often constructed in times when oil is in short supply. The below chart depicts the growth and addition of nuclear power plants [NPPs] worldwide from 1950 to 1997. The near bell-curve shape of the chart and the nuclear ‘boom’ from 1970 to 1990 can be attributed to a worldwide oil crisis, forcing countries to find alternative energy sources to compensate for their deficit of oil. Nuclear energy was also the hot new form of alternative energy and there was an arms-race of sorts to have the biggest and best fleet of nuclear performance. Nuclear growth proved to be cyclical as it dropped and leveled off at the turn of the Century. Number of Reactors In the coming years however, another spike in nuclear production will be seen as military tensions in the Middle-East reach new heights. The addition to the North Anna power station, when completed, will be one of the first plants to lead in this upward trend. It can be predicted that the growth will peak again around the year 2014 as the world settles into using nuclear power as a safe and reliable alternative to coal and oil. As Americans, we will soon see more and more nuclear bases around the nation, as it has been proven and endorsed by the government that nuclear is the way of the future for America. With the recent fuel crisis that has hit the United States, a concentrated effort has been put into discovering and fostering alternative energy sources. Hybrid cars was the first alternative venture in which American citizens began to alter their buying habits, but it has since spread into all facets of American society, including power supplies as a whole. Through the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009, the United States has allotted 2.4 billion dollars of Clean Renewable Energy Bonds [CREBs] to be given to local governments to fund mass projects that will promote or provide alternative energy for mass numbers of people. (Department of Energy, April 10, 2010) The funding Louisa County will receive through the ‘Recovery Act’ will foot most of the construction bill for the reactor, leaving Louisa ready to profit off of the venture. Energy shortage is also hitting very close to home for Louisa County residents. The Commonwealth of Virginia itself is currently looking at an energy deficit that could reach 4,000 megawatts by year 2017. (Dominion Power, March 13, 2010) The demand for energy is heading in the opposite direction, growing by over 40% over the past ten years and can grow to almost 50% by the end of 2011. (Dominion Power, March 13, 2010) This can be accredited to growing populations and a large number of citizens that are not energy-conscious. The third reactor at North Anna Power Station is aiming to help appease these new demands while cutting into the deficit itself. With any great change will come those who are resistant, those who do not want to alter their ways from the status quo. There have been specific groups of people from the lake community who have been opposed to the expansion of the nuclear power plant. The Lake Anna Civic Association (LACA) is a group of lake residents who have served as the voice of the cautious opposition. Termed ‘N.I.M.B.Y.s’ (meaning Not In My Back Yard) by colleagues in the area, this association stood in the way of county approval of the Dominion project by lobbying the local government and presenting reasons that the construction of the third reactor would be detrimental to the Lake. Though there are not many residents who feel that the extension of the nuclear power plant would be a negative addition to the lake judging by support for the project displayed at local governmental meetings, their arguments have been noted and studied by the authorities in charge of approval. They argued that with increased water movement and usage by the power plant will raise the water level an excessive amount. Though it is predicted by Dominion Power that the water line will rise two inches, it is expected that this will not affect property that shares a border with the lake by encroaching on the land. It has also been argued that some of the bridges that traverse the lake will be made unsafe for boat traffic due to the water level. This would be because the clearance would be lowered by two inches and boats with canopies or a second level may strike the bottom of the bridge when passing. Following a study conducted by the Lake Anna Advisory Committee that was presented on February 9, 2010 showed that the three bridges in question were already below ‘safe boating conditions’ (the boat, operator, and passengers are not in immediate danger) even when the water was low. It was also argued that an increased water temperature will deter tourists from enjoying the lake and joining in water activities. Discussed earlier, this slight temperature increase (two to three degrees) will not be physically troubling to lake-goers but will rather make it enjoyable for a longer period of time and will also not have any acute impact on the wildlife within the lake. Given Louisa County’s developmental support track record, a project with the magnitude that this one possesses would not be approved unless it was certain that it would not cause major harm to the environment or citizens around it. Those who oppose the power plant on the lake must remember that it was constructed in the first place to serve as a power resource for the power plant and it would not exist without it. In an interview with William Blount (telephone interview, January 4, 2010), a longtime resident and entrepreneur on the lake, when discussing the opposition, he remarked that “complaining about the power plant would be like purchasing land near an airport and complaining about noise.” Nuclear energy has been proven to be an effective and safe avenue for harvesting energy for a large number of people. Louisa County, through its construction and use of Lake Anna as a power source to fuel its nuclear combines, provides power to the city of Richmond and the Southwest region of Virginia, as well as other states both north and south of Virginia. President Obama has endorsed this method as being safe and logical avenue for providing power to a nation who has seen its population grow by 208 million people over the past 100 years [1900 to 2000] (U.S. Census Bureau, March 4, 2010). This is a significant step toward nuclear energy becoming more common and available. Being of the Democratic Party, this is a sign that the endorsement is no false advertisement because the Democrats have traditionally been the major stopping point for the implementation of nuclear power as a major source of national energy. Democrats, as well as millions of previously undecided citizens on the topic of nuclear energy are beginning to see nuclear power as a safe alternative to oil and coal, which there has been a recent shortage of, with no end in site as long as the war and associated long term conflicts in the Middle-East continue. With each crisis comes a solution and a benefactor; Louisa County will be a benefactor from our national oil shortage. In order to ensure and promote the further use of nuclear energy, a town such as Louisa County could be granted sums of money and credits reaching into the millions (U.S. Department of Energy, April 10, 2010) for using this energy source. The wealth accrued through these cuts can be spent on public utilities such as roads and offices, meaning the county as a whole will benefit and be more pleasurable for all citizens. Reputable people closely involved with the project feel as if it will be a positive for Louisa. Lifetime Louisa County resident and former County Administrator and Clerk of the Court Dean Agee feels as if the addition of the third reactor will only help Louisa County fiscally. The income from the projected boost in commerce and population will help to offset the cost of the influx of public school attendance this county has seen in the past decade. This was most recently illustrated with the construction of Moss-Knuckles Elementary school on Route 208 toward Charlottesville. Schools are being built to accommodate all of the new students being enrolled in Louisa County Public Schools each year, and funding is necessary to make this possible. A large portion of this money will come from County taxes on the construction projects and new businesses blossoming in the area. When discussing the economic benefits Louisa will experience, Agee revealed that “the Board of Supervisors will increase the value of the county to offset the State lowering it’s fiscal aid, which is taxing on its actual value, this will level off the overall fiscal value of the County… combining that with the Federal incentives that we will receive, a substantial increase in overall value will emerge.” The growth that will take place can be shocking. During the original construction of Lake Anna Mr. Boodgie Duke, a local businessman and prominent land owner in the area, was speaking to a construction official about the digging of the hole where Lake Anna was to go. He inquired about how such a massive amount of dirt was going to be displaced, and was told that over one hundred bulldozers would be utilized in the process, “What?” he exclaimed, “There are only three bulldozers in the entire county!” This is merely a small example of the growth that nuclear power stations can bring to an area. While the area has seen much greater growth since then, adding a third reactor will have similar effects. There will be an influx of new jobs created by this third reactor; construction, building parts for the reactor, shipping, workers, and security for the new component will be needed for completion and use. Different stages of the construction project will involve multiple businesses and contractors, so exact numbers for each specific construction discipline will only be able to be seen with time. These jobs will not only attract workers, but also their families will move with them if they are to stay permanently, these numbers will add up quickly. To accommodate all of the new citizens and workers in the County, the local real estate market will also see a boost as it must provide both permanent and temporary housing for those working. Lake Anna Island has already taken measures of preparation for this by having a building project in the works to create over fifty new housing condominiums to complement the twenty it already has. This undertaking is projected to be completed by late summer of 2010, in time to advertise and sell to migrant workers who are helping in building the third unit. According to local businessman B.J. Blount, by completion of the project over 700 permanent new jobs will be brought in to Louisa County in addition to roughly 5,000 temporary jobs over the next five to seven years, adding wealth and notoriety to the area. According to former Louisa County administrator and lifelong resident Dean Agee, Lake Anna is already by far the most powerful and wealthy market in Louisa County; it is projects and progressiveness such as the addition of a third nuclear unit that makes it such. With this influx of new jobs in the area, the arrival of a new reactor will establish the northwest area of Lake Anna as a jumping-off point for more businesses and development projects in the area. As is true with virtually all areas that feature a great density of corporate prosperity, there was a major project that served as a catalyst for the attraction of other businesses to establish themselves in the area. A prime example of that would be the Short Pump Town Center erected in 2003 in northwestern Henrico County, Virginia. As soon as that came to fruition, and even perhaps before, more businesses and companies were purchasing land and leasing buildings to establish themselves in and around. There are now over a dozen housing developments and apartment communities established in the general vicinity of the Town Center with more to come. The Short Pump area has also established itself as one of the main shopping and leisure areas in the state of Virginia and many high school-aged kids migrate there on weekends to spend time and money. There is a direct correlation of growth in population to growth in wealth in corporate areas, and this will occur in this region of Louisa County. When the tide comes in, all the boats rise; the growth of the nuclear power plant will serve as that tide in Louisa. More businesses will flock to the Lake Anna region to reap some of the benefits. An agreement has already been reached to have a Food Lion constructed on Route 208 in Louisa, located roughly five miles from the Dominion Power Plant. A grocery store such as this would not have signed on for development in the area without a projected growth in patrons that would shop there, so this would be a good indication of the projected growth in the immediate vicinity. Gary Griffith, owner of Dockside Realty, is developing Stonewall Town Center on Route 522 that will feature a restaurant and shopping opportunities. Lake Anna Island Realty was an early player in the race for position to attract business from the new growth. To go along with the covered boat slips that house the Lake Anna Island Yacht Club. Owner B. J. Blount and his partners have agreements and are in the process of building numerous other amenities on their property, located next to the 208 Bridge on New Bridge Road. There are boat slips available for lease or rent for commuters or new residents to tie up their boats and access them at any time. As that project progresses, there is a potential for over 400 slips to be implemented, along with storage space for each purchased slip. There are the aforementioned housing units under construction that will be available for permanent or temporary use for specialized or contracted workers and their families. Buildings will be constructed to house a hotel and a restaurant, along with separate housing for a doctor’s office and two other separate restaurants. There is also now a houseboat available for rental on a weekly or weekend basis, with the opportunity for more boats to form a fleet that can turn into a steady source of income for the Realty. This is the sort of business plan and construction project that may well be seen blossoming in Louisa County with more regularity in the years to come. An effect the Power Plant will have on the environment will be the slight increase of water temperature on the lake due to the increased consumption of water by the actual units. It is predicted that the water temperature will rise by two to three degrees. While this is not a glaring difference from the norm, the newfound warmth can potentially extend the tourist season by an extra week. This is because the higher temperature will take longer to cool in the fall and the water will be warm enough for recreational activities for a slightly longer period of time. The increased amount of reactor output (predicted two to three inch water level increase) means that the larger amount will also take longer to cool. Though it is only one week, the collective wealth accrued by businesses of the area, be it restaurants, rentals or general boat activity will pay great dividends in the long run for the local economy. Multiple studies have been done to back up all of the claims made in favor of the third reactor’s positive impact upon Louisa County’s economy. From 1960 to 1976, sixty-four towns and cities that were located around any of four Northeastern U.S. power plants were observed and measured by their property market values. Positive growth trends in property value, listing and sale prices were seen across the board in these areas. (Downing, Gamble, Sauerlander, n.d.) Throughout the completion of the study the communities experienced positive growth. Furthermore, it was found that property market values increased at an inverse ratio to distance that they are situated from the nuclear power plants, possibly indicating that buyers specifically paid more to live closer to the plant. The municipalities that were in the general area of the plants also grew disproportionally to areas in the same state that were not near a nuclear plant. (Bezdek

Media Violence and Aggression Risk Factors Essay

Mass media has become an integral part of human lives and it has a significant impact on individuals’ values and beliefs which, in turn, define the way people act. The topic of exposure to violence in mass media and a consequent probability of developing more aggressive behaviors is widely investigated and discussed in the literature. In this paper, the relevant evidence provided in three recent scholarly articles will be summarized. Overall, research findings verify the assumption that media violence increases the risk of aggression in real life. Such a conclusion is made in all three of the reviewed articles by Anderson et al. (2017), Coyne (2016), and Tanwar and Priyanka (2016). The mechanisms through which such a detrimental effect is achieved include the normalization of aggression, which means that abuse and other types of violence become regarded as something normal (Coyne, 2016). Additionally, Anderson et al. (2017) note that long-term exposure to media violence leads to desensitization to violence and automatization of aggression-associated scripts, while short-term effects comprise psychological arousal and imitation. Considering that people learn about the world from mass media, its impact on developing personalities of children and adolescents can be particularly profound. As Tanwar and Priyanka (2016) state, due to the lack of experience, children frequently cannot discern fantasy from reality. Thus, they are prone to adopting aggressive models of conflict resolution, especially when they watch TV shows capturing violence too much. However, age, duration of exposure, and the type of media are not the only factors determining the behavioral outcomes. Anderson et al. (2017) observe that the overall cultural background plays a role as well. For instance, they found that the magnitude of detrimental effects due to media exposure was lower in Japan and much higher in the United States and China (Anderson et al., 2017). It means that values and beliefs promoted in the macro-cultural environment can either mitigate or foster media-influenced aggression. Nevertheless, regardless of possible insignificant differences due to cultural upbringing, the media can induce aggressive behaviors in individuals living across the world. References Anderson, C., Suzuki, K., Swing, E., Groves, C., Gentile, D., Prot, S.,… Petrescu, P. (2017). Media violence and other aggression risk factors in seven nations. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 43(7), 986-998. Coyne, S. (2016). Effects of viewing relational aggression on television on aggressive behavior in adolescents: A three-year longitudinal study. Developmental Psychology, 52(2), 284-295. Tanwar, K.,