The Image Of Marie Antoinette Portrayed As Propaganda
The portrayed image of Marie Antoinette is true to a certain extent however this image was merely based on propaganda which depicted rumours and scandals rather than plausible evidence. It is evident that this image of the last queen of France, which is significantly based on pessimistic outlooks, is based on false observations, accusations and bias accounts of events. Marie Antoinette married the dauphin of France Louis-Auguste at the age of 14 in 1769. When her husband’s father died in 1774 she became the last Queen of France at age 19. She was the last Queen of France due to the radical social and political upheaval known as the French Revolution. Although she was at first welcomed and admired by the people of France for her charm and beauty, they quickly turned against her and accused her of harbouring sympathy for Frances enemies and being overly flamboyant. The image of Marie Antoinette prior and during the French revolution was an image of promiscuity, irresponsibility and carelessness. In spite of this, she was also shown to be a compassionate mother that loved and cared for her children dearly. She was depicted as having more care for her own personal possessions and appearance than the well-being of her people and country. Some may see her as deceitful and selfish, but through close analysis of facts and solid evidence it is apparent that Marie Antoinette was merely a victim of historical circumstances. The promiscuity observed of Marie Antoinette was merely a false accusation used to defame the queen and taint her reputation. The consummation of her marriage with King Louis did not occur until seven years after their union. This encouraged various rumours to spread around Paris that since Louis-Auguste was an awkward unaffectionate husband, Marie must have sought affection and sexual relations elsewhere with aristocrats and nobles  . Marie Antoinette was not satisfied by her marriage  . Her husband Louis was portrayed as being insensible and egocentric. Although he was a devoted husband who admired Marie’s character, Louis’s apathy towards the queen made her feel isolated. The seven years, in which the marriage remained unconsummated, Marie Antoinette continued to be silent and unconcerned by rumours of her inability to procreate. During this time Marie was said to have an affair with Count Fersen, the charming Swedish statesmen and soldier. Various images showing the two together suggested that these rumours were in fact true, however no real confirmation was made of these allegations. These accusations were neither established nor approved; they were merely stated in the infamous scandalous sheets known as libelles. Marie gave birth to her first daughter Marie-Therese Charlotte in 1778, disproving rumours that she and Louis-Auguste had never engaged in intimate relations. Although she was known as “the Austrian whore”, no evidence had substantially shown Marie’s infidelity. Rumours told shocking stories of countless lovers, both male and female. Certainly however, rumours of her infidelity were fuelled by courtiers who disliked her and had no substantial proof supporting them. The image of Marie Antoinette as being promiscuous was mainly based on propaganda fuelled by rumour and scandal, in an attempt to slander the queen. This image was untrue and was only ever believed due to the great amount of dislike the queen faced during her reign. This shows how Marie Antoinette was a victim of historical circumstances. Profligacy was another feature of Marie Antoinette’s image which was true to a certain extent  . To make up for lack of affection from her husband and the endless criticism of her mother, Marie Antoinette began to spend more time and money on gambling and extravagant clothing, cards and horse betting as well as trips to the city and new clothes, shoes and make up. As tradition went, Marie was expected to spend money on her attire, so as to outshine other females at Court, being the leading example of fashion in Versailles  . However, she took spending to a whole new level when she asked for custom made gowns with lower hemlines and more revealing necklines, sparking controversy all over France. The infamous scandal of the “Diamond Necklace Affair” portrayed Marie Antoinette as the main offender. She was said to have demanded the creation of a handmade diamond necklace worth over two million livres (the currency at the time). Such accusations enabled the whole of France to view the queen as wasteful and reckless, when in reality she was nothing of the sort. The claims of this demand made by Marie Antoinette, were never proven and it was confirmed that she had been framed by con-artist Jeanne de Saint-Rémy de Valois. Although she did enjoy a lavish lifestyle of gambling, dancing and expensive attire she also gave to the poor and assisted the needy. At the beginning of her reign, France was struck by a stampede which killed many and left countless others with no money or housing. As an attempt to support these helpless victims, Marie took from her own private spending account and gave a large amount of money to those affected by the stampede. Such an act showed that the queen was in fact generous and caring, and understood that some causes were more important than others. Despite her extreme spending on various luxuries, Marie Antoinette was not as spendthrift and wasteful as she was portrayed to be. Therefore the image of her as being reckless and profligate was merely an over exaggeration, once again used to defame the queen of France proving once again that she was in fact a victim of historical conditions. Marie Antoinette was also depicted to be irresponsible and careless by propaganda. This is true only to a certain extent. Upon entering the French Royal Court, Marie Antoinette was immature and unprepared to take up her role as dauphine, being only 14 at the time. To make matters worse, she was unappreciated and barely recognized by the nobles due to her status as a “foreign woman”. As well as this she failed to comply with her royal duties, instead spending time playing cards and betting on horses  . Eventually becoming rather rebellious in character, the dauphine began to disrupt royal ceremonies, encouraging dislike and disgust from the court. As part of her responsibility as future queen, Marie was expected to make friends with important courtiers. However she denied this obligation and instead went on outings with only a select few friends, not honouring the custom of being surrounded by attendants. Her disregard for royal duty caused the court and public to view her as a negligent future queen  . Marie began her life at the French court as a spoiled little Austrian child, not gaining the approval of French people even from the very start. As well as her indifference to royal requirements, Marie Antoinette was considered a reckless spender, giving the court added reason to detest and ignore the future queen. Through close observation of accounts of events as well as actions taken by the queen of France, one can determine that the image of Marie Antoinette as an irresponsible, careless “little girl” is only partly true, and some exaggeration is present in this claim. Such an overstatement showed how Marie Antoinette was victimized prior and during the French Revolution. Therefore, it is noticeable that the propaganda which portrayed the image of Marie Antoinette was based on fact and truth but had an essence of embellishment within in. Marie Antoinette’s negative portrayal can be seen as too extreme and mildly false stated due to the fact that upon her arrival aristocrats and members of the monarch both presumed their dislike of the queen because of her Austrian heritage. Marie Antoinette’s mingling and constant contact with the Austrian Empire became evidence for the allegation that her allegiance lay with her home country Austria rather than France. During her reign over France, Marie Antoinette was portrayed as untrustworthy and was accused of harbouring sympathy for Frances enemies, including her home town Austria. From the beginning of her marriage, regardless of her portrayal through the libelles, the new queen of France had very little political influence with her husband. The King, who was brought up with anti-Austrian sentiments, blocked many of her proposed candidates from making important decisions. This demand of disallowing Marie and her political companions to make important decisions was made by King Louis-Auguste as well as the Chief Minister Maurepas and Foreign Minister Vergennes. All three were anti Austrian, and were worried about the potential consequence of allowing the queen – and by extension, the Austrian empire – to have any authority in French policy. Such an attitude was reflected in the people of France, and gave opportunity for even more slander and propaganda against the queen  . She was portrayed as being too friendly with the Austrian Empire, who at the time was an enemy of France. Even after moving to France, Marie kept in contact with friends and family in Austria. This displeased the King, because at the time Austria and France had a hostile relationship. Due to her relations with Austrians, the public considered her of enemy alliance and created names for her like “Austrian whore”, “The Austrian Woman” and even the “The Ostrich Bitch” (ostrich being a play on words to Austrian). All this debate of where Marie Antoinette stood in terms of national loyalty was over exaggerated in the media and no solid evidence proved that she was indeed on Austria’s side in its aggressive relationship with France  . Once again, it is seen that Marie Antoinette’s bad reputation and pessimistic image was all a result of historical circumstances. One positive feature of Marie Antoinette’s portrayal prior and during the French Revolution was that she was a great fun-loving mother figure, and at one point generous, beautiful and charitable. These claims were all true to a certain extent; however they soon turned to disapproval when the French Revolution began. Although most of her image was sour and impolite, there were some aspects of Marie Antoinette’s portrayal that were positive. When she first arrived in France, both the middle and lower class admired her for her beauty, charm and care free attitude. The depiction of Marie Antoinette as a fine mother figure was a truthful one, as she was seen to be very caring and loving towards all four children during their life. Although most of her children lived short lives, and experienced horrible deaths, Marie still showed maternal concern and support to all four of them. She is pictured in modest, simple attire, with two of her eldest children at a garden in 1785 and again at their palace in 1787. Such pictures gave support to the claims that she was in fact a fine mother and calmed the constant controversy circling around France. The representation of Marie Antoinette as a first-class mother and a generous and charitable queen is quite opposite to her mainstream image and is one of truth and is based on factual accounts of events  . Hence, once can say that this particular characteristic of Marie Antoinette’s rendered image, is true and was one of the very few positive aspects. Marie Antoinette, dauphine turned final queen of France, was a historical figure portrayed through propaganda prior and during the French revolution. Most of her image was based on rumour, scandal and was used to defame her and taint her perky reputation. When she first arrived in France, she was welcomed and admired by most, although disliked and not accepted by others. She was at first a woman of care free nature, who gave generously and cared immensely for her country. During her reign she became indifferent to royal duties and grew more and more unpopular to the public. Prior the French Revolution she was slandered for having such close relations to France’s enemy, Austria. During the French Revolution she was slurred for spending enormous amounts of money on personal possessions and appearance instead of aiding the needy French citizens. Marie was accused of having multiple affairs with both men and woman, due to the insensibility of her husband King Louis. Most, if not all of these statements, accusations and claims were hardly based on truth of fact, but instead were founded on the basis of rumour, scandal and defamation in an attempt to ruin the image of the once beloved queen. Marie Antoinette, beautiful queen of France was clearly and merely a victim of historical circumstances, who met her fate at the guillotine. Although most of the propaganda that portrayed her image prior and during the French revolution had some aspect of truth, the majority of her image was never proven with evidence or solid fact but instead was spread apathetically and can be deemed as hardly accurate or anything close to reality.
Comparison of Competition between McDonalds and Burger King
essay writing service free Comparison of Competition between McDonalds and Burger King. Businesses exist in a very competitive environment and competition happens whenever two or more parties make every effort for a goal which cannot be shared. For example, supermarkets are in competition with each other to offer the best possible value for money goods, and to offer the most appropriate variety of products for their customers. Businesses battle in many ways. One of the most noticeable ways is over price. Within a market businesses are faced by direct competitors. These are firms that produce the same or very alike goods. However, most products are set apart in some way. For example, although soap powders may look highly similar each will offer some form of special ingredient that sets them apart. A direct competitor is a business that produces or sells a product or service that is the same or highly comparable to another in the same market. Indirect competition happens when firms compete for the same amount of spending, although they might be in different sectors of the same market or in different markets. Every growing or a successful organization has some competitors. If we take an example of McDonald’s and Burger King: In making an analysis of McDonald’s, the first issue we will examine is their company goals. McDonald’s has a goal of one hundred percent total customer satisfaction. They do understand that this goal is not always achievable. If for any reason they do not meet that goal, they will do whatever it takes to correct their mistake. McDonald’s has a second company goal that sets them apart from most of their competitors. One of there goals is the principle of giving back to the community and that remains one of their major goals today. If we take a look at McDonald’s Guarantee states, food will be hot and your service will be fast and friendly. The customer service of McDonald’s focuses on one customer at a time. They are much more concerned with the quality of the service rather than the speed. Employees usually take one order at a time and then prepare that order while the customers wait. After the current customer is satisfied, they move on to the next customer. This process allows great accuracy and quality but lacks speed. Employees in McDonalds work at a quick speed but it seemed like they had no time for customers. They acted as if it was a burden for them to stop and answer a simple question or refill a drink Where as Burger King Wants to individualize each customer’s order and provide the fastest service possible. Burger King’s policy is to give the customer many choices and to accurately and quickly provide whatever the customer chooses. This policy is reflected in their slogan which is YOUR WAY, RIGHT WAY. Operating under this rule makes it very easy to achieve their goals. Through the various choices they give it is easy to customize each order. Burger King’s procedures are also consistent with their goals. In order to individualize each order they provide customers with many options when ordering. Some options include fries or onion rings, cheese, bacon, mustard, ketchup, mayonnaise, lettuce, tomato, pickles, and onion. The customer can pick any mixture of these options that they wish. Burger King takes customer orders on a continual basis. One employee takes the customer’s order, the customer then moves down the line where another employee is preparing the order. Meanwhile, the original employee is taking another customer’s order. Customers also get their own drinks while they are waiting for their meal. This makes service much faster because employees do not have to prepare drinks. They also provided relaxing music for customers to listen to while dining. Burger King has got more than sufficient communication and leadership. Employees give the customers feedback on their orders. Each customer receives a receipt, which enabled them to double-check their order. The employees also read the order back to the customer before handing them the order. In terms of leadership, there is a manager to sort out things. Organizational Goals Both McDonald’s and Burger King share the same basic organizational goals of profitability, sales volume, fast and courteous service, and cleanliness. There are slight differences to these goals by both companies. Organizational Structure When observing McDonald’s and Burger king, the organizational structures of the two restaurants are very alike. There appeared to be a crew leader who was a non-managerial employee and, there was a manager who was present behind the counter. The managers of the restaurants seemed to be in command of every aspect of the whole food service procedure. Technology Both McDonald’s and Burger King are on the cutting edge of technology. They both employ state of the art cash registers and both have electric timers built into their cooking machines. Although the cooking styles differ between Burger King and McDonald’s, the method of production is the same. Large amount of food is cooked at once then placed under heat lamps or put in the microwave when an order is placed. Both stores have the same drive through technology with a speaker and a well-lit menu to relay the message to the cooks. Employee Motivation The motivation of both stores for employees to perform well is hard to ascertain from just observing, but it appears somewhat obvious. The people working in these establishments appear to have a lower social economic status, and the fact that a paycheck is coming at the end of the week may be the only motivation they have. Environment The environment at McDonald’s and Burger King seems to be a simple, yet unstable one. It is apparent that the majority of people, who work there, are not choosing their employment as a career option. Therefore, the workforce is constantly changing and adapting to new employees and new situations. Leadership Style There was similar leadership style employed by the management at both stores. Task orientation was essential to meeting the goal of fast food. Each person had to be focused on the task at hand, because during certain hours of the day, both stores were very busy. There seemed to be little flexibility from management if it meant compromising their goals. McDonalds and Burger king have been competing with each other for several years now and there’s no sign that it’s going to stop any time soon. As we all know that the economy is entering into a correction these two super-chains have to fight more and more to win business and defeat all there competitors. Burger King recently announced plans to drop the price of its double cheese burger from $1.99 to just 99 cents even though Burger King’s double cheeseburger is 30% larger than the version offered at McDonalds. This means that they are not making much profit on it. But they have to attract more customers towards them and defeat there competitor. On the other hand McDonalds is ready to drop the double cheeseburger from its dollar menu all together. Many franchisees are upset because the double cheeseburger is not a profitable item for the stores at a $1.00 price point. Complaints have been made that consumers will come in, order two double cheeseburgers and a glass of water and that means the store will lose money from that customer. The main fast food chains often offer special sandwiches and discounted prices on certain items as a way to draw customers back into their stores and keep them loyal to the company so they keep coming back. The method is very successful to draw in business, and as the economy continues to remain on unstable ground, we will likely see the fast food chains come up with better deals and more original food items to effort to draw customers in. http://www.americanconsumernews.com/2007/12/mcdonalds-and-burger-king-entering-into-new-price-war-competition.html They’re continuously keeping an eye on each other and the competition, and making sure in McDonald’s case, making sure Burger King didn’t break in on its market share, and in Burger King’s case, finding ways to take away McDonald’s market share. If we look at McDonald’s versus Burger king 16 years ago, even with some of the challenges they’ve had over that time horizon, McDonald’s average U.S. sales per unit is up over 20 percent, while Burger King over that same time frame is down 8 to 9 percent. French fries have been a sore point for Burger King Operators for years. The company has tried new formulas in the last couple years, but Burger King’s fries are still considered by many in the industry to not measure up with McDonald’s. http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/3957636/ The relationships between profits and product differentiation expose that both McDonald’s and Burger King are better off avoiding close competition if the market area is huge enough. However in small market areas, McDonald’s would be located together with Burger King. In contrast, Burger King’s profits always increase with greater differentiation. The balance depends on the market’s size. In small markets McDonald’s locates near the center of the market, and Burger King locates to the side of the market. In larger markets McDonald’s and Burger King choose locations on opposite sides of the market although McDonald’s locates closer to the best possible central location than Burger King. http://mktsci.journal.informs.org/cgi/content/abstract/26/6/792 One of the reasons why Burger King is so successful includes many factors but one of them was location. One of the best ways to explain it is Burger King has always found outlets where there is a large attention of people but that wasn’t there only strategy because they also had the great idea of going head-to-head with McDonald across the street. By setting outlets in front or near a McDonald outlet they were guaranteeing visibility of their franchise. Comparison of Competition between McDonalds and Burger King
Book critique “The Last Resort: A Memoir of Mischief and Mayhem on a Family Farm in Africa” Essay
The Last Resort: A Memoir of Mischief and Mayhem on a Family Farm in Africa is a book that takes us through a family in Africa, the joys and the struggles they had to go through each and every day. The book is a humorous piece of literature offering numerous lessons and insights about the mayhem faced in Africa. The author has taken us back when some of the fertile lands in Africa had been misappropriated by the whites. After independence, the farms, which were occupied by white settlers, were taken over by some enlightened members of the society. As it can be noted from the book, the author’s family was one of the beneficiaries of such farms. Despite the fact that they had almost everything they needed, they faced lots of challenges than the other people in the society (Rogers, 2010). They could not escape from the fact that they were living in an environment that was dominated by poor and illiterate people. Coping with issues in the underdeveloped country is what motivated the author to come up write the book and explore the kind of life in the contemporary African society. He gives us a feel of what it means to be African, the joy and the challenges that come from a continent that is considered backward by many developed nations. The ‘Last Resort’ is a book with an African setting that seeks to reveal several issues that are overlooked especially by foreigners. Contrary to expectations that those in power in Africa do not face challenges, the author examines the challenges faced by the rich members of the society. We realize that those endowed with power in Africa have their own challenges that are slightly different from what other developed countries face. The author reveals more about the poverty situation in Africa affects both those in authority and the normal citizens (Rogers, 2010). Despite the efforts of those in authority to work hard and obtain money, by the very reason of them being among the poor and illiterate they will also have to face the challenges that come with living in such an environment. Living as if they have everything does not prevent them from empathizing with the situation around them; they aim at inspiring their fellow compatriots that they can also make it in their lives by working harder. The author reveals to the audience some of the challenges that hinder African nations from developing at a similar rate with others in the west. After reading the work, it is observed that it can be biased based on the perspective in which the information is derived. It is debatable whether the information and revelations presented in the work present the right situations faced in the African continent. Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The work also offers less reliable resources on the study topic. What the author has done is empathizing with the situation in his perfective as a son of a white farm settler. Most events about poverty and inequality as faced in Africa could be more or less theoretical to the author than practical. This is because the author was brought up in a well-up family. The information is also based on what he felt about his environment rather than what the real situation is. The rich and those who are in authority in Africa are perceived to be unsympathetic about the poor and consider them lazy people who have become complacent about their situation. They overlook some of their challenges, which include illiteracy and poverty from their backgrounds. They may not have had the opportunity to advance their studies or get the exposure that requires them to take up certain responsibilities. The author’s family may have landed on a fortune that enabled them get the needed exposure to be in leadership position. They were endowed with the responsibility of maintaining it. Coming from such a background, the author may be biased with his portrayal of the poor peasants in Africa who are mainly concerned about what their families will have for the day (Rogers, 2010). The challenges they face on a daily basis do not give them room to think about investments. It takes quite some time and generations for their attitudes to change from simply having daily bread to investing into larger business units. It should be noted that there are different levels of development and as much as a lower class of people in the society is despised, we realize that they have their own benefits. They take up responsibilities that people in upper classes will not take. It is hence appropriate to appreciate the different levels rather than condemn them. In fact, it is by knowing where you have come from that will make one appreciate where they are. The last resort highlights Africa on a rich man’s son perspective. The book should therefore be read and interpreted considering from such point of view. This also implies that what has been displayed in the book is just a shadow of what Africa has been and how the people of the land react to the changes and challenges they face on a daily basis. We will write a custom Essay on Book critique “The Last Resort: A Memoir of Mischief and Mayhem on a Family Farm in Africa” specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More It will be encouraging to know that what most people are told and know about Africa is contrary to the truth (Rogers, 2010). A person will give a description of something basing on the knowledge and experience they have heard. Their perspective has to do with the attitude of the narrator and how they choose to display what they have seen from their experiences. The most appropriate thing the author has managed to convince his audience it to get their own experience and derive their own conclusion rather than waiting to be told. Reference Rogers, D. (2010). The Last Resort: A Memoir of Mischief and Mayhem on a Family Farm in Africa. New York: Crown Publishing Group.
The Public Accounting Firm Accounting Essay
The Public Accounting Firm Accounting Essay. As an external auditor is required to be independent of the company when perform auditing services. If an auditor being to perform internal audit and management consulting services for the same company which they provided auditing services, there will have some issues arise. The issues included whether the auditor can be independent in mind and in appearance when providing such services. In US, there is prohibited the public accounting firm to provide non-audit services to an audit client. The arguments for the auditor should be allowed to perform these services for the same client is the auditor can work more efficiency by conduct both external and internal auditing services. They can reduce the time of work by eliminating overlapping work. Auditors will discover inefficiencies and other weaknesses while performing auditing service. When they discover such weaknesses, they can use the knowledge and expertise to provide the consulting services to management to improve such weaknesses. Besides that, by providing other services to same client, the company can save the time and money that would spend to obtain these services from another firm. The arguments for auditors should not be allowed to perform non-audit services for their audit client is they may not act independently in performing the external auditing services. The incentives of performing consulting and internal audit services will affect the judgment of the external audit. As we know internal audit services are best performed by the people who understand the culture and the operation of the company. Internal auditors are an important part of the corporate governance and should not be replaced by external auditor act as an internal auditor. A company will get more benefits from many different viewpoints. Therefore, company should obtain different entities to act as consultant and internal auditor to get multiple viewpoints. Explain how “rules-based” accounting standards differ from “principles-based” standards. How might fundamentally changing accounting standards from bright-line rules to principle-based standards help prevent another Enron-like fiasco in the future? Some argue that the trend toward adoption of international accounting standards represents a move toward more “principles-based” standards. Are there dangers in removing “bright-line” rules? What difficulties might be associated with such a change? Rules-based accounting standard are specific and detailed rules that must be followed when preparing company’s financial statements. Principles-based standard is the general accepted accounting principles (GAAP) which used as a conceptual basis for accountants. It is general guidelines that describe the way classes of transactions should be reflected in general term. Principles-based may prevent another Enron issues by requiring accountants to make their professional judgments on the spirit of the law instead of just regarding technical compliance with the rules. In this case, for example, Enron’s SPE, the manager may have succeeded in pressuring auditors to accept the deceptive financial reporting by pointing to the bright-line standard. However, the principles-based standard would require auditors to evaluate the situation of the company as a whole in order to determine whether the company did not have significant exposure in relation to the unconsolidated SPE. The dangers in removing the bright-line rule is in some situation will involve human judgment and discretion. Auditors may rationalize aggressive financial decisions. They will defend themselves when questioned by asseverate that the accounting standard did not prohibit their action. Enron and Andersen suffered severe consequences because of their perceived lack of integrity and damaged reputations. In fact, some people believe the fall of Enron occurred because of a form of “run on the bank.” Some argue that Andersen experienced a similar “run on the bank” as many top clients quickly dropped the firm in the wake of Enron’s collapse. Is the “run on the bank” analogy valid for both firms? Why or why not? The run on the bank analogy is valid for both firms. Both of the firms are loss of confidence and credibility of investors and clients. Enron can avoid the bankruptcy if its customers willing to continue to use its services. The debt and obligations of the company are large but it also had large profit. The customers were not willing to use its services when Enron loss its credibility. Besides that, Andersen also can survive if Enron issue had been isolated. Andersen was a large and multinational firm. If it just loss of one client, Enron, it would not go to the end of the firm. However, once the Enron issue occurred, the clients of Andersen were loss of confidence in the firm’s credibility. As the result, many clients of Andersen had fired the firm as an external auditor of their company. CoopersThe Public Accounting Firm Accounting Essay
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