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List at least 4 functions of the Urinary System. Filter blood to allow toxins, metabolic wastes, and excess ions to leave body through urination Regulate volume and chemical makeup of the blood Maintain proper balance between water and salts, acids and bases Gluconeogenesis during prolonged fasting What is the role of the renal artery? Transports oxygenated blood from the heart and aorta to the kidneys What is the function of the nephron?

Filtration of blood and the reabsorption of secreted materials What does the capsule do? t supports and protects the kidney What is the function of the cortex? It is the main sight for filtration, reabsorption, and secretion What are renal pyramids? Triangular shaped units in the medulla that house the loops of Henle and collecting ducts of the nephron. This is also the site for the counter-current system that concentrates salt and conserves water and urea Where is the site of blood filtration? Glomerulus What does a nephron save for the body? water Where is the glomerous located?

The glomerulus is surrounded by the Bowman’s Capsule How are kidney stones formed? Crystallization of calcium, magnesium, or uric acid alts that are precipitated down to the renal pelvis What are the symptoms of cystitis? Inflammation, fever, increased urgency and frequency to urinate What are the symptoms of Bright’s disease? Back pain, vomiting and fever 13-14) Name two causes for Incontinence. Pregnancy and emotional disorders 1 5) How does dialysis therapy work? It is a process that removes metabolic waste 16) What is surrounded by the Bowman’s capsule?

Glomerulus 17) What organ is most essential for homeostasis in this system? Kidneys 18) What are the functions of the urinary system? Filtration, Secretion, Reabsorption Activation of Vitamin D 9) What are the components of the nephron? Renal corpuscle and tubule 20) What is the upper portion of the urethra connected to? Bladder 21) Describe the male vs. female anatomy of the urinary system. They are both very similar, with the exception of: the length of the urethra. 22) Describe nephron filtration.

They all have problems with filtration What are the characteristics of urinary diseases such as renal calculi, Bright’s disease, diabetes mellitus, cystitis, incontinence? Explain dialysis therapy basics It is the process that artificially removes metabolic wastes from the blood in order to compensate for kidney failure. Explain the pathway of urine formation. As blood courses through the glomeruli, much of its fluid, containing both useful chemicals and dissolved waste materials, soaks out of the blood through the membranes by osmosis and diffusion, where it is filtered and then flows into the Bowman’s capsule.

This process is called glomerular filtration. The water, waste products, salt, glucose, and other chemicals that have been filtered out of the blood are known collectively as glomerular filtrate. The glomerular filtrate consists primarily of water, excess salts, glucose, and a waste product of the body called urea. Urea is formed in the body to eliminate the very toxic ammonia products that are formed in the liver from amino acids. Since humans cannot excrete ammonia, it is converted to the less dangerous urea and then filtered out of the blood.

Urea is the most abundant of the waste products that must be excreted by the kidneys. What is the part of the blood that carries wastes? Plasma What are the components of urine? Water, urea, uric acid, creatnin, and excess elctrolytes Where does most water reabsorption occur? The Nephron What are the effects of aldosterone? The overall effect of aldosterone is to increase eabsorption of ions and water in the kidney increasing blood volume and, therefore, increasing blood pressure.

How is urine passed through the ureters? peristaltic movements or peristalsis. What are the main functions of: Collecting ducts, convoluting tubules, glomerulus, nephrons Filtration and reabsorption Promotion of renin release can be caused by what? Increase in ions or renal blood flow The lowest blood concentration of nitrogenous waste is found where? Renal veins What can Kidney failure result in? Azotemia, Uremia and ion disturbances,which can lead to acidosis, labored breathing, convulsions, coma and death

Discuss the birth of the nonprofit sector and how it came about out of the philanthropic era.

Discuss the birth of the nonprofit sector and how it came about out of the philanthropic era..

This chapter discusses the birth of the nonprofit sector and how it came about out of the philanthropic era. In this Chapter’s discussion, discuss how you believe the nonprofit sector is different from the philanthropic sector. What are some similarities? According to this Chapter, were there specific policies that were meant to differentiate both? For this chapter, I am looking forward to more of a discussion, so feel free to post on other’s posts as well.

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