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Studying The National Programme For IT Information Technology Essay

The National Programme for IT (NPfIT) is the flagship programme of the Department of Health Informatics Directorate, United Kingdom. The programmes mandate is to maintain and improve the NHS national IT infrastructure. NHS Connection for Health (NHS CFH) is the agency with is charged with implementing NPfIT. The programme is in charge of a number of national services and applications. Three services are under NHS CFH: Spine, N3 and NHSmail. A number of applications are also being supported including Choose and Book, Electronic Prescription Service (EPS), Secondary Uses Service (SUS), Summary Care Record (SCR), GP2GP and QMAS. The initiative is aimed at connecting millions of patients, 30000 general practitioners and 300 hospitals. In the future, the initiative will grow to enable patients to view access an electronic database of health records. Figure 1Outline of NPfIT The policies behind the NPfIT program are to improve the quality of the health care data, improve the management of the data and provide better access to patients, doctors and other decision makers in the national health sector. These policies are well intentioned. Doctors and patients also agree on the potential of improved data quality and its timely availability. Inspite of this, NPfIT, the largest civilian IT programme in the world, has run into a number of problems (Hackett, 2009). Some of the major problems have been escalating costs, which are currently at £12 billion; delays in implementation, concerns from healthcare professionals about patient confidentiality and lack of support from NHS staff. Problems related to NDfIT have spanned different functions including technology, contracts, timescales, organisational change, and user acceptance (Pagliari, Singleton,
PERSPECTIVES ON THE EMPLOYMENT RELATIONSHIP AND CONFLICT. Introduction Today industries have undergone a great change in terms of the kind of personnel they deploy as they look for maximization of their production and profits. There is keen selection of means of production especially specialized labor and therefore this means that today’s employer is much more focused on what he needs in the process of production (FredmanPERSPECTIVES ON THE EMPLOYMENT RELATIONSHIP AND CONFLICT
Introduction Human interaction has been engaged in conflicts historically. For every opinion or issues that affect humans, there is more than one opinion about it. Some of the conflicts have led to devastating and adverse effects such as war and loss of lives. The contradicting interests and points of view will continue to be part of human life. However, what remains mostly not evaluated are the benefits that disagreements have had. One field that largely benefits from these disagreements is the field of science. Ways in which disagreements aid the pursuit of knowledge in the natural and human sciences Disagreement is a salient concept in natural science. Without dispute, it will be hard to have progress. In any endeavor or study regarding natural sciences, there is a criterion or a scientific method. The criterion includes a method of observation, the creation of a hypothesis, the undertaking of experiments, and the formulation of law follows. The formulated law is what gathers into a theory. In natural sciences, a law should be controllable, measurable, and repeatable. Karl Popper’s idea of falsification can be used to show the salience of disagreements in the pursuit of knowledge as far as natural sciences are concerned. The forgery is a concept that states that, after the formulation of a theory, scientists should endeavor to prove that theory to be wrong. The theory then becomes accurate and robust as uncertainties are debunked and refuted through a scientific process. In this case, scientists, like all human beings, have their limited points of view and bias that make them unaware of their errors. However, after disagreements and evaluation by other authors, there is sharing and thus furthering of scientific knowledge (Martin, 36). Scientific inquiry is an essential concept in the natural and human sciences. However, it cannot take place in the absence of disagreement. Scientific inquiry can be traced in all the major paradigm shifts that have been witnessed in the field of science. The purpose of scientific inquiry is to explain phenomena. This is achieved by getting to know explanations that can be tested and made into a pattern that will predict the results of future research. Charles Sanders Peirce is one of the scholars who contributed to this debate in the 19th century. Charles redefined what the pursuit of truth and knowledge entails. The redefinition of those concepts helped bring a comprehensive definition of the idea of scientific disagreement, which had previously been defined in verbal rhetoric. Pierce went on and presented his hypothesis on the four methods that are involved in the settling of disagreements or the building of consensus. The four methods include the methods of tenacity, authority, congruity, and the scientific method (Kelly 631). Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More To look at the scientific method, we should note that a paradigm shift can only occur if refutations and conjectures have been used to falsify a hitherto acknowledged and accepted the statement, theory of hypothesis. Inference in this context refers to an observational data that disagrees with the concept, or idea that is undergoing tests. On the other hand, refutations are attempts aimed at solving the dilemma associated with the gray areas in any inventions. Refutations show that it is much easier to prove a theory or an idea to be incorrect than it is to show that it is correct. For a theory to be acknowledged as a law, one should prove beyond a reasonable doubt that no single refutation or conjecture disproves such a law. This means that it is not easy to do these tests given the scenarios that can be tested are countless. This is not the case in falsification, which only requires one counterexample and the law can then be said to have been falsified effectively. A distinct characteristic of human and social sciences is that their progress does not occur gradually. In this case, there is a series of the revolutionary invention or a paradigm shift that debunk beliefs and notions that have hitherto been regarded to be true. An excellent example of natural health can be found in the case of marijuana. There has been a series of radical changes in terms of scientific knowledge of this drug. In the 1900s, the drug was used and even allowed under US law as a recreational drug. Later, in the 1920s the US government started testing marijuana on humans to establish if the drug could be categorized as a habit-forming drug. It was also meant to determine whether the drug could induce sanity among human beings. This was a paradigm shift. Later in 1937, the Federal Bureau of Narcotics collaborated with Congress in categorizing marijuana as a recreational and hazardous narcotic that had the potential to cause several mental illnesses. In the 1990s, many psychologists led by Thomas F. Denton introduced another paradigm shift as far as the knowledge on the medicinal value of the marijuana is concerned. They began noticing that cannabis could be tremendously instrumental in the treatment of many mental disorders. The revelation of this concept has provoked debate and disagreement among researchers in the field of medical cannabis. We will write a custom Essay on Disagreements in Science specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Those who seek to dispute this revelation have argued that the tenacity of the methods used and their authority is not guaranteed. In this regard, marijuana remains an illegal drug and is considered harmful as far as the federal government is concerned. This line of argument stems from the fact that the critics cannot dispute the positive effects that marijuana has been found to have on patients (Yan 378). The timing of falsification is an essential factor. Another critical factor is the amount of evidence that is needed to falsify a theory or a hypothesis effectively. One example that can be used to explain this concept is the controversy that continues to dodge genetically modified foods. There has been disagreement about the effects that genetically modified food has on human health. Genetic modification of food is the process of altering the DNA of an organic plant. This leads to a new breed that possesses traits that the organic plant did not have. The GM foods are then made adaptable and easy to produce, which means that corporations prefer producing GM foods to increase their profit margins through the reduction of the cost of production. There has been no evidence of a credible publication to show that GM foods have adverse effects on human health. However, this does not mean that there has been no hypothesizes to this effect. Several scientists continue to hypothesize on the adverse health effects of GM foods. However, the counter-argument has been that there is not enough evidence to show any harmful effects on human health as a result of the consumption of GM foods. In this case, whenever the scientific methods are applied, the results have shown that GM foods are potentially hazardous. However, this does not qualify as a paradigm shift given that the evidence has not shown GM foods to be dangerous (Berland

Florida International University RevPAR Target Discussion Board

Florida International University RevPAR Target Discussion Board.

Read the key concept case study on page 347.1. Assume you were on Damario’s RM team. Since the property’s room rates are below the competitive set’s, what specific additional data would be required to convince you that it would be a good time to raise your rack rates?2. Assume you were in favor of increasing the RevPAR target next year by 8 percent. Would you be in favor of increasing rack rates, reducing discounts offered, or increasing the number of discounted rooms available for sale? What specific additional data would you want to see before making your decision?
Florida International University RevPAR Target Discussion Board

Cultural Factors and Marketing Management Practices

assignment writer The most difficult hindrance that a global company may face today is how to conquer the fear of the influence of cultural factors on the marketing management practices in the international marketing. The onset of globalization has made the world become an importantly small place when associated to world-wide business. Everything has been intertangled in a complicated global connection which makes countries interdependent of other countries and other organizations as well. Therefore, businesses should consider further their crowded local, national and traditional market to remain their competitive aspect against other organizations. Global marketing management practices are indeed characterized by an environment that is tremendously uncertain. Hence, businesses should be on the belvedere for the uncertainties in the business environment and be qualified for them as they fight so as to remain their competitive aspect against other international firms. In lined with the competitive advantage of the company, their task is to utilize their knowledge of their customers, products, services as well as their resources which could be introduced in the culture that the companies set. This is the key element as global organizations engage in international marketing practices. Besides culture of the organization, the culture of the country out there can significantly affect marketing management practices of the global firm. In fact, a country’s cultural factors have long been recognized as crucial environmental characteristic elemental systematic differences in behaviour. These cultural norms and beliefs are ascendant impacts which shape an individual’s perceptions, characters and behaviours. Moreover, culture is reflected in “general tendencies of persistent preference for particular states of affairs over others, persistent preferences for specific social processes over others, and general rules for selective attention, interpretation of environmental cues, and responses”. (Tse et al., 1988, p. 82) [1] This assignment will be focusing on defining the influence of cultural factors as an essential part in effective marketing management practices of global companies. Meantime, the assignment task is to review and examine how cultural factors are conceptualized in books, journals and in marketing management practices as well. Additionally, the assignment will also be examining the role of culture in global marketing. At the conclusion of the discussion, there will be personal remarks regarding the implications of cultural factors in effective global marketing management practices. BODY AND DISCUSSION Defining Culture Commentaries which one of the main causes of many business failures has been linked to the failure to take account of cultural differences between countries. Furthermore, many marketing theories are limited in the sense that they have been developed and confirmed in Western countries only, specifically in the U.S and Europe. The beyond development of marketing as an academic discipline requires that there must have complete examination of the soundness of the theories as well as the models in other cultural settings as to identify the level of generalization and to discover some boundary limitations and conditions. What is culture anyway? States that the term “culture” branched out from the Latin root “colere” which means to cultivate, to build on, to foster, to inhabit, etc [2]. There have been umpteen reflections on the meaning of culture in all sorts of versions of its use. Until now, various schools of though regarding the term have emerged; for instance, in the 19th century the notion of mass culture and popular culture emerged [3]. That was the epoch when culture was viewed as shared values amongst distinctive social groups and classes in societies. Hofstede (2001) defined that “culture is the collective programming of the mind that distinguishes the members of one group or category of people from another” (p.9) [4]. This somehow describes culture as a set of values and attributes of a given group and the relation of the individual to culture and the individual’s acquisition of those values and attributes. Culture is absolutely not an easy phenomenon to measure at all. It owns numerous definitions including the above meaning that it is a shared system of perceptions and values or a group sharing a certain system of perceptions and values. It means an organized body of rules concerning the ways in which individuals in a population should communicate with one another, think about themselves and their environments, and behave toward one another and toward objects in their environments. The rules are not universally or constantly obeyed, but they are recognized by all and they ordinarily operate to limit the range of variation in patterns of communication, belief, value, and social behavior in that population [5]. In a more or less similar idea that culture is not as much what people do and how they express themselves, as their knowledge of the potential behaviuors and cognitive maps of their in-group. It is the familiarity with certain forms of behaviour and ways of thinking that makes people feel that they belong to the same culture [6]. In another way, these said definitions give us a simple understanding of the meaning of culture as the sub-groups which share beliefs and basic assumptions of deriving from the group. In association of the cultural settings of the market behaviours, culture is a common set of values, forms of social organization that influence roles and status positions as well as the conventions, rituals, and practices that guide behaviour, and a communication system which includes not only languages but non-verbal components as well, almost all definitions of the word “culture” points out to a main thing which is ‘a shared communication system and common ways of thinking and behaving’ [7]. As noted, culture is ‘shared by a group of people and hereby defines the boundaries of the group’ [8]. As mentioned above, the term “culture” has its own numerous of definitions. Narrowly defined, it is simply a system of beliefs; broadly defined, it involves beliefs, value systems, norms, mores, myths as well as structural factos of a given organization, tribe or society. Correspondingly, culture acts as an incorporating force for a given system which provides a bond to hold together the cognitive, affective and structural components of the system that the level or degree of the incorporation is primarily dependent on how strong the given culture is: the stronger the culture, the better the integration; meanwhile weak cultures offer less integration. Culture, Cultural Factors and Cultural Core Values Culture is an significant element of all behaviours. For instance, an enormous deal of modern cognitive consumer behaviour theory embodies culture. Additionally, the behaviour of people in market-place, in transaction business and in all of life’s activities generally is motivated by pieces of store knowledge or cognitions as values, opinions, ideas and attitudes, etc. These cognitions are fundamentally learned and acquired from the enculturation process or from experiences and social interactions wherefore people develop values and norms which are products of culture. This development starts since the early childhood and continue throughout the life. It is everywhere and consistent that affects almost aspects of an individual’s activities: how a person works, plays, sleeps, eats, interacts with others and purchases goods or services. Commonly, societies have developed their own core cultures including the individual’s most primal beliefs and values which are mirrored in their personal life-styles. Some countries have very identical core cultures whilst the others are largely different. Practically all countries around the world have various general definitions of the ways of living. Tongren, Hecht and Kovach (1995) aptly state that every culture has its own a unique set of core values that reflects how its members feel, act as well as what is proper or improper to do and to believe [9]. Those core values are practiced and understood whether it is abstract, not usually codified or put into written form. Studying culture then will not be thorough unless people will consider these values and how they relate to behaviours in the market-place as well as the work-place. Components of Culture Aside from discussing general definitions of culture and its role in marketing practices of global companies, it is also important to examine the tremendous components of culture that can be defined as the numerous ways where culture is manifested in thoughts, words and actions of the society. The components of culture may be outlined as: (a) communication, that can be classified as verbal and non-verbal; (b) religion; (c) aesthetics; (d) education; (e) social organizations; (f) technology; (g) values and norms; and finally, (h) time. Role and Influence of Cultural Factors in Marketing Management Practices Today, business activities are a primary source of cultural globalization. As global companies find new potential markets, they somehow send out cultural messages of how people should talk, dress, think and feel, etc. Many international experts and business practitioners have argued the perception that we are living in a so-called “borderless world”, which has no limits while the needs of the customers are converging day by day. According to that, to meet the needs of the consumers, global companies must try to produce the standardized products and services that will be able to serve all global needs. Indeed, they increasingly influence and change cultural habits and beliefs of different countries in different cultures. Global companies, however, are realizing that there should be local adaptation due to cultural differences around the world. Some studies of the role and influence of cultural factors in marketing management practices of global companies teach us that ‘the many ways where our theories and paradigms are a mirror of the culture in which they were developed’ [10]. For example, famous theories and approaches that include cognitive dissonance, preference, attribution theory, modeling and individual choice modeling might not apply to collective culture without making some modifications. Cultural differences play a major influence in identifying the role that the proper manner of transacting business between global companies with the variety of cultural backgrounds. Ideally speaking, global companies which are involved in businesses that are cross-cultural should as a matter of fact have a fundamental knowledge of cultural differences and must act in a way that can be acceptable to the other culture. Prior to the effort of marketing goods or services to a foreign nation, global companies should have a complete understanding of other cultures and their intrinsical differences due to the fact that the nature of marketing is meeting the needs and wants of their customers, plus, the fact that such needs and wants are culturally based. This must be noted as one of the most importance that the understanding, respect and acceptance of another culture and the capability to set aside companies’ own cultural customs and traditions appreciably distinguishes the marketing of a successful global firm from others. Examining the role and influence of culture in marketing management practices is considerably significant as it helps global companies to explain the reason behind the difference of perception of one group from others that ‘in international business dealings, ignorance of cultural differences is not just unfortunate, it is bad business’ [11]. Numerous companies have failed to acknowledge this. Culture has always offered problems and challenges for many global companies. It is ‘generally the lack of understanding and knowledge sharing in association to culture which has brought culture under the spotlight’ in the issue of marketing management practices [12]. In addition, the key function of culture is to “set up forms of conduct, standards of performance and methods of dealing with interpersonal and environmental associations that will reduce uncertainty and increase predictability, thereby, promote survival and growth amongst the members of any society” [13]. In this context and the process of social evolution, it is found out that people find particular behaviours and values to be adaptive and useful while others are found to be non-adaptive or even dangerous. Useful practices are shared and rewarded whilst harmful practices are extremely discouraged and discarded. Over the time, useful behaviours, values and artifacts have become institutionalized and integrated as part of the cultural traditions. We often hear more definite obstacles of global companies when marketing across borders: tariffs, taxes and regulations. Some of these hindrances are hidden however; they are cultural barriers. Each of us is subjected to more edges of cultural factors such as languages, manners and mores. Often we hear, read and even experience those in our very lives. The perception of cultural differences is purely a common sense and difficult to figure out. So what marketing management practices that global companies sometimes neglects to notice are the subtle cultural signals. Cultures speak themselves in codes which requires global firms to decode them. As the computer language, these codes are somehow encrypted that it can be very difficult to make sense of. Hence, in cross-border marketing management, global companies should learn to seek and decipher cultural differences in terms of attitudes, the methods of transacting businesses and even expectations. Cultural differences, in this context, are defined by the way people think and not by the way they look. Understanding this impression is crucial to the success of global companies in marketing management practices. It importantly affects and influences everything that they can do from activities such as product selection, to the structure of the offer, to the choice of the firm’s works, to the implementation and execution of the design and most importantly, to its effects on the company’s customer services. For an international marketing management to be successful, global companies should attempt to understand the cultural custom of the country which is the central edge of the marketing effort. In lined to this, if products or services of a global company does not sufficiently meet to the particular cultural values of a society, then that company must be ready to modify or revise the said products or services. For example, compared to the U.S. in general, Japan has its population live in a much smaller housing unit. Therefore, their needs in housing are for smaller and more compact refrigerators. Additionally, Japanese also drive on the left-hand side of the road like British. So it was reported that one of the most problems that one Detroit-based automobile manufacturer had in its effort to penetrate the Japanese market was to continuously send cars with steering wheels located on the left side for driving on the right-hand side of the road which is correct for Americans, nevertheless, definitely wrong for the Japanese. The question is that who would willing to buy a car with steering wheels on the left side for driving on the right-hand side of the road when your country is practicing driving on the left hand side of the road? As consequence, global companies that have identified consumer needs such as these induced by culture have prospered; whereas, the companies which endeavoured to sell standard and similar American products as refrigerators, cars or others into the Japanese market have failed. Wherefore, there is a great demand for global businesses to address a prospective market from the cultural point of view. CONCLUSION In conclusion, the influence of culture factors in the concept of marketing management practices of global companies is a very large concept. Culture is recognized to be very important in international marketing; however, not much theory underpins culture as an important tool for the success of international marketing. Culture is known to have a sophisticated and tremendous impact on markets. The challenge for global companies is to recognize, respond and change accordingly to the differences in values and stress given in each of the cultural differences. For a continuous and enduring relationship, a win-win situation is envious. The key to success is to create a setting where both sides cooperate, unthreatened and are dedicated to finding a mutually advantageous solution. Understanding how to deal efficiently with conflict and power, to apprehend the marketing practices as an exchange process. For success for global companies conducting cross-cultural business in terms of international marketing are as follows: Firstly, global companies should be aware of other groups or countries that are different and unique in their own nature: in perceptions, motivation, beliefs and outlook, etc. Then international firms must recognize, understands and respect other groups’ cultural differences. Secondly, global companies should be culturally neutral as it will imply that the company accepts and respects other’s norms as part of their cultures. Ultimately, global companies should be sensitive to other’s cultural norms, dos and taboos, then strive to understand what they are and how one’s behaviour may affect them. It must be remembered that each of these have continued to contribute for the expansion and the growth of global companies. > Word Count Statistics: 2732

HCAD 650 UMUC St Anthony Hospital v US Department of Health & Human Services Case

HCAD 650 UMUC St Anthony Hospital v US Department of Health & Human Services Case.

HCAD 650: Legal Aspects of Health Care Administration Discussion 1 Questions – Instructions: Please answer using your own words in a minimum of 400, maximum 550 words (2.5-3 paragraphs). PER QUESTION 4 in total. Referenced with Three (3) peer-reviewed journal articles or qualified text publish within the past five years and follow APA Manual 6th or 7th editions scholarly writing guidelines. APA in-text Citation formatting is required. When writing replies, please provide your experiences, new ideas, add probing questions to engage readers and new literature on the topic to enhance the learning opportunity. Questions 1. Federal Laws & the Court System Part 1: Critical Analysis of the Law Address ALL questions in part 1 in a minimum of 400, maximum 550 words EMTALA and Court Cases The Emergency Medical Treatment and Active Labor Act (EMTALA) requires emergency rooms to evaluate, treat and stabilize emergency room patients regardless of ability to pay. This has been referred to as an unfunded mandate. Review St. Anthony Hospital v. HHS (10th circuit) on reverse dumping at https://caselaw.findlaw.com/us-10th-circuit/1432730.html Evaluate the court decision and indicate whether you agree or disagree with the court and the reasons it relied on to reach its conclusion. Include case examples in your response. Review the HHS Georgia Hospital Settlement dated 4-20-2020 at https://oig.hhs.gov/fraud/enforcement/cmp/cmp-ae.asp (Scroll down the page) State whether you would have agreed to the settlement agreement if you were an executive with Georgia Hospital. Evaluate the pros and cons of accepting the agreement instead of going to court, and factors to consider in deciding whether to settle a case. Part 2: Strategic Application of the Law Address ALL questions in par 2 in a minimum of 400, maximum 550 words You are an emergency department manager at Big Health Hospital. Your hospital is in a large city and serves the needs of the inner city as well as visitors who are injured while visiting the city. You have grappled with problems of overcrowding and have the following metrics: Door to doctor time: 130 minutes Decision to transfer time: 390 minutes Decision to discharge time: 115 minutes Patients Left without being seen (LWBS) percentage: 24% You have been asked to create a strategic plan to improve emergency room care. The plan must be presented to the Executive VP of Hospital Operations for approval prior to implementation. Discuss how you would create a strategic plan. (Don’t create an actual plan, but be specific about what you would include in your plan) The plan should: Comply with EMTALA Improve one of the key metrics Address the issue of emergency department overcrowding Explain what your plan would involve and how it would meet these three requirements. Explain the resources that would be required to implement your plan in terms of people, time, and money. Describe the arguments you would make to the Executive VP in support of your plan and describe how it will benefit the hospital. Question 2. Federal and State Agencies. Part 1: Critical Analysis of the Law Address ALL questions in part 1 in a minimum of 400, maximum 550 words You are a senior compliance officer at a medical device company. The Director of Compliance has requested you review the following two articles: (1) Innovation, Risk and Patient Empowerment/FDA Mandated Withdrawal of 23andMe and (2) FDA versus Personal Genetic Testing Prepare a short post for the internal employee blog summarizing the FDA’s activities concerning 23 and Me. What role does the FDA play? Why did it take this action? How would this apply to future products or services you might develop? Part 2: Strategic Application of the Law Address ALL questions in part 2 in a minimum of 400, maximum 550 words You live in Shiprock, New Mexico – in what is called the Four Corners Region — and hold a professional license to practice as a physician. You would like to open satellite offices and offer services in the neighboring states of Utah, Arizona, and Colorado. What federal and or state agencies will you need to contact? What is the role of state agencies in licensing? Does it matter if you are an allopathic or osteopathic physician? Why or why not? What actions would you need to take to practice in each of the states?
HCAD 650 UMUC St Anthony Hospital v US Department of Health & Human Services Case

Texas A & M University Kingsville Data Mining Cluster Analysis Questions

Texas A & M University Kingsville Data Mining Cluster Analysis Questions.

Answer the following questions. Please ensure to use the Author, YYYY APA citations with any content brought into the assignment. For sparse data, discuss why considering only the presence of non-zero values might give a more accurate view of the objects than considering the actual magnitudes of values. When would such an approach not be desirable?Describe the change in the time complexity of K-means as the number of clusters to be found increases.Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of treating clustering as an optimization problem. Among other factors, consider efficiency, non-determinism, and whether an optimization-based approach captures all types of clusterings that are of interest.What is the time and space complexity of fuzzy c-means? Of SOM? How do these complexities compare to those of K-means?Explain the difference between likelihood and probability.Give an example of a set of clusters in which merging based on the closeness of clusters leads to a more natural set of clusters than merging based on the strength of connection (interconnectedness) of clusters.
Texas A & M University Kingsville Data Mining Cluster Analysis Questions