Structuring Global Coordination. I’m working on a Management question and need guidance to help me study.
Structuring Global Coordination Many transnational firms use lateral steering groups as part of their global coordination. For this week’s discussion, you are the HR director of such a transnational firm that has a manufacturing business divided into six major trades being established in India while the corporate headquarters is in San Diego, California. While there are many management design options available to you (i.e., internal boards, formal or informal, functional councils, product development committee, a regional board, or a single person that has vertical functional responsibility for the whole operation), discuss the challenges in using the Lateral Steering Group management design.
Select one of the four critical operational domains (resource utilization, global competence manager, global account manager, and alliance manager) that require lateral leadership, and explain how you will incorporate lateral steering into the transnational firm.
Structuring Global Coordination
Jump to: Phases of Career Development | Career Development System | Steps for Career Development Plan | How to Create a Career Plan | Career Plan Example | Conclusions and Recommendations INTRODUCTION When we were kids, every one of us where thinking of being something or having specific job in the future. Many of us were thinking to be doctors, teachers, policeman, pilot etc… But reaching these positions or got these jobs will not be easy without knowing what are we good at and what are the ears that we want to improve ourselves in. Also if we want to get these jobs or positions we should have goals and we have to work as hard as we can to accomplish these goals. Every one of us should have a career plan in mind when we graduate from universities or collage or even before that when we graduate from high school because having plan is always motivate us to study, work and develop ourselves in order to achieve and accomplish our plan. When we get our first job we should ask for career development plan and it will be much better if we could draw this plan ourselves because we know what our strengths and weakness and we know what are the best trainings and programs we should take in order to improve ourselves. Career development is very important aspect in our working life and personal life. In our working life its important because no one of us wants or wishes to stay and the same job and the same position for ever, without developing or having the career development plan we will not be able to improve ourselves and get promoted. In our personal life it is important to have career development plan we will be able to make our families and friends happy and proud of us because by having the career development plan we will be able to reach our goals that we have always dream of. This paper is talking about the career development and career development plan and how it is important for the employees and the organizations. CAREER DEVELOPMENT Now days there are many people change their careers more than one time in their lives. For these people who change their career for more than three times, they should know and understand the important of the career development. (John Groth) The career development is the formal approach used by the organization to help people acquire the skills and experiences needed to perform current and future jobs. (R. Wayne Mondy) The career development process is the exploring of your skills and what are your strengths and weakness. Career development is also like a plan you design it yourself to help you in advance through your career. (John Groth) The Roles of the Managers and the Employees in the Career Development (R. Wayne Mondy) Managers Appraising the Performance Coaching and Supporting Guiding and Counseling Providing Feedback Supplying Information Employees Self Assessment Gathering Data Setting Goals Working with Supervisor Developing Plan THE THREE STAGES OF THE CAREER DEVELOPMENT: The First Stage is the “Bring It on Stage”: this is the first stage in the career life. The age of the people in this stage is from the mid 20’s to the early 30’s. People in this stage of their career development are very active, strong and powerful. They determine to make their mark in the world of work. Most of the people in this stage feel that they are very strong and able to do everything they asked for also they can make what they want to happen. Success and possibilities are unlimited during this stage. (Dan Strakal) The Second Stage is the “Realistic Stage”: the age of the people in this stage is from the early 30’s to mid 40’s. During this stage specific values and career realities begin to come out. At the point of the career development, people of this stage feel that the values could create a conflict between choosing priorities in their work life and their home lives. After spending 10 to 15 years in the workforce, people in this stage feel that they might not being able to do what they were planning to at all, because some of them are feeling that they are not controlling their own career destines. (Dan Strakal) The Third Stage is the “Reinvention Stage”: this is the last stage in the career development. The age of the people in this stage is from the mid 40’s to retirement. This stage starts when people began to redefining and reconciling their work life and personal life. People during this stage have learned from many challenges that they were facing in the last pervious stages and this is the best time to be focus in creating a legacy of specific contributions to be remembered for in their careers, their families and their communities. (Dan Strakal) THE ROLES OF THE LEADERS AND MANAGERS DURING THE THREE STAGES OF THE CAREER DEVELOPMENT : They have to find ways to match people’s values, beliefs, and behaviors to projects and tasks. For example it will be great if they assignee people who are in the Bring it on Stage to the tasks or projects which need and required lots of energy. Get the people who are in the Realistic Stage to value added projects or tasks so they can feel engaged and a part of something big and important. For the people who are in the Reinvention Stage, leaders and manager should get them in projects such as monitoring programs, company history initiatives or leadership development programs. (Dan Strakal) Managers and leader should understand the and knowledge the three stages in order to be able to prevent and solve problems and conflicts that may be occur due to career development differences in values and perspectives. (Dan Strakal) The Assessment Phase: Those who think about successful and satisfying career need to understand themselves first. They also need to know how in which way they can perform best at workplace. One of the key factors in career development is job satisfaction. Job satisfaction is at its highest when the job engages the strongest personality qualities of an individual and when the job is in line with individual’s values and attitudes. The fit between employee and organization, in terms of organization nature and culture, directly affects employee’s career development, performance and chances to succeed. Leadership skills are one of the key factors in career development, too. Ability to cope with stress effectively is another important factor in career success. Assessments can help individuals understand their preferred activities, work style, learn best ways of working with others, and manage conflicts. Facilitates the improvement, alignment, and integration of overall organizational effectiveness and capabilities . Monitors progress over time . The assessment evaluates organizational approaches (processes), the extent to which they are deployed, evaluated/improved, aligned, and integrated throughout the organization, and their effectiveness at driving organizational results. Organization assessments are used for learning and improvement. Much like an annual health physical, this tool helps managers better understand what is working well and on what they should be focusing their improvement efforts. But the real value of an assessment is its ability to improve performance – to improve outcomes and drive tangible organizational results. And a few studies have proven the value of an assessment and systemic management framework. Organizational Assessment Public and private organizations are complex systems of interacting components. In order to properly gauge the organization’s performance and its readiness for change, it is critical to engage in an assessment for immediate feedback and understanding of issues such as: Roles and responsibilities Work climate Group dynamics Training needs Culture and norms Team behavior Communications Work processes Organizational Assessment Sequence Organizational Assessment is a systematic procedure to gather information about an organization, diagnose specific challenges, and develop ways to address them. Effective assessment should be seen as a window into the organization, providing insight into critical issues. It is the cornerstone of any transformation process, and provides the basis for determining how an organization will achieve its vision. Readiness for change is a proven and critical measure of success. Assessment is the first step in understanding the complexity of organizations and essential in measuring the conditions that are necessary for successful change. A thorough assessment will assist in developing an effective transformation plan. The information gathered provides the organization with an understanding of its readiness for change, as well as the actions that will be necessary for successful transformation. Organizational Assessments are an excellent first step towards taking action to initiate positive organizational change. Managing organizational change is an important challenge for leaders at all levels today. In assessing the effectiveness of an organization, it is important to first understand its functional purpose . Self Assessment: Self assessment is the first step of the career planning process. During a self assessment you gather information about yourself in order to make an informed career decision. A self assessment should include a look at the following: Values: the things that are important to you, like achievement, status, and autonomy Interests: what you enjoy doing, i.e. playing golf, taking long walks, hanging out with friends Personality: a person’s individual traits, motivational drives, needs, and attitudes In addition to determining what you’re good at, a skills assessment also helps figure out what we enjoy doing. The direction phase: One of the most critical and important phase in the process of career development for employees in any organization is the direction phase that acts as a golden link between the assessment and development phases since it has two main roles by driving the identified employee to the appropriate path in the career life and provide a chance to improve the quality and options of this path in the future as a development mission. Only specialists have the ability to design the career direction of any employee based on their experience with taking in their consideration different aspects related to the organization and employee needs; in order to satisfy all the needs. At the same time, you as an employee must be honest in order to ensure the successful of the assessment phase and get the right information about yourself, so counselor will be able to select the right career path. The most important tasks carried out by them are: Choosing a major Developing a career plans Planning a job search Changing careers Counselor will have some discussions and meetings in order to show you different options available and suitable for your future. In case if you are not interested in those options for any reasons, other alternatives will be taken in considerations by designing a job research planning. Sometimes employees are working for a long time in the wrong field, but they accept this situation just to get salary and survive in this life. Actually this mistake must be solved by changing the whole career which is the most difficult step because counselor must focus on the behavioral and mentality side of individual. Nowadays, there are many career counseling centers and offices all over the world that provide a service for those who are confused and don’t know what kind of career major to select. Today, the most valuable asset for everyone is the information that must be given for those who are looking for career development and job search. It is a complementary activity for setting up the direction process. Different methods and tools can be used to offer this information and training sessions for employees, such as seminars presented by professionals on a broad range of topics of interest to job seekers like (Starting Your Own Business, Working for a Charity). Also, job workshops can be carried out in order to gather the maximum number of people with different culture and knowledge and then divide them into groups to share ideas and points with each other besides learning from other mistakes and experiences. THE DEVELOPMENT PHASE: Introduction: The development phase in the career growth of an employee is a significant milestone to move in an organization. An employee who meets the requirements of career development is more likely to be catapulted to the higher position. This improvement however could not be done overnight because the skills, concepts, and capabilities are enhanced through processes. Discussion: The promotion of a certain individual depends on the success of the development phase. This stage in his life is crucial depending on people and organization that are responsible in preparing him for higher opportunities. These people and organizations that play key roles in shaping the employee to prepare for the new challenging tasks awaiting him on his new position, are either his managers, supervisors or even peer group and affiliated associations. Some of these common development programs offered by organizations are mentoring, coaching, job rotation and tuition assistance. The terms may change interchangeably but the desired objective to develop and mould the employee to the next higher position will help tremendously for the career development of the employee. Famous among the development programs is mentoring. To mentor as Psychology book says is to “walk along with the other person.” It could happen between a senior and a junior officer, manager and supervisor or supervisor and employee. It can happen also between a person and his peers, his organizations or affiliated association. Mentoring can simply be called advising, role modeling, sharing contacts and giving general support. Mentoring can happen any time during office hours or even outside of the official time. Moreover, it can happen in any levels in the organization. Empirical evidence proves that effective mentoring can improve outcomes such as performance levels, promotion rate, upward mobility, and income and job satisfaction. It can even re-ignite enthusiasm and motivation for those mentees who are about to retire. The most effective mentoring is matching the mentee’s skills and interests. Furthermore, another study reveals that employees with mentors have achieved greater level of career development. Another concept that is link to mentoring is job shadowing wherein a junior employee observes a more senior employee for a set duration. There are concerns to address in mentoring. Employees who belong to small organizations or individuals who are self employed may find a hard time finding a mentor. However, the solution is for them to affiliate in any organizations or associations that will serve as support system. The next development program is coaching which involves spontaneous meeting between employer and employee to discuss the latter career goals and development. This will enhance productivity and more likely to the manager’s own advancement. Another program is job rotation which could be an answer for company’s downsizing. It gives the employee the opportunity to broaden his knowledge and increase marketability. Job rotation allows employee to work on another jobs and be trained to add more skills on his CV. However, one advantage is the fact that there are employees who by discretion do not want to broaden their horizons for the purpose of mastering own skills and potentials. Conclusion: The tuition assistance Program is another offering in the development program of the organization for his employees. This takes in the form of workshops, seminars, conventions and the like. It could also be in a form of scholarship grant to an individual which is the support of the organization to further the individual’s knowledge. All these career development programs may happen simultaneously or it may be conducted one at a time. Not necessarily than an employees undertakes the four programs, but to avail of either one of these, as long as the program is effectively done will ensure promotion for the employee. CAREER DEVELOPMENT SYSTEM The career development system is an everyday activity shows how is the organization’s needs are linked with the individual’s needs so when the employees are satisfy with their career, the organization will achieve its goals and objectives. (Thomas H. Jakel) ORGANIZATIONAL NEEDS What are the organization’s major strategic issues over the next two or three years? Critical needs challenges to be faced? Critical skills, knowledge and experiences needed to meet these challenges? Staffing levels required? Does the organization have the strength necessary to meet the critical challenges? ISSUE Are employees developing themselves in a way that links personal effectiveness and satisfaction with the achievement of the organization’s strategic objectives? INDIVIDUAL NEEDS How do I find career chances within the organization that will do the following? Use my strength Address my developmental needs Provide challenges Match my interests Match my values Match my personal style (Thomas H. Jakel) HOW CAN MANAGERS SUPPORT THE CAREER DEVELOPMENT There are many way that the managers can use to make their employees to take advantage of career development opportunities. Below are some ways that the managers can use to encourage and support their employees: The managers have to set time to meet with their employees and ask them about their career goals and how they would like to achieve these goals. The conversations should be un formal and friendly and the managers have to show their employees that they are not only supporting their development, but also show them that they are interested on their career goals. (Career Development The Manager’s Role) The managers have to evaluate their employees’ performance annually. Also they have to give then feedback and suggestions in how they can develop themselves. (Career Development The Manager’s Role) Make sure that the job descriptions change based on the talents that people bring to their jobs and projects. (Career Development The Manager’s Role) Recognize and reward the employees who are doing a good work. (Career Development The Manager’s Role) Managers have to focus on the development of the person more that improving his/her job performance. (Career Development The Manager’s Role) Start the employees’ development programs in a way that help them to establish their goals for their professional development. (Career Development The Manager’s Role) Make them feel that there are always enough budgets for the trainings programs. (Career Development The Manager’s Role) THE IMPACT OF THE CAREER DEVELOPMENT The career development could impact of the employees, staff, managers and departments. Impact on the employees: the career development will be very helpful for the employees because they will be able to see the path from one job to another, including the skills and knowledge needed. (Career Development: Impact) Impact on the Managers and the staff: career development will let the staff and managers to have the information and the tools to plan for career development and support succession planning. (Career Development: Impact) Impact on the Department: career development will get the department to have an access to more prepared internal candidates who are prepared for advancement. (Career Development: Impact) CAREER DEVELOPMENT PLAN What is Career Development Plan? Career Development Plan is the most important part of the performance review, and it is identify your strengths and weakness and the area that you need to develop in order to meet you career goals. Creating a career development plan will be very helpful to develop your strategies to take advantage of your chances for your future work. (Career Development Plan) Career Development Plan: it is like a map that shows you where do you have to move in your current career and where or what you want to work in the future. This map will show you how to develop yourself and how you want to provide yourself with the right and the important skills and experiences. It will also help you to find the right ways to achieve your goals and the organization goals and interests at the same time enjoy your work and try to balance between your career and your life. It is very important for the career development plan is to be fixable and it may be changed during your current job. (Career Development) An Individual Development Plan (IDP): it is a progress tool which discovers activities that will help you to improve your knowledge, skills and abilities. The IDP process gives you a chance to share with your supervisor or manager your objectives as well as talk about your strengths and development needs. (Career Development Tool: Career Planning) Since the career development plan includes and talk about your work experiences and your career goals and it could includes the development that needed for your current job, it is always good idea that you use this for moving to a new job as well. When you will start working on your career development plan you have to focus on your current job. Once you feel that you are meeting your current role’s expectations then you can start develop plan for you future career. (Career Development Plan) The career development plan includes materials that allow you to think about your personal career development. By creating you personal career development you will be sure that you have all the skills, knowledge and the ability you need to successfully achieve your career goals. (Career Development Plan) You have to share your completed career development plan with your manager to make him/her aware of your career goals and plans. (Career Development Plan) HOW TO CREATE CAREER DEVELOPMENT PLAN: First of all you have to write about your background information. This could be done by doing the self assessment, because by doing the self assessment you will be able to know your strengths and weakness. (Career Development Plan) The First Step: Self Assessment I think that the self assessment is the best thing that everyone has to do before starting to look for a new job or even to move from the current job to another. The most common question that you have to ask yourself about before searching for a job for the first time or moving into a new job is: I don’t know what I want to do? The only and the right way to answer your question is to do self assessment this is the tool which can guide you toward the kind of job that is suited you. Self assessment is the way or the process which can you use to gather information about yourself to make the career decision easy for you. (Dawn Rosenberg McKay) The Self Assessment should include the following: Values Interests Personality Skills Values: The values are the things that are very important to you such as the achievements. Values are the most important thing to think about very carefully when you are planning to work for the first time or thinking of moving to a new job, because if you didn’t care about your values you will lead yourself to a not good results such as you may doing like your job therefore you will not be able to achieve what you are looking for. (Dawn Rosenberg McKay) Interests: The interests mean the things that you like to do and the things that you don’t like to do. Asking yourself this question will help you to see or to know what kinds of works or tasks that you like to do and enjoy working or doing them. (Dawn Rosenberg McKay) Personality: The personality is when you ask yourself about what type of person are you? Do you like thinking, feeling, jugging and perceptive? Do you like to work alone or with a team? These kinds of questions will help you to be successful in your job because you will know what kinds of jobs or tasks that suited your personality. For example if you have an introvert personality you are going to face a lot of problems if you work in a job that requires presentations or public speaking. (Dawn Rosenberg McKay) Skills: You have to look at what are you good at and what are the skills that you have to improve. This is a very important question that you have to ask yourself about in order to find a job that meets all your skills otherwise you will have face obstacles. For example if you get a job that requires using the computer as a major tool and you are not good enough to use it. (Dawn Rosenberg McKay) The most important goals of the Self Assessment are: To enhance the self awareness and confidence of your decisions To know what is your strengths and weakness (The Steps for Self Assessment) Step two: Set your development goals: there are three main reasons of why it’s important to write or setting you development goals. These reasons are: Setting your development goals cold help to get organized, make big decisions and realize your dreams. Setting your development goals gives you long term vision and short term motivation. This step will help you to understand the direction of your career. When you start writing your development goals you have to start with identifying your development needs. To do this you have to look at the feedback information that you have from your resources such as your manager, team leader and supervisor. Also you have to be aware of the organization’s goals and directions and you have to consider the objectives of the team or group that you work with. Writing your development goals will help you to consider your short team goals (1 to 3 year) and your future or long term (3 years). The short term goals could be much related to your current job or to a position that you are planning to get or reach. Write SMART Goals S: your goals have to be Specific so you know exactly what are you striving and looking for. M: your goals should be Measurable so you can exactly know when the goals have been reached. A: Action oriented to indicate an activity that create and produce results. R: your goals have to be Realistic and can be achieved. T: you have to consider the Time because you have to define the timeline and the availability of the resources. (Career Development Plan) Step Three: Write Your Action Steps: once you are done with writing your development goals you need some directions to follow in order to get, reach and achieve these goals. The creating of the action steps will give you a list of the most important things that you have to do and this list will help you track your progress toward your goals. The Action Step should have three main parts: ACTION: a verb that describe what action you will be taken CONTEXT: when and where will it take place? RESULTS: what will be the result of this action? (Career Development Plan) Step Four: List your Obstacles and Solutions: This step is important to make sure that your career development goals are not sidetracked. It is good to know and consider what are the problems and the obstacles which may stand as barriers in reaching your goals. Also this step will help you to identify and find possible ways to overcome these obstacles and problems. The common problems and obstacles that you may face: Limited time Lack of financial support Lack of feedback, encouragement and motivation Manager is unsupportive of development Some of the potential solutions for such obstacles are: If you can’t take more training courses because of your workload, the potential solution for this would be cross training with another team member. If the budget of the trainings is limited, the potential solution for this would be choosing low cost trainings, online learning or reading a book. If your manager does not provide you with feedback, the potential solution would be looking for feedback from other sources such as mentors. (Career Development Plan) Step Five: Identify your Resources: You have to identify what resources are available to successfully achieving your career development goals. You should think about what kinds or types of resources you may need and where they come from. Resources could be anything that supports your development such as: Getting the approval on the trainings and development programs Encouragement and motivation from your manager coach or mentor Support from you manager to work on new projects and tasks Get the time to work on your development Get feedback and advice from people who are skilled on the area you are seeking to develop (Career Development Plan) Step Six: Evaluate your Progress: When you are successful in achieving and meeting your career development goals, you will be able to evaluate your progress. By setting S.M.A.R.T goals will make sure that their achievement can be evaluated. If you thing that it’s hard to evaluate the goals, it is probably is not meeting one of the S.M.A.R.T guidelines. You have to keep in mind that the career development plan is not a onetime activity, but you have to revises and change your career development plan annually, because your roles and responsibilities are changing you are getting more experiences every year. (Career Development Plan) THE MAIN GOALS OF THE CAREER DEVELOPMENT PLAN From my respective understanding I can say that the main goals of the career development plan of the individuals are to know where their strengths and weakness are. Also to know where they want to be or what kind of jobs they want to work on in the future. The career development plan will help them to know what are the most useful trainings and courses they should take in order to improve their self in their career. Also they will know what are the most important skills that they should gain for their current job or for the future job? But they have to be aware of the organization goals and objectives so they can align their skills and abilities with the organization objectives and interests. In this case they will be able to impr
Need chemistry help to Consider the following equilibrium:.
Consider the following equilibrium: PCl3(g) + Cl2(g) PCl5(g); ∆H = -92 kJThe concentration of PCl3 at equilibrium may be increased bySelect one:a. decreasing the temperatureb. adding Cl2 to the systemc. adding PCl5 to the systemd. increasing the pressure
Dorothy Edwards Leadership Styles Term Paper. Leadership is very important in every organization in that leaders have the ability to define the destiny of an organization as it strives to achieve success. The issue of leadership has gained popularity among academics and organizations over the last couple of years. It is important to understand the model of leadership applied by various leaders. Dorothy Edwards is the leader of Helping Hands organization, a charity foundation whose main objective is to help the needy in the society. Her style of leadership has seen the organization succeed in achieving most of its objectives (Winkler, 2010). Among the theories that she applies include participative leadership theory. This is the type of leadership theory whereby the leader accounts for the input of other members of the group. The leader ensures that all group members are involved in decision making (Coggins, 2009). Group members are encouraged to participate and make contributions freely. This is important in that members feel closer and relevant to the organization, thus their commitment improves greatly. To involve SWAT Team members, Dorothy allows them to talk about themselves and their reasons behind joining the organization. Team members also talk about the experiences they are intending to gain from the organization and what they have to offer. Dorothy considers all those agendas and takes the responsibility of helping each member meet his or her aspirations. In helping the members, Dorothy applies the relationship leadership theory, which is also known as the transformational theory (Waite, WaiteDorothy Edwards Leadership Styles Term Paper
Need chemistry help to Consider the following equilibrium:
Price Quotes and Pricing Decisions Applied Problems
Price Quotes and Pricing Decisions Applied Problems.
Problem 1: Jessica Alba, a famous actress, starts the baby and family products business, The Honest Company, with Christopher Gavigan. Alba and Gavigan set up their site so families can choose what kinds of non-toxic, all-natural products they’d like to use and get them in a bundle. Families can choose all kinds of products from food to hygiene necessities and cleaning supplies. Suppose they are thinking of expanding their business into five domestic markets: Phoenix, Dallas, Chicago, New York, and Atlanta. Assume their primary goal of business is to maximize economic profits, although they want to do business honestly. Show all your calculations and process. Describe your answer for each question in three- to five-complete sentences.
You are a business adviser for Alba and Gavigan. Describe a skimming price and a penetration price, and advise them whether they should charge a skimming price or a penetration price, with supportive reasoning for and against each pricing alternative.
Are they likely to make economic profits initially? Can they continue to make economic profits in the long term? Why or why not? Discuss.
What advice would you give to Alba and Gavigan to help them make more profit in the long term?
Problem 2: You operate your own small building company and have decided to bid on a government contract to build a pedestrian walkway in a national park during the coming winter. The walkway is to be of standard government design and should involve no unexpected costs. Your present capacity utilization rate is moderate and allows sufficient scope to understand this contract, if you win it. You calculate your incremental costs to be $268,000 and your fully allocated costs to be $440,000. Your usual practice is to add between 60% and 80% to your incremental costs, depending on capacity utilization rate and other factors. You expect three other firms to also bid on this contract, and you have assembled the following competitor intelligence about those companies.
At full capacity
Small and inefficient plant
Medium sized and efficient plant
Large and very efficient plant
Previous Bidding Pattern
Incremental cost plus 35-50%
Full cost plus 8-12%
Full cost plus 10-15%
Incremental costs exceed yours by about 10%
Similar cost structure to yours
Incremental costs 20% lower but full costs are similar to yours
Does not like winter jobs or dirty jobs
Does not like messy or inconvenient jobs
Likes projects where it can show its creativity
Decision maker is a relative of the buyer
Decision maker is seeking a new job
Decision maker is looking for a promotion
Show all of your calculations and processes. Describe your answers in three- to five-complete sentences.
What price would you bid if you must win the project?
What price would you bid if you want to maximize the expected value of the contribution from this contract?
Defend your answers with discussion, making any assumptions you feel are reasonable and/or are supported by the information provided.
Carefully review the Grading Rubric (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site. for the criteria that will be used to evaluate your assignment.
Price Quotes and Pricing Decisions Applied Problems
Linguistics in Opera and Libretto Exploratory Essay
professional essay writers Introduction Opera is performed using theatrical scenes where the art involves a combination of singing and dramatization. This kind of text is referred to as the libretto. It was a very popular form of art in early Europe. Opera remains popular today in some quarters of the society. The art brings together singing, speaking as well as acting. All these activities are performed in an opera house which is specifically designed for such purposes (Kennedy 62). Linguistic on the other hand is the exploration of human language and its origin, revolution as well as application of the language. The application encompasses the use of morphology, syntax as well as the phonology in the composition of words. The meaning of language has been explored by analyzing the meaning of other forms of art in the real world. This is with the view of understanding the origin of opera from different backgrounds. This means that opera can be analyzed from a linguistic perspective. The opera is characterized by features such as the stage, orchestra pit and an audience area among others. Some operas are designed to accommodate various aspects of linguistic analysis. This is especially so considering the fact that operas were very popular in England and other countries during the early centuries. A comprehensive analysis of linguistics in opera can be achieved by looking at the origins of this form of art. This is given the fact that linguistics in opera is influenced a great deal by the origins of this art. It is noted that the art originated in Italy towards the end of the 16th century. It later spread to other parts of the world especially in Europe. To date, the operatic terminologies in these countries are referred to as the libretto (MacNutt 101). This is an indication of linguistics in opera. The origins of opera are evident in today’s compositions where aspects of Italian language are incorporated. This is given the fact that most of them have retained the original Italian characteristics such as accent and others. Such aspects help in tracing the common origin of today’s opera performances as far as linguistics is concerned. Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In this paper, the author is going to look at the use of linguistics in opera. The author will make reference to librettos from operas in English from England and the United States of America. Examples of linguistic operas will be put into perspective in a chronological sequence. The aim here is to depict the link between the two fields of linguistics and opera. History and Origin of Opera from a Linguistic Perspective Before embarking on the critical analysis of the link between opera and linguistics, it is important to look at the history and origins of opera as a form of art. This will give the reader an idea of what opera is all about. It will also give the reader an idea of how contemporary opera differs from classical compositions and performances. The word opera is an Italian word implying “work” when translated. When loosely translated, opera involves the combination of “…….works from acting declamation in opera house stage” (Kennedy 75). Jacopo Peri is considered as the pioneer of this form of art. Dafne is actually a piece of work that was originally produced by Peri and it remains one of his most popular compositions. A group of Camerata found out that the entire opera was performed by the Greek dramas. So far the idea was to conceive and restore the traditional art. On a sad note, Dafne was lost and Peri was forced to come up with a new composition, the Euridice. This is the only opera that is still performed to date. It is to be noted that singing was an important aspect of opera (Warrack
Why Developed Countries Should Not Produce Nuclear Power Research Paper
Introduction Nuclear power is often developed from the fission of nuclear elements to generate heat (Howtopowertheworld, 2010, p. 1). Over the years, developed countries have been at the forefront in the development of this source of energy, with current world statistics estimating that, there are about 31 countries which generate nuclear power. Though nuclear power generation is slowly gaining prominence in the world, especially since the world is seeking more sources of green energy, nuclear energy is a unique source of energy because it bears unique characteristics which distinguish it from other sources of energy. For instance, nuclear energy has been identified to be a dangerous source of energy, especially if an accident happens (Howtopowertheworld, 2010, p. 1). This is the reason why several countries are opposed to its use. For instance, developed countries such as Australia and Austria are firmly opposed to the development of nuclear energy (Breeze, 2005). The year 2011 saw the worst nuclear disaster in recent time, with radiation fears ripe, at Japan’s Fukushima plant, when the country was hit by a tsunami and earthquake, which affected the nuclear plant. In light of these concerns, several countries are slowly reviewing their nuclear power generation strategies. This study points out that, developed countries, which have been at the forefront in the generation of nuclear energy, should stop doing so, because the disadvantages of nuclear power generation greatly outweigh their advantages. This fact is supported by research studies suggesting that: nuclear energy has the potential of being used for terrorism; nuclear energy produces dangerous radioactive waste and nuclear energy is highly costly, and in case of a nuclear disaster, the consequences may be very severe. Radioactivity Radioactivity is the major concern associated with nuclear power generation. In fact, in the recent Fukushima nuclear power generation disaster, residents were advised to vacate surrounding regions (around the nuclear power plant) to reduce the chances of being affected by radioactivity. The danger of radioactivity is severe because it may take tens of thousands of years to reduce radioactive rays to safe levels (Howtopowertheworld, 2010, p. 1). This fact means that, if a nuclear disaster ever happens, generations of human lives may live with its consequences and this will obviously have an adverse impact on humanity. The effects on humanity can therefore not be underestimated because studies have shown that, nuclear power radioactivity may have severe effects on the human’s reproductive system, and it also has the potential of causing burns, diarrhea, vomiting and other severe health effects. This is part of the problem associated with nuclear power generation because with radioactivity, it may be very difficult to detect radioactive waves, even after several years (Furry Elephant, 2011). Though radioactive waves produced from nuclear power generation may not be directly absorbed through the human skin, it is highly likely that, human beings may ingest certain radioactive nucleus, in items such as foods, which are contaminated with the substance. Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The manner in which radioactivity affects people are numerous and this is why most countries banned the important of food from Japan when it experienced its nuclear disaster. When these radioactive elements are ingested into the human system, it becomes very difficult to control them, let alone get rid of them, because they can possibly affect the human DNA, due to their high ability to ionize. This may therefore cause cancer, among other detrimental health effects, which also have the ability of causing death. Considering radioactivity has a high potential of affecting all aspects of life, it beats sense, tolerating activities which may possibly lead to the occurrence of such a disaster. If such a disaster strikes, humanity will possibly not be the same and from this understanding, it does not make sense for developed nations to expose humanity to such sort of fatal effects. Potential Terrorist Applications The immense power nuclear power generation has; makes it a prime tool of terrorism. Nuclear power generation can be used to create nuclear bombs, which are very lethal and can be used to wage terror on a given nation. For instance, there is enough evidence advanced by scientists to suggest that, nuclear power can be used to flatten an entire city, killing millions of people at a go (TMIA, 2011). Recent times have seen the US claim that, several countries across the globe, such as Iran and Iraq are making nuclear bombs, which may have an effect on world peace. Whether these allegations are true or not is not the subject of this study, but the situation exposes how nuclear power can be used to cause a lot of unrest, and possibly destabilize world peace. However, recent studies expose a more devastating threat to a country’s peace after it was affirmed that, an attack on a nuclear power plant by terrorists, is also another strategy to wage a nuclear war against a nation (TMIA, 2011). Obviously, the truth behind this assertion stems from the fact that, an attack on a nuclear power plant would amount to an emission of radioactive rays which would affect a nation’s population. This terrorist strategy is easier than assembling a nuclear bomb or having to deliver a nuclear bomb to a terrorist target. Moreover, this kind of attack is very deadly and its effects on human lives are unimaginable. From this analysis therefore, we see that, if developed nations continue producing nuclear energy and building more nuclear plants, they increase their vulnerability as a target of terrorism, and obviously exposing their citizens to the adverse effects of nuclear power generation. High Cost of Building Nuclear Facilities and the Small Possibility of Accidents The cost of building new nuclear power plants to generate electricity, or provide alternative sources of energy is staggering and out of reach for many countries. We will write a custom Research Paper on Why Developed Countries Should Not Produce Nuclear Power specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More With a poorly performing world economy and with increased debt burdens for some major world economies such as America, it makes no sense for developed nations to continue developing nuclear power – channeling a lot of resources to such projects, while other sectors of the socioeconomic aspects of the economy such as health, education and such like factors remain underfunded. In the US, it is estimated that, the cost of power, generated from nuclear plants is triple that of the normal rates paid for electricity made from other alternative sources of energy such as hydroelectricity (Yanak, 2009, p. 1). It is further estimated that, the cost of paying for nuclear energy is ten times the cost of efficiency derived from such an energy cost. The high rates to be paid for nuclear energy obviously emanates from the high costs associated with nuclear power generation, and investors or governments need to pass this cost down to the consumers to recover such high costs. This kind of scenario only exposes citizens in developed nations to high costs of energy. When compared to other alternative energy production methods, nuclear energy stands out as the most expensive energy source ever invented by mankind. The production of nuclear energy therefore not only stands as a matter of critical economic importance, but also a matter of ethical concern, considering a diversion of immense financial resources to energy production, amounts to a deprivation of other socioeconomic duties which governments in developed countries ought to provide. Conclusion Nuclear power generation in developed countries, though a good idea at face value, is marred with a lot of controversy regarding its safety and impact on human lives. Though its immense financial costs can be shouldered by several governments in developed countries, it should be understood that, there needs to be a cost-benefit analysis to quantify the cost and possible benefits that come from nuclear power generation. With several more important duties that governments have to perform, it is not ethical to divert a lot of state resources to produce nuclear energy, at the expense of other state priorities. Regardless of these concerns, nuclear energy has been turned to a political issue, with countries trading accusations and counter-accusations regarding the production of nuclear weapons, because it is known that, nuclear energy can be used to promote acts of terrorism, thereby destabilizing world peace. The effect of a nuclear terror act is enormous and unimaginable. Radioactivity is also another reason why developed countries should stop producing nuclear energy since they expose their citizens to the risks of radioactivity if a nuclear accident happens. Not sure if you can write a paper on Why Developed Countries Should Not Produce Nuclear Power by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Collectively, the elements identified in this study expose sever negative effects of nuclear power generation and from the entire analysis, it is impossible for any government to exist if such calamities ever happen to their citizens. To protect citizens from such adverse effects, it is important for developed countries to stop nuclear power generation. References Breeze, P. (2005). Power Generation Technologies. New York: Newnes. Furry Elephant. (2011). Why Study Radioactivity? Web. Howtopowertheworld. (2010). Disadvantages of Nuclear Power. Web. TMIA. (2011). Nuclear Terrorism. Web. Yanak, J. (2009). The Staggering Cost of New Nuclear Power. Web.
BIT 200 GCUB Lopes Athletics Productions Sales Results Excel and PowerPoint
BIT 200 GCUB Lopes Athletics Productions Sales Results Excel and PowerPoint.
The purpose of this assignment is to utilize Microsoft Excel and PowerPoint to create a business presentation.Part 1As a sales manager at Lopes Athletics Productions, you are required to report your sales numbers weekly and share them with the vice president of sales. Create an Excel spreadsheet that provides the following information.Total sales for each type of video.Total sales of all videos.Percentage of total sales for each type of video.A bar chart that summarizes the sales data.The data needed for the spreadsheet is as follows. In all, you will need to create at least four columns; Video Type, Unit Price, Total Sales (for each type of video), and Percentage of Total Sales (for each type of video.Pilates sold 156 videos at $29.99 each.Step sold 392 videos at $14.99 each.Weight Training sold 147 videos at $54.99 each.Kickboxing sold 282 videos at $29.99 each.Yoga sold 165 videos at $34.99 each. Add a second worksheet to your workbook. Insert a chart in a bar format linked to data on your first worksheet.This bar chart should reflect the total sales of each type of video.Review the rubric to see how the spreadsheet will be assessedPart 2Create a PowerPoint presentation with a minimum of five slides based upon the Excel spreadsheet you created in Part 1 of this assignment.Utilize the bar chart from the spreadsheet as a graphic element on at least one slide in the presentation. The presentation should summarize the following information for the vice president of sales:Total sales for each type of video.Total sales of all videos.Percentage of total sales for each type of video.In addition to the content, the presentation will be assessed on the following criteria:Slide structure includes correct use of bullet points and the 6 x 6 rule.Slide appearance includes consistent theme, text alignment, readable font, clear photos/charts.Slide content is accurate, concise, and focused on a single topic.Use of chart enhances the presentation and illustrates slide information.Speaker notes are appropriate for explaining slide content and add details not presented on the slide.Submit the PowerPoint presentation file. Do not submit any other file format, such as an Adobe PDF file, or you will not earn full credit.Refer to the resource, “Creating Effective PowerPoint Presentations,” located in the Student Success Center, for additional guidance on completing this assignment in the appropriate style.APA style is not required, but solid academic writing is expectedThis assignment uses a rubric. Please review the rubric prior to beginning the assignment to become familiar with the expectations for successful completion.Benchmark InformationThis benchmark assignment assesses the following programmatic competencies:BS Business Secondary Education7.1: Demonstrate computer literacy skills.
BIT 200 GCUB Lopes Athletics Productions Sales Results Excel and PowerPoint