a minimum of 200 words in your responses and if you utilize a reference, it must be properly formatted and complete.Question 1 – Discuss the correlation between nursing education and positive patient outcomes. Include current research that links patient safety outcomes to advanced degrees in nursing. Based on some real-life experiences, explain whether you agree or disagree with this research.Response – Amanda S1 – Healthcare is constantly changing and evolving. New evidence-based practice research is constantly announced. Patient safety is increased as well as better patient outcomes. According to AACN, 2019 “hospitals with an increased percentage of RNs with baccalaureate or higher degrees had lower congestive heart failure mortality, decubitus ulcers, failure to rescue, and postoperative deep vein thrombosis or pulmonary embolism and shorter length of stay.” Fewer deaths were associated with a better educated nurse workforce. For every 10% increase in BSN RN’s, the percentage of possible patient deaths fell by 7% (NIH, 2014).I agree that higher education can decrease mortality and I understand why these healthcare changes are desired. I agree that BSN nurses have more evidence-based training. Nurses with years of wisdom also have high levels of critical thinking and capacity to diminish mortality rates. These nurses are in sync with the physicians, able to do whatever is required for the patient, and can often predict what is coming next for the patient.I have become a well-rounded nurse and able to implement little changes in my workplace using the concepts I’ve learned throughout my BSN courses. Awareness of new advances in innovation and using those advancements in patient care is important to promote best practice and provide the best care we can. I will use this knowledge to inspire and advocate for my co-workers so they too may proceed in advancing their education.References:National Institutes of Health (2014). Nurse staffing, education affect patient safety. Retrieved from https://www.nih.gov/news-events/nih-research-matters/nurse-staffing-education-affect-patient-safetyAmerican Association of Colleges of Nursing (2019).The impact of education on nursing practice. Retrieved from https://www.aacnnursing.org/Portals/42/News/Factsh…Niki Oden2 – The amount of education that a nurse receives influences the care that they are able to implement. Education increases competence, which in turn promotes positive patient outcomes. When a nurse continues their education, they are better able to think critically. Critical thinking is vital when it comes to optimal patient outcomes. Quality and safety of care is increased when nurses take on the task of furthering their education. Experience and competence greatly influence positive patient outcomes. Nurses obtain more evidence-based knowledge when they continue their education, allowing them to implement the knowledge obtained creates positive patient outcomes. Today’s changing healthcare environment is calling for more nurses to take on leadership and management roles. In order for nurses to take on those roles they must advance their degree’s.The American Association of Colleges of Nursing (AACN) summarizes findings from studies that show that nurses with at least a bachelor’s degree in nursing optimize patient outcomes. Increasing bachelor prepared nursing on hospital units by 10% created nearly an 11% reduction in risk of patient mortality (The Impact of Education on Nursing Practice, 2019). When care was increased to being provided by bachelor’s degree nurses it showed an 80% lower readmission rates and reduced hospital stay (The Impact of Education on Nursing Practice, 2019). These lower readmission rates and reduced hospital stay saved healthcare dollars.I agree with the research that shows that there is a correlation between nursing education and positive patient outcomes. When one advances their nursing education, they are better able to care for their patients through critical thinking skills. I work in a hospital where they require you to obtain your BSN within 3 years of being hired. I have seen firsthand the difference in critical thinking skills when education is advanced. It is safe to say that in the short time that I have continued my education through Grand Canyon, I have been able to implement more evidence-based knowledge in the care that I provide to my patients. All of the research that I have done for papers and discussion questions allows me to analyze situations in a more efficient manner.References:The Impact of Education on Nursing Practice. (2019, April). Retrieved January 08, 2021, from https://www.aacnnursing.org/news-information/fact-…Thomas, J. (2018). Professional Development in Nursing. Retrieved January 08, 2021, from https://lc.gcumedia.com/nrs440vn/trends-in-health-…What Is the Link Between BSN Nurses and Patient Outcomes? (2020, January 10). Retrieved January 08, 2021, from https://nursingonline.nsuok.edu/articles/rnbsn/lin…Shannon Bolin3 – Over the past few decades nurse education and the effect it has on patient education has been a key topic in healthcare reform. A team from the University of Kansas looked at the differences between an associate’s degree nursing program (ADN) and a bachelor level nursing program and found that out of 109 measuring outcomes the ADN program met 42 of these metrics that include organizational and system leadership, evidence-based practices, healthcare policy, interprofessional collaboration and community health (AANC, 2019). Another study published by a nurse researcher showed that with every 10% increase in BSN to staffing ratios resulted in a 10.6% decline in patients’ mortality (AACN). With rising evidence that the BSN educated nurse can lower mortality rate the Roberts Woods Johnson Foundation (RWJF) published a report that encouraged healthcare leaders to adapt programs that would increase the number of BSN trained nursing in their facilities (AANC, 2019) At the time of the study only 49% of nurse were trained at the BSN level and the study challenged leaders to increase this to 80% by 2020 (AACN, 2019). While still short of its goal, the number of BSN trained nurses has gone up to 56% which shows that the initiatives made significant advancements (AANC, 2019). After graduation I accepted a position in a hospital that required that I obtain my BSN within 5 years from the date of my employment. At this time, I had little interest in returning to school but understood that the requirement was aimed at increased quality patient care. Throughout my short time at a nurse in the last two and a half years, I have worked with many BSN and ADN trained nurse. For the last year I have served as a preceptor for both and while I can say I can notice a difference in training for both programs, I don’t feel that the ADN program nurses on our floor have any disadvantages in patient care. I do believe that the BSN trained nurse may have a better background when it comes to leadership and interprofessional collaboration, but I feel a supportive environment that is committed to its nurse will be able to offer these skills through ongoing education and learning through the workplace setting. Now that I am close to finishing my BSN education, I still do not feel that the BSN route should be mandated in nursing but I support the workplace to continue to encourage it through tuition reimbursements and flexible schedules as well as the RN-BSN programs to continue to evaluate ways to make the transition smoother and more affordable.American Association of Colleges of Nursing [AACN] (2019). The Impact of Education on Nursing Practice. News & Information: Fact Sheet. Retrieved from https://www.aacnnursing.org/news-information/fact-…Eunhee Cho, Sloane, D. M., Eun-Young Kim, Sera Kim, Miyoung Choi, Il Young Yoo, Hye Sun Lee, & Aiken, L. H. (2015). Effects of nurse staffing, work environments, and education on patient mortality: An observational study. International Journal of Nursing Studies, 52(2), 535–542. Retrieved from https://doi-org.lopes.idm.oclc.org/10.1016/j.ijnurstu.2014.08.006Nathanaelle Joseph4 – In 2017, NYS signed the “BSN in 10” law, which requires Associate degree RN to get their BSN within 10 years of passing the NCLEX. A 2003 study found that a 10% increase in the proportion of nurses with BSN decreased the risk of patient death and failure to rescue by 5%. According to the American Association of college, nursing has studies that show a direct correlation between nurses with a Bachelor’s degree and positive patient outcomes. Increasing the number of BSN nurses by 10% was linked to about 11% reduction in the risk of patient mortality. Even in patients with complications, there was a 10 point increase in the percentage of BSN-RN was associated with 7.47 fewer deaths per 1000 patients. Hospitals with a greater amount of BSN-RN had lower rates of CHF mortality, decubitus ulcers, failure to rescue, post-op, deep vein thrombosis, and patients had shorter stay. When hospitals increase by 80% led to lower re-admission rates, reduced the length of stay, cost the hospital less money. BSN nurses place more emphasis on evidence-based practice, nursing leadership, management, data analysis, and the use of quality improvement.In my opinion, it doesn’t matter if the nurse that is taking care of me has a BSN or ADN, I want them to treat me with respect and show kindness. When I am sick, I want to be treated well: bring the pain meds on time, answer the call bell, provide me with the right information for me to make the best decision, and help me to the best of their ability. I have both nice and mean nurses, I prefer the kindness of the new nurses over the rudeness of the experienced nurses. American Association of the college of nursing. (2019). Enrollment and graduations in baccalaureate and graduate programs in nursing. Retrieved from aacnnursing.orgCharelle Tolentino5 – IOM report made recommendations for the improvement of nursing as they play a primary role in changing the future of healthcare. Fundamental changes such as preparing a use to meet a patient’s diverse needs. functioning as a leader, advancing science to benefit patients, and delivering safe quality patient care are needed in order to reach the goals of the IOM report. Nurses make up the largest workforce in healthcare. A more educated workforce leads to improved patient care. Studies have linked a higher educated level nurse to hospital mortality rates. Hospitals with registered nurses that hold a baccalaureate degrees or higher had lower rates of congestive heart failure mortality, decubitus ulcers, failure to rescue, and postoperative deep vein thrombosis or pulmonary embolism and shorter length of hospital stay (Blegen et al., 2013). Based on real life experiences I’m not sure I would completely agree. Nurses with higher educations lie a BSN or MSN are more likely to obtain leadership and management positions. But from my experience the nurses were given those positions based on degree and not their experience. I have witnessed and experienced many incidents when a nurse with a lower degree acted as a team leader in an emergency in the presence of RNs with a DNP or MSN. A coworker of mine with a MSN degree was promoted to assistant nurse manager within less than year starting as a new grad nurse. She was helping us on the floor and was assigned as medication nurse. She gave a patient a beta blocker who had bradycardia. She was with the nursing assistant when the vitals were being taken and she continued to give the medication. That is just one of many incidents I have experienced.ReferencesBlegen, M. A., Goode, C. J., Park, S. H., Vaughn, T., & Spetz, J. (2013). Baccalaureate education in nursing and patient outcomes. The Journal of nursing administration, 43(2), 89–94. https://doi.org/10.1097/NNA.0b013e31827f2028Question 2 – Discuss the difference between a DNP and a PhD in nursing. Discuss which of these you would choose to pursue if you decide to continue your education to the doctoral level and explain why.Cara Harris6.2 – The DNP and Ph.D. are both considered highest advanced nursing degrees and experts in their clinical fields of practice. The DNP is more focused on the clinical practice and the PhD is more focused on research and teaching. (GCU,2018) My career route will always continue to be towards the clinical scope of practice. While I appreciate the expert level component to the PhD and appreciate research I believe that my strengths are much more strategically focused and targeted to the clinical practice. There is also more advancement opportunity to me as a nurse pursuing a DNP. My career path started as a Certified Nursing Assistant in a skilled nursing facility. From there I advanced my continued education to become a Licensed Practical Nurse, and then from there further continued to become a Registered Nurse. My education and career path has been very successful for me, and this was complimented with the real life nursing experiences. So with that said, it would be in my best interest if I chose to do so would be to pursue my DNP.ReferenceGrand Canyon University (Ed). (2018). Trends in health care: A nursing perspective. Retrieved from https://lc.gcumedia.com/nrs440vn/trends-in-health-…
NRS 440 Grand Canyon University Professional Development in Nursing Discussion
Write 2 1/2 – about 3 1/2 pages, double spaced 12 point font. The average reading of one full page of text takes two to three minutes. A three page text will take about seven to 10 minutes to deliver. Time your speech when you practice it. A longer text is fine. Just don’t speak longer than eight minutes. Write the title of the speech (full complete statement) underlined OR written in italic here.Attention grabber. The speaker must use one of the seven ways to begin a speech as discussed in class. The topic statement must be a full, complete sentence. Underline or bold type it. All three aspects of a well written topic statement must be included: clear intent, single specific subject, context. In some rare occasions a context is not necessary. Hint: include the term: “benefit”. The topic must be both educational and beneficial. The justification must fully explain the significance or importance of the speech. First, define OR explain the speech topic. Next, state the significance of the topic OR justify the topic’s importance for the audience. Finally, support your statement of importance with a properly cited quote. The length of the justification should be a reasonable paragraph and must include at least one well cited quote. Underline OR Italic the name of the publication.Preview the main points of the body of the speech in a single sentence.
informative essay: i am here to inform you of the benefits on how apple iPhones have hardest security to hack.
Coal As An Alternative Energy Source Environmental Sciences Essay
The dictionary meaning of alternative is offering a choice of second possibility in other words it is something like replacement. In our case coal is good alternative source of energy as it can replace most of the energy sources that are in existence. Alternative source of energy is a huge term that refers to any source of usable energy intended to replace fuel sources without the undesired consequences of the replaced fuels. The term depicts or reflects a set of energy technologies and fields which are alternate of each other and so on. As such, the list of energy sources excluded is an indication of what problems that the alternative technologies are facing. Controversies regarding dominant sources of energy and their alternatives have a long history because as the time is changing the needs and sources are also varying day by day. Today the nature of what were regarded alternative energy sources has changed considerably over time and it has become controversial issue because of the variety of energy choices so defining some energy types as “alternative” is highly controversial. As a whole , alternative energy is that which is produced without the undesirable consequences of the burning of fossil fuels, such as high carbon dioxide emissions, which is considered to be the major contributing factor of global warming according to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Sometimes, this less comprehensive meaning of ‘alternative energy’ excludes nuclear energy It is almost fixed that coal will have a future as a good alternative energy source. We have enough reserves of coal that can last for at least 200 years but only rate of consumption will be in our control. However, coal reserves are spread more equitably around the world than oil reserves; the united States have the largest reserves all over the world. Also it has a good future because it is very inexpensive as other possible energy sources. Coal is inexpensive to extract and to use to produce electricity. However, some factors make the future of coal appear to drop. There are some technical limitations present when using coal as an energy source. For example, it cannot be used for transport purposes unless it is used in electric vehicles. There are also some ecological issues to contend with. The need for an energy alternative has most nations looking in all directions, and one of those is coal as an energy source. Many experts see coal as viable alternative source of energy. It is not known as the cleanest means of producing energy, but it is a cheaper alternative. The future of coal as an energy source is yet unknown, but there are many predictions for how it may be implemented. For countries with rising oil prices, it is predictable that coal may become a cheaper source of energy. It is also predicted that the total primary coal energy consumption should remain about the same for another two decades, and then slowly begin to increase. There are some problems with the cleanliness of coal, which causes a vast amount of pollution, but treating the combustion fumes can solve these problems. However, coal is still a great producer of CO2, and with most nations trying to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, this could scupper any plans of using it as an alternative energy source. Coal is a notorious pollutant containing sulphur which gives off sulphur dioxide when it is burned. Once it is in the atmosphere, sulphur dioxide becomes sulphur acid, which are an irritant to the lungs and a main component to acid rain. Coal also has many other disadvantages that put its future as an alternative energy source in doubt. Burning coal produces CO2, which is a well known greenhouse gas that is very harmful to the environment. There is no solution to the CO2 that comes from burning coal, so this may cause it to go to the back of the line as a possible alternative energy source. Therefore, countries that are trying to reduce their greenhouse gas emissions, would not seek to increase coal consumption, because it would defeat their purposes. On the other hand, countries that are not concerned with greenhouse gases will only increase their coal consumption in the coming years. Coal is not the perfect alternative energy source, but it is a possibility. Technological research is developing rapidly all over the world and there are many research programs in action today, including, research on the gasification of coal to produce hydrogen for fuel cells, and the capture and confinement of CO2. The future of coal as an alternative energy source is unclear, and there are some countries that are willing to settle more than others. The future of coal as an energy source may be dependent on a country’s needs or requirements and, even more so, their concerns. Environmental Impacts of the Use of Coal Because coal contains more carbon per unit of energy than other fossil fuels, it will produce more carbon dioxide per unit of electric power production than petroleum or natural gas. Electrical utilities, being the largest consumers of coal, are the largest sources of CO2 emissions from coal The only practical way to prevent CO2 levels from going far into the dangerous range, with disastrous effects for humanity and other inhabitants of the planet, is to phase out use of coal except at power plants where the CO2 is captured and sequestered If CO2 emissions from coal-fired power plants continue to rise at rates projected by the U.S. energy information administration, it will be impossible for the United States to achieve the steep economy-wide emissions reductions it needs to have a reasonable chance of avoiding the worst effects of climate change Transporting coal from where it is mined to where it will be burned also produces significant quantities of air pollution and other environmental harms. Diesel-burning trucks, trains, and barges that transport coal release NOx, SOx, PM, VOCs (volatile organic chemicals), CO, and CO2 into the earth’s atmosphere The Legacy of Coal Mining Nearly 150 years and some 13 billion tons of coal later, it’s strikingly obvious that the great wealth of natural resources in West Virginia has been anything but a blessing. Rather than bringing riches, it has brought poverty, sickness, environmental devastation and despair. Much of the surface mining – more accurately mountaintop removal – slices off several hundred feet of the mountaintops, uncovering entire seams of coal. Mining causes widespread deforestation, soil erosion, water shortages and pollution, smoldering coal fires and the emission of greenhouse gases. Massive excavation operations strip land bare, lower water tables, generate huge waste mountains and blanket surrounding communities with dust particles and debris. Despite coal being the most abundant and cheapest of the carbon based sources of energy, and despite the coal industry earning the benefits of “clean coal”, the fact that the role of coal in energy production is now confined to electrical generation gives hope that the negative environmental legacy of coal can be reduced. Alternative sources of energy, such as hydro, nuclear and wind power are ideally suited to generate electricity. Application and future prospective Coal as an alternative to wood Coal gasification as an alternative to petroleum Coal is not the perfect alternative energy source, but it is a possibility. Technological research is developing rapidly all over the world and there are many research programs in action today, including, research on the gasification of coal to produce hydrogen for fuel cells, and the capture and confinement of CO2. The future of coal as an alternative energy source is unclear, and there are some countries that are willing to settle more than others. The future of coal as an energy source may be dependent on a country’s needs or requirements and, even more so, their concerns. The world reserves of coal are large enough to last two hundred years, but only at their current rate of consumption. However, coal reserves are spread more equitably around the world than oil reserves, with the United States having the largest reserves. It also has a promising future because it is not as expensive as other possible energy sources. Coal is inexpensive to extract and to use to produce electricity. However, some factors make the future of coal appear to be bleak. There are some technical limitations present when using coal as an energy source. For example, it cannot be used for transport purposes unless it is used in electric vehicles and the most important thing is that trees will nowhere to be seen in next thirty to forty years so in conclusion we can’t have any access to the coal energy. America and other nations face an unprecedented transportation fuel crisis. Petroleum fuel, a life blood of our economy for almost 100 years, is entering a sustained period of supply shortage due to huge demand increases from growing economies in Asia and elsewhere. This new demand is here to stay and likely to intensify, causing more price increases, price volatility, political manipulation of oil supplies, and global instability as competition for dwindling supplies intensifies. This is already impacting our energy, economic, and homeland security. Government, commercial, and finance leaders around the world are now taking action. Since one solution is unlikely, a suite of new technologies and energy sources will be needed to address the challenge. One of those solutions is carbon-to-liquids technology, which the U.S. Department of Energy projects could supply 10% of the nation’s transportation fuel in just 20 years. As new fuels and technologies like this are developed and deployed, the challenge we must meet is that they be more sustainable and less of a burden on the environment than current technologies.
VIT Software Engineering Challenges In Cloud Environment Research Paper
custom essay VIT Software Engineering Challenges In Cloud Environment Research Paper.
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VIT Software Engineering Challenges In Cloud Environment Research Paper
Historical and Geographical Dynamics That Had Shaped China by the End of World War II Essay
Introduction Development is highly treasured in the world since it indicates major changes that take place within a given time period. It is a key component to a country’s economic, social, and political status. In China, the term development came into use after a rough period when the European colonial powers had taken pre-eminence in most other states, thus controlling the economic, political, as well as social aspects. The end of the World War II was made possible by the initiation of the so-called development processes in the nations that had been involved in the rapid wars, i.e., the implementation of policies that would help to end wars as well as those which could prevent the occurrence of other similar wars. However, the development was possible because of the presence of certain historical and geographical forces that ideally shaped many nations at the end of the world wars. Historical processes are those that can define why certain empires/territories declined or inclined, the economic, political and social processes that took place at a particular time to cause change, as well as the importance of some individuals who played important roles in the development. Geographical dynamics represent the aspects of the human surroundings that mainly depend on time, which are influenced by human beings in their activities. In addition, they affect the same human beings who influence them in one way or the other. In china, there occurred numerous processes in history, which made it fall during the world wars; but a simple change in the same processes caused major developments in all aspects (Zhang, 197). The following paper is written with an objective of investigating into the processes in history and geography that led in the shaping of the country after the World War II. Additionally, it seeks to establish the contribution of these historical and geographical dynamics in situating the phase for development. For a concise understanding of the concept of theory and development, it is also important to study the process into which China was incorporated into the global economy during the period when the colonialists invaded and occupied other territories, as well as in the first half of the 20th century. More over, it is deemed crucial to establish the groups that exercised economic and political dominance during the colonial period as well as the influence they had on the economical and political aspects. Ultimately, it will give an insight of the kind of relationships that existed between distinct groups and classes that were present during the colonial period as well as the contributions of the relationships helped to reshape the economic, social and political aspects in china (Zhang, 142). Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Historical and geographical dynamics that shaped China by the end of World War II The historical and geographical aspects of a country are very crucial in every form of development. The world wars took immense paths that ruined every kind of political, social, and economic organization of China. The development process thus required the implementation of quite new processes and policies that would totally change the phase of the country. China, having been a development conscious country even before the war decades was set to renew every economic, social, and political structure in order to create room for change and ultimately develop into a powerful state. Development was therefore shaped by the interplay of a number of political, social, and economic forces that were in abundance at the time of colonialism as well as during the period when the world war two was ending (Riskin, 14). The social forces at play during the colonial period and at the end of the World War II had a massive influence on the country’s development. Long before the world war, China’s social system was marked by a kind of a slave society, with classes of people depending n the economic and political status. There were those referred to as the powerful elites, middle class and low class, who mostly were slaves to the ones in power. Relations were quite poor between the subordinate and powerful groups and the middle class. Those in power were in possession of the economic property, while there existed a class of people who were property less, thus leaning on the powerful for simple jobs to a point of some becoming slaves. The colonial period was also marked by a violation of culture among the people where the colonialists tried to instill their own culture to the indigenous people (Zhang, 166). The economic forces were mainly governed by rampant capitalism. The powerful and the subordinate people owned a lot of property while the middle class people owned very little to almost nothing. Additionally, property was owned privately and mainly controlled by the capitalists; hence, imperialism aspects had taken pre-eminence. The operation was based on a market economy that is free, where no government control was in operation but capitalists controlling it in all ways as well as those in power especially the colonialists. All including the financial institutions belonged to the capitalists, and no regulations put in place for the control of the economy. There was as well no set boundary as to what extent the colonialists/imperialists could control the land; but it was up to them since the indigenous government and its people had been oppressed to an extent of letting go every thing. Though the economy was controlled, the Chinese government as well as the citizens was not as silent since the world war occurred as a result of resistance in order to pave way for development (Riskin, 14). We will write a custom Essay on Historical and Geographical Dynamics That Had Shaped China by the End of World War II specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The political forces that governed the country had a fatal influence on the Chinese livelihood and government. The indigenous political set up and structure was no longer functional due to imperialists’ invasion at work towards the twentieth century. An elected parliament on centralized basis was governed mainly by capitalists, ignoring the autocracy idea. Worldwide suffrage had become a rare asset, though the democracy based on capitalism may be extended to the entire population. Various methods were used by capitalists to control government acts in all ways, thus violating the country’s democracy in all aspects (Howarth, 236). Contributions of the dynamics in setting the stage engagement with Development The herein discussed forces helped in setting the stage for development in China at the end of World War II. The social erosion that had existed created awareness to the indigenous people that togetherness and unity was crucial in development. It had been challenging in the fact that social classes existed, but this finally became strength since by the end of World War II, the Chinese people discovered the power in unity of a people, embraced socialism, and eroded a class system to become one. Oneness enabled them to set up policies that helped to intervene in the colonial rule and fostered development in all ways (Hershatter, 128). Additionally, the political dynamics where capitalists were in control of the government had already a set up system, which made it possible for the intervention policies to work best. The unity through socialism enabled the Chinese people to capture the government during the World War II and used the same to advocate for development before setting up another. It was easy to defeat the colonialists, initiate their own processes, and use them for development that could not be easily ruined by the colonialists. More over, on the realization that it was possible to develop together, all the social classes abolished and this created a sense of belonging to all in the land. The powerful who had originally owned massive property realized the importance of sharing, thus development worked towards eradicating the idea of private ownership, to pave way for communal ownership of property. Initially, peasants were paid poor wages but this made it possible for them to take part in the development process to ensure the end of oppression. It was also possible for development in the market economy where it was no longer free, but in control of the government. The social, economical and the political set up during the second world war was crucial in the identification of the thriving weaknesses at the time, and created room for rectification. Lack of the forces would have hindered development in that it would not have been possible to identify the weaknesses, which acted as the basis for development (Hershatter, 133) Not sure if you can write a paper on Historical and Geographical Dynamics That Had Shaped China by the End of World War II by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Integration into the world economy during the colonial period, and up through the first half of the 20th century The colonial period was very crucial for the country, since it was possible for the country to be integrated in the world economy, though it had very negative effects (Glass, 2). The country’s natural resources became an instrument for development as they all looked forward to exploit them for the sake of their economic growth and integration into the world economy. The Chinese people are always committed to the best results, and at the same time, the land has numerous exploitable resources that are of help to the globe, the reason for European, and other powers invasion of the fertile country. They exploited the resources and used them to produce powerful commodities that would be supplied to many parts of the world. The French and others who scrambled for the country led to the divisions that occurred in the country, a factor that led to china being connected directly to the world, specifically the western powers. The colonialists had also introduced the land tenure system of ownership, which entailed the powerful and the subordinate owning the land, while peasants worked on the land and paid low wages. This connected the country into the world economy due to development of the slave trade (Abdillah, 17). At the end of the world war, rapid industrialization and urbanization took place in the country, when there emerged a group of elites who enlightened the others about development, and led to the integration of the country into the world economy. Additionally, the twentieth century saw the country succeed in overcoming all powers that intended to take control of the economy, paving way to focus mainly on industrialization and urbanization. Up to the fist half of the twentieth century, china had become more successful in development, with the creation of cities and numerous industries (Glass, 5). Groups that exercised political and economic dominance during the colonial period The colonial period was marked by dominance in all social, political, and economical grounds. China, being among the countries where economy had thrived well in the period when the European powers tried to scramble and partition Africa, was invaded by a number of competing powers. The French were in the forefront in the scramble for the country, owing to the fact that the country had powerful natural resources. More over, Japan also developed interest in the land and started to scramble for the same. Furthermore, the Russian empire struggled hard in order to acquire apart of the land, creating a lot of pressure on the indigenous people. The same period of colonization saw the country consist of a class system, where there were powerful and subordinated individuals, and surrounded by a majority of peasants and slaves (Abdillah, 12). The imperialists were mainly in control of the country’s resources, including all financial institutions. The economy was controlled by capitalists; therefore, the idea of capitalism was very rampant at the time. In the political arena, an elected parliament on centralized basis was governed mainly by capitalists, ignoring the autocracy idea. Worldwide suffrage had become a rare asset, though the democracy based on capitalism may be extended to the entire population (Hershatter, 325). Various methods were used by capitalists to control government acts in all ways, thus violating the country’s democracy in all aspects. Before development began, the relations among powerful and subordinate groups and classes changed. The decades had been marked by a class system, which embraced private property ownership, thus the powerful and the subordinate owned a lot of property, having peasants work on their fields at low wages. The pre-world war period was marked by a class of the ruling and another of those that were ruled. However, there emerged a period of realization that saw all kinds of people unite to foster for development due to the occurrence of colonialism, ultimately leading to the world wars. The transformations during the pre-colonial period in the social, economic and political grounds caused positive relations that paved way for development which was the key idea at the end of the world wars, and up to date (Howarth, 236) Conclusion Development is deemed a crucial element all over the world. Thus, China, having not been excluded form the world wars as well as the colonialism was at the forefront in advocating for the noble idea. Colonialism in the country was marked by great changes in the economic, social, and political grounds. A number of historical and geographical dynamics became a key to setting the stage for development that took place at the end of the world wars. The end of the world wars and the period in the first half of the twentieth century also created a realization on the Chinese people that unity is crucial, a factor that led to industrialization and urbanization during the phase of change. It also saw the people unite into a harmonious group, working together for a common goal. Nevertheless, the aim of the paper was achieved, having established the historical and geographical dynamics that shaped the country during the colonial period, and at the end of the World War II. Works Cited Abdillah, Noh. Small Steps, Big Outcome: a Historical Institutional Analysis of Malaysia’s Political Economy. June 2010. Web. Glass, Frank. “China after World War II.” Fourth International, Vol.7, No. 7. Ted Crawford and David Walters publishers. 1946. Web. Hershatter, Gail. Remapping China: fissures in historical terrain. CA: Stanford University Press. 1996. Howarth, Peter. China’s rising sea power: the PLA Navy’s submarine challenge. NY: Taylor
Importance of the Nurse Patient relationship in delivering care
Share this: Facebook Twitter Reddit LinkedIn WhatsApp The nurse-patient relationship is essential to the delivery of care. By use of verbal and non-verbal communication skills, nurses can offer the three core conditions of all therapeutic relationships to patients, empathy, genuineness and unconditional positive regard. It is the intention of this essay to discuss in depth the nature of one of the core conditions associated with effective helping skills. In relation to communication and an effective nurse-patient relationship the application of the core condition will also be examined The first core condition that is associated with effective helping skills is empathy. This is the beginnings of a helping relationship, the ability to enter into and understand the world of the other person and being able to communicate this understanding to them (Egan 2002). The second core condition is genuineness which Rogers (1994) defined as a personal quality or relationship characterised by open and honest communication where professionals do not hide behind their role. Unconditional positive regard often described as acceptance is the third core condition and this involves taking a non-judgemental attitude towards the client accepting and respecting them for who and what they are (Freshwater 2010). According to Rogers (2003) the core conditions are the necessary and sufficient tools needed to achieve a positive outcome in therapy. The core condition that has been chosen to be discussed in this essay and is associated with effective helping skills is unconditional positive regard. Unconditional positive regard is a very difficult skill to learn but also a very important one as nurses’ and patients’ beliefs and values may conflict altogether. It is important to note that no single core condition stands in isolation from the others and that the three conditions are automatically brought into the natural communication style (Wickman and Campbell 2003). Unconditional positive regard is often defined as acceptance. According to Rogers (2003) it is when one person is completely accepting towards another person. This is not just a show of acceptance but it is an attitude that is then demonstrated through behaviour. The patient should be able to feel as if they can freely express their emotions without fear of being rejected by the nurse. Hough (2007), says the patients need to feel valued unconditionally even when what they bring to the nurse may not be positive ââ‚¬” in fact it may be frightening or upsetting. This may be particularly true of patients who have been abused who may feel embarrassed and ashamed and could also be anxious as to what the nurse will think of them. The nurse must therefore own the necessary skills to put aside any personal prejudices and provide a safe and accepting environment for the patient. Hough (2007) is careful to point out that whilst this does not necessarily mean that the nurse must like or approve of everything the patients says or does, it is important for the nurse to be able to separate their own views from that of the patient. Hough (2007) suggests that the whole philosophy behind unconditional positive regard is to allow the patient to feel accepted, therefore the patient is more likely to accept themselves and be confident in their own abilities. Unconditional positive regard is the necessary and sufficient condition to allow the patient to change in a constructive manner (Wilkins and Bozarth 2001). There are a number of key components that put together unconditional positive regard, and according to Aengel (2010), these include respect, nurturing and caring for the other person, and being compassionate and understanding to a person’s personal struggle with issues and problems. Unconditional positive regard might be difficult because of the manner or style of the matter or something about the patient might conflict with our own personal values. Nurses must put aside any pre-judgements and opinions, accept the patient at face-value and to try to treat the issue that they are currently presented with. Nurses cannot let any judgements affect the relationship with the patient because it might affect the care and treatment they receive. The counsellor’s guide (2009) emphasises that unconditional positive regard as being one of the most difficult counselling skills to learn because people are very skilled at being able to accept people for who they are, without considering whether they really are who they claim to be. This prevents them from allowing stereotypes and personal opinions affect their judgements. As for unconditional positive regard it may be possible that the nurse may come to like or even love the patient with whom they may at first have not felt much connection (Tschudin 1995). According to The Nursing and Midwifery Council (2008) Code of Conduct nurses are required to treat people as individuals and respect their dignity. They should not discriminate in any way, recognise diversity and respect and value beliefs of others. Thus part of valuing the other person is to accept them for who they are. Carl Rogers (1994) called acceptance unconditional positive regard. It implies that there should be respect for the other person irrespective of what he or she may do or has done. Acceptance of another person involves an non-judgemental attitude as Ruddick (2010) suggests, as this creates a safe environment in which the patient can explore their most sensitive thoughts and feelings. The nurse must recognise that being non-judgemental is not always possible and if the nurse lays judgement on the patient then they will compromise their relationship with them and because they feel judged then they may become defensive rather than opening up and exploring their issues (Geldard and Geldard 2003). Geldard and Geldard (2003) also suggest that the opposite of being accepting is to be critical. Being critical of someone will make them become fixed in their thinking and their behaviours and they will generally resist changing. When they are accepted they feel good about themselves and they can get in touch with their personality and positive parts and learn to move forward. Collins (2009) argues that judgemental attitudes can stand in the way of getting to know your patient and that labels attached to individuals such as ‘demented’ can act as a language barrier. Effective nursing requires us to be assertive, responsible and to help our patients achieve the best possible health status (Balzer Riley 2008). Effective communication is more than delivering high quality patient-centred care. It also allows patients to feel involved in their care, which can make a significant difference to their outlook on their treatment (Collins 2009). The personal qualities of a nurse should include compassion, respect and a non-judgemental approach, according to The Royal College of Nursing (2003). The nurse must provide holistic care for patients and the goal is to listen to the whole person and provide them with empathetic understanding. Another key point is that the nurse must be non judgemental no matter what the patient’s circumstances are and be keen to develop a therapeutic relationship as they learn to accept people for who they are as each of us have had different experiences throughout life and these experiences make us who we are. Wilkins (2010) is keen to point out that there is not much difference between the nurse’s attempt to communicate unconditional positive regard and empathic understanding and the patient’s awareness of them. What the nurse communicates is not always understood and perhaps with respect to simplifying the understanding of unconditional positive regard, it may be necessary to have patience, consistency and genuineness of acceptance (Wilkins 2010). According to Dunne (2005) it is important that nurses develop their communication skills so that they can become more skilled in their interpersonal contact with their patients. The beginning of any nurse-patient relationship are needs which should be based on some fundamental aspects. Rogers(2003) described these as the core conditions, because the aforementioned argued that for a positive outcome to the therapeutic nurse-patient relationship, the nurse must display these core conditions. The nurse-patient relationship does not exist without the core conditions or at least it will not have a positive outcome. It is important to build up a good working relationship with any patient – trust, respect and good communication skills are all essential but the counselling relationship has to go that bit further because it tends to deal with deeper issues (The Counsellor’s Guide 2009). Nurses work with a diverse variety of people from a wide range of social circumstances, with difference beliefs and values around health. This could be related to sexual health, alcohol consumption, smoking and so on. Freshwater (2010) suggests that many patients continue with their dangerous health behaviours despite having information about the adverse and potentially damaging aspects of their actions. This makes it difficult for the nurse to engage in any health promotion activities whilst continuing to value and respect the patient and in fact it may be that the patients’ and nurses’ beliefs may cause conflict on the whole (Freshwater 2010). The nurse-patient relationship is a professionally close and private one and in order for it to be effective it needs to reflect trust, caring, hope and autonomy (Brooker and Nicol 2003). By demonstrating this core condition of unconditional positive regard the nurse is offering support to others. Brooker and Nicol (2003) suggest that active listening skills are essential in any therapeutic relationship and the nurse needs to explore how they can use communication skills; verbal and non-verbal to develop the relationship. The nurse-patient relationship is a series of interactions between the nurse and the patient in which the nurse assists the patient to reach a positive communicative change. The skills of active listening, open questioning and reflection promote better communication and the evidence suggests the need for nurses and other health professionals to develop their communication skills so that they can simplify the process of communication with the patient (Dunne 2005). It is in the therapeutic relationship that true person-centred care is the product of genuine engagement with the patient whose fears are being uncovered according to Ruddick (2010) A therapeutic relationship cannot be maintained with the expression of unconditional positive regard and before the patient can understand themselves they must be able to accept themselves (Dexter and Wash 2001). The core condition of unconditional positive regard is a very difficult skill to learn and probably one of the hardest things a nurse has been asked to do. According to Dexter and Wash (2001) the nurse is asked to accept an individual without any kind of judgement and without criticism. The nurse is not only being asked to accept the patient but respect them too even though the nurse may not know what the patient’s previous behaviour has been. To be an effective counsellor, the nurse is asked to dissolve their own values, beliefs, prejudices and stereotypes and must try to understand the patient’s values, beliefs, prejudices and stereotypes even though they are totally opposed to their own (Dexter and Wash 2001). In conclusion, this essay has briefly discussed all three of the core conditions, which are, empathy, genuineness and unconditional positive regard. It has explained the rationale for choosing unconditional positive regard to discuss in this essay. Unconditional positive regard is often defined as acceptance and this is often demonstrated through behaviour. The key point that has been examined in this essay is that of how the nurse must put aside their own feelings and views and accept the patient for who and what they are. The essay has included how the core condition is used in relation to communication and an effective nurse-patient relationship. Another key point is that active listening skills are essential in any therapeutic relationship and the essay has explored how the nurse can use different communication skills to help to develop the relationship with the patient. Finally, the essay has discussed how unconditional positive regard is a very difficult skill to learn. It is probably one of the hardest conditions associated with effective helping skills because the beliefs and values of the nurse and patient may conflict together. 1989 words Share this: Facebook Twitter Reddit LinkedIn WhatsApp