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Striking Memphis Sanitation Workers History Essay

I Am A Man.” Those were the simple words on the signs carried by many of more than 1,300 striking Memphis sanitation workers nearly all black during the spring of 1968. Trouble had been brewing for years. Among the lowest paid of city employees, with no medical insurance, workers’ compensation, or overtime pay, the sanitation workers had unsuccessfully tried twice before to get the city to recognize their union. The slide toward a strike had begun on February 1, 1968, when two workers seeking shelter during a torrential rainstorm hid inside the rear of a garbage truck. They were crushed to death when a switch was accidentally thrown. The city refused to compensate the victims’ families, and other workers were infuriated. That tragedy was compounded a few days later when, in the midst of another storm, twenty-two black sewer workers were sent home without pay. The white supervisors who had ordered them home went to work after the weather cleared and were paid for a full day. Following a formal protest, the black employees received only two hours’ pay. That prompted a work stoppage on Lincoln’s birthday, Monday, February 12. The demands were straightforward: All garbage and sewer workers wanted a new contract that guaranteed a fifty-cent-an-hour increase and the right to have their union dues deducted directly from their paychecks. The strike would have had a different history if Memphis had not had Henry Loeb III as mayor. The forty-five-year-old Loeb, who was six-five with a booming voice, had been elected only five weeks earlier. He was an heir to one of the city’s wealthiest Jewishfamilies, and had converted to Episcopalianism just after being sworn in. An opinionated and stubborn man, Loeb, while not a racist, had a plantation view of blacks¿½he would see they were taken care of since he knew what was best for them. That attitude ensured that in the recent election, forty-nine of every fifty blacks voted against him. Now threatened with the sanitation strike, Loeb adopted a hard position. Since a strike of municipal workers was illegal, he refused to negotiate unless they returned to work, and in no case would he allow a paycheck deduction to the union, since that meant he would be the first major Southern mayor to recognize a black municipal union. The day after the sanitation workers walked off their jobs, officials of the national union began arriving to lend their support. Loeb announced midweek that if workers did not return to work the following day, he would fire them. On Thursday, only four days after the walkout started, Loeb began hiring scabs, and with a police escort they made limited attempts at picking up garbage. The racial overtones were evident from the start. The bulk of workers were black, and most white Memphians had little sympathy for their cause. Initially, the only support came from the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) and local black pastors, led by James M. Lawson. Many of the strikers were members of Lawson’s Centenary Methodist Church. Lawson himself was a friend of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr., having met him shortly after the successful 1956 Montgomery bus boycott. Thirty-nine years old, he had served three years as a missionary in India, where he became a follower of Ghandi’s principles of nonviolence, and had spent thirteen months in prison for refusing to fight in the Korean War. Lawson, together with the Reverend H. Ralph Jackson, called for a meeting between Loeb and the Memphis Ministers Association. Loeb refused to talk to them. On Friday, February 23, more than a thousand strikers and supporters crammed a meeting of the city council’s Public Works Committee. The rumor was that the committee had decided to recognize the union and approve the paycheck deduction, but, once the meeting started, the city council dodged the issue and threw the strike, as an “administrative matter,” back to Loeb. The reaction was swift and furious, with strike leaders calling for an impromptu march down Main Street to Mason Temple, strike headquarters. It was the first defiant black march in Memphis history. The police shoved the men to the right side of the street, four abreast. After several blocks trouble started. A police car came too close to the crowd and ran over a woman’s foot. In a moment, young black men were rocking the squad car. Riot police, clad in blue helmets and gas masks, then swarmed into the crowds, indiscriminately macing and clubbing protestors. The violent police reaction converted the strike from the single issue of better conditions for the sanitation workers into a symbolic racial battle for better treatment of the city’s black community. “It showed many people,” recalled Lawson, “beyond the shadow of a doubt, that we were in a real struggle.” That night, strike leaders met and elected a strategy committee, Community On the Move for Equality (COME). Lawson was chairman, Jackson vice chairman, and Jesse Epps, an international union representative, an adviser. The next day, COME presented a five-point program to all 150 of the city’s black ministers and their congregations. The program included fund-raising campaigns and rallies in churches, a boycott of all downtown businesses as well as companies with the Loeb name, and two daily marches through downtown Memphis, the first for strikers, families, and supporters, and the second for students. When the police had attacked and maced the Memphis demonstrators, Martin Luther King, Jr., was in Miami, at a ministers’ retreat sponsored by the Ford Foundation. One of those attending was the Reverend Samuel “Billy” Kyles, a tall, thin, charismatic pastor of Memphis’s Monumental Baptist Church. Kyles, in his early thirties, was a prominent Memphis pastor who, together with Lawson and Jackson, helped form public opinion in much of the city’s black community. “The Miami police begged Martin not to leave the hotel because there were so many threats against him,” recalls Kyles.* “So we stayed inside. And we got around to talking about the threats. “You just kind of live with it,” he said. “I don’t walk around every day scared, but I was really scared twice.” Once was when the three civil rights workers were killed in Mississippi. At a church rally there, Ralph [Abernathy] and Martin were praying, and Martin said, ‘Oh Lord, the killers of these boys may be hearing us right now.’ And a big sheriff who was standing there to guard Martin said, ‘Damn right!’ The second time was when he had marched in Cicero, Illinois, back in 1966. He had never encountered that type of hatred, even in the South. People lined the streets hurling insults and threats at him. And when he walked along a street with trees, he said, “From those trees, I expected any moment to get shot.’ “ When Kyles called home, he learned about the police attack on the demonstrators. His own seven-year-old daughter was among those maced. Later that day, “I mentioned it off-handedly to Martin, that they had a march in Memphis and had been attacked. Maybe you have to come down and help us out. ‘I may do that,’ he said.” By coincidence, a few days after Kyles had spoken to King, Lawson proposed that prominent national figures be invited weekly to rally the strikers and their supporters. Memphis newspapers and television had given the strike minimum coverage. Lawson hoped to force their hand by transforming the strike into a national issue. Among those considered was Roy Wilkins, head of the NAACP, Whitney Young of the National Urban League, Bayard Rustin of the A. Philip Randolph Institute, and Dr. King. Wilkins and Rustin, the first approached, agreed to speak in Memphis on March 14. When King was invited, he was hesitant, saying that his doctors had recently told him to get more rest. “All of his staff was against Martin coming,” recalls Kyles. “He was way behind schedule for the preparation for the [Poor People’s] march on Washington [scheduled for April 22].” Most of King’s energies were going toward the Poor People’s Campaign. His announcement the previous November that he wanted “waves of the nation’s poor and disinherited” to descend on Washington, D.C., and stay there until the government responded with reforms had already caused many whites to fear that the summer would be racked by major civil disturbances. However, the sanitation strike seemed a clear-cut issue of right or wrong, and King and his staff relented, finally shifting a March 18 meeting of his Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC) executive committee from Jackson, Mississippi, to Memphis. The strike, meanwhile, remained at a standstill. On Monday, March 18, King arrived shortly after 7:00 p.m. Lawson and Epps picked him up at the airport. He was tired, but the sight of a packed auditorium¿½15,000 people at Mason Temple¿½revitalized him. There were people standing in the rafters, in the back, and on the sides. “You fellows must really have something going on here,” he told Lawson. A huge white banner¿½not by might, not by power, saith the lord of hosts, but by my spirit¿½was draped behind the podium. King, a rousing orator who was best before large crowds, was in rare form that night. Time and again, he had the crowd on its feet. By the end of his talk, the three shiny garbage cans on the stage near him had over $5,000 in contributions for the strikers. “Martin, we are having daily marches,” Lawson said to King on the podium. “Why don’t you come back and lead a big march? You see how they receive you. It would be terrific!” Lawson had approached King at the right moment. Reveling in the excitement of the tumultuous reception he had just received, King checked with two of his closest advisers, Andrew Young and Ralph Abernathy, both of whom agreed it was worth returning. “He said it was like the old days,” says Kyles. “It really energized him.” King pulled out his appointment book and checked for an open date. The crowd fell silent as they saw him back at the microphone. “I want to tell you that I am coming back to Memphis on Friday. I want all of you to stay home from work that day. I want a tremendous work stoppage, and all of you, your families and children, will join me, and I will lead you in a march through the center of Memphis.” That announcement prompted a thunderous response from the crowd.** During the following days, the union leaders and ministers prepared for the day Memphis would be shut down. King’s entry into the sanitation strike exacerbated the division between blacks and whites. Many whites thought King was an interloper who had latched on to the strike as a way of burnishing his own image. They resented his involvement. Blacks, on the other hand, welcomed it. “We never viewed him as an outsider,” says Kyles. “We didn’t need Martin Luther King to come and tell us to be free, we just needed him to come and help us be free.” On March 21, the day before King’s return, a freak storm hit the area. It began snowing about 4:00 p.m. Snow is rare in Memphis, and almost unheard of in March. “I looked at it with curiosity,” recalled Lawson. “I really thought the stuff would stop, it won’t last, it’s too wet.” It snowed, however, through the night, and by dawn a foot was on the ground, on the way to seventeen inches, the second-largest snowstorm in Memphis history. Lawson telephoned King, who was scheduled to take a flight into the city by 9:00 a.m. Everything was canceled, but they agreed on a new date, Thursday, March 28. Many white Memphians, however, greeted the snowstorm’s arrival with relief. “Our prayers were answered,” says the wife of the city’s then police homicide chief. Yet the tension among whites only temporarily lessened, since a new work stoppage was only six days away. On Wednesday, March 27, around 1:30 p.m., a middle-aged man¿½slim, with dark brown hair, a thin nose, thick black-framed glasses, manicured nails, and a complexion so pale it appeared he was seldom in the sun¿½walked into the Gun Rack, a Birmingham, Alabama, store some 240 miles from Memphis. “I would like to see your .243-caliber rifles.” His voice had a slightly high pitch, but was soft, hard to hear. Clyde Manasco, the clerk, thought he recognized him and that he had been in the shop before, always alone. He was the man with all the questions: What was the most accurate rifle? How much would a bullet drop at one hundred yards? At two hundred? What rifle provided the flattest and longest trajectory? What scope was the best, affording excellent sighting with no distortion? He had even inquired about a Browning automatic .264 that had been written up in gun magazines but not yet shipped to stores. On other occasions, Manasco, as well as the owner, Quinton Davis, had given the customer some booklets¿½one on Redfield scopes and another on Winchester guns¿½as well as referred him to books that contained manufacturers’ technical specifications. The questions did not strike Davis as odd, since he assumed the customer might be interested in doing his own hand reloading of ammo. At other times, Davis had taken guns off the rack and offered them to him, but the customer never handled them. Instead he just looked and studied. Whenever Davis or Manasco talked to him, the man stared back. Both later recalled his unusual light blue eyes. Davis thought he might be a Southerner, and while he talked intelligently and was always neatly dressed in a sports jacket, he somehow seemed “under a strain or slightly mentally disturbed.” When the man walked through the front door that Wednesday, Manasco sighed. The Gun Rack did not get many customers as difficult as him. Most knew what they wanted. But this time, Manasco had a feeling the man with the questions might be, as he later put it, “about ready to buy a gun.” Manasco informed him he did not have any Remington .243s in stock, and instead tried to interest him in a Remington .30-06. “No, it’s too expensive,” the man said. Instead, he asked Manasco for a ballistics chart, but since he could not take it with him, he studied it for a few minutes before leaving. At the curb, he got into a white Mustang and drove off. The employees at the Gun Rack never saw him again. * In this book, whenever a person is quoted in the present tense, it reflects an interview conducted by the author. The past tense indicates all other sources. ** James Earl Ray’s latest attorney, William Pepper, contends in his book Orders to Kill that “a team of federal agents conducted electronic surveillance on Dr. King in his suite at the Holiday Inn Rivermont Hotel on the evening of March 18.” Pepper cites a source “who must remain nameless.” The problem, however, is that King actually spent the night of March 18 at his regular motel, the black-run Lorraine.
Leadership Capabilities [WLO: 6] [CLOs: 3, 4, 6] Prior to beginning work on this discussion forum, read Chapters 11 and 12 of the text, and watch the video MIT Sloan: Professor on ‘The 4 Capabilities of Leadership’ (Links to an external site.). Write: In your initial post, discuss the four different areas that a leader needs to address. Deborah Ancona in the video MIT Sloan: Professor on ‘The 4 Capabilities of Leadership’ (Links to an external site.) explains how you as a leader or how the leader of your organization can address these areas: Visioning Relating Inventing Sensemaking Make sure your post is more than 200 words and that you include a brief quote or paraphrase the video reading material where appropriate (see the Writing Center’s Quoting, Paraphrasing,

Discussion posts

Discussion posts.

At the top of each post include a title that summarizes your post. Type at least 250 words PER POST and remember to cite your sources. Include ONE citation from our book Ocean of Life (including page numbers) and at least ONE other internet source, for a total of TWO sources minimum PER POST. Cite your sources using MLA format.3.Many of the environmental problems that face the ocean can feel overwhelming and leave us feeling helpful, especially climate change. There are people working on solutions, however, and I would like you to research these solutions and pick one to answer this question: What do you think will be the most effective solution to mitigate* or adapt* to the effects of climate change on the ocean? Explain.Back up your position with examples.4. For this week’s discussion post, we will again think about solutions to environmental problems that face the ocean. Learning about solutions to these overwhelming problems can help us feel more empowered and hopeful, which is a good thing! This week, I would like you to research some proposed solutions to problems of ocean pollution and pick one that you think would be particularly effective or that sounded very interesting. Then, answer this question: What do you think will be the most effective solution to ocean pollution? Explain. Back up your position with examples.5. From small fishing boats to aircraft carriers, humans make the oceans a noisy place! How do you think humans can most effectively solve the problems of noise pollution in the oceans? Pick one or more types of noise pollution to focus on for this discussion post. Back up your position with examples.6. As humans, we become sick when exposed to certain viruses, bacteria, fungi, or protozoa. Infectious disease in the ocean is a very complicated problem because, like humans, ocean organisms are more susceptible to disease when they are stressed by other factors. And they are already stressed by many things: noise, pollution, warming ocean temperatures, acidification, and the list goes on and on. For this discussion post, research what people are doing to prevent or ameliorate the effects of infectious disease in the ocean. Which example did you find to be the most effective or inspiring? Support your choice with examples.7. If you had to pick one central reason why we have environmental problems, what would it be and why? Back up your position with examples.8. Traditional solutions to ToC dilemmas tend to be focused on economic fixes, technological development, or government regulation. In your opinion, what is the best way to solve the environmental problem of climate change and why? You answer could be one of the three traditional solutions, a mix of the three, or something completely new and different. Back up your position with examples.
Discussion posts

The Eight Concepts of Bowen Theory and Family Projection Process Discussion

essay help online free The Eight Concepts of Bowen Theory and Family Projection Process Discussion.

Watch this first video and discuss how this video and the chapters from Bowen 5,6 and 7 relate to your personal insights and observations, your thought and personal discuss.Individually, add a short personal observation or insight to the Discussion Board regarding chapters, 5 Family Projection Process, 6 Multigenerational Transmission Process, and or 7 Sibling Position.Provide feedback to your classmate’s posts: by Thiago Kim: After reading the chapters and watching the videos I do and disagree with them. As the first son, I do agree that we feel a certain responsibility for being the oldest and that our parents expect more from us because we are their first child. I believe that we kind of creates the line of expectation for our younger siblings. If we are the perfect child then our parents can expect the same from their other kids. However, if we don’t set high expectations then they don’t expect more from the youngest. What I agree with the most about how birth order can shape our personality is that it really depends on the culture, ethnicity, and parenting that we grew up with. Yes, the order of when you were born can help with certain personalities, but it really depends on the environment that you were raised in. That is why it is so hard to say for sure that every firstborn is a certain way. Being raised in Korean culture and with parents who were constantly working, I believe that was the biggest factor that made me become a responsible first-born child. Extra materials link:…
The Eight Concepts of Bowen Theory and Family Projection Process Discussion

Sociology and Why young people commit crime

Sociology, along with certain other multidisciplinary focuses, provides a number of reasons for why young people commit crimes. Chief amongst these is a lack of employment, the breakdown of the family, urban decay, social disenchantment, social alienation, drug abuse, and a host of others. For example, it had been proposed ‘that integration be viewed through patterns of role relationships’ [1] however on the other hand it had been argued that ‘new legal powers essentially comprise an extension of punitiveness underpinned by stigmatising and pathologies constructions of working class families.’ [2] In both cases, separated by a number of years, a number of factors are to blame – the state, parents, and so on – but little if any answers are proposed. Sociology in its broadest forms offers a prescriptive view of the world and this can leave it lacking when tasked with answering questions that arise out of its interests but which its interests cannot qualify. As a 2006 study on youth crime in nova Scotia put it, ‘youth crime is multifaceted. On the one hand, most youth commit crime, and most typically grow out of crime as they age. Longitudinal studies further suggest there are several risk factors that place certain youth at increased risk of offending. At the same time, there are youth with many risk factors who never participate in offending behaviour while there are youth with few risk factors who have established criminal careers.’ [3] It is here that sociology comes unstuck, unable to handle the sheer multi affectedness of youth crime with an academic outlook that seeks to place youth into easily identifiable boxes. It is here That criminology, psychology, psychiatry, and social policy step in to try and make sense of this multiplicity and advise on policies which can both decrease the number of youths committing crimes, whilst encouraging those already in such a position to leave it behind. According to most commentators, growing out of crime is on the increase. Furthermore, a lot of youth crime is to a certain extent, to be expected, quite aside for reasons of social delinquency. The establishment of the new youth justices system was a reaction to this fact. As sociologists noted that certain levels of delinquency were normal, a new policy entered in the UK that sought to treat all crimes as punishable by a formal criminal justice sanction. The effects of this have been to label a young offender as an offender from an early age. On youths, this has a number of effects. The first is to further entrench criminality into the culprit, whilst the other aims to encourage the youth of the pointlessness of crime, providing punishments that equal the crime, but that also aim to dissuade against further criminal acts. Questions also arise about how to differentiate between males and females. Goldson and Muncie [4] note that women tend to grow out of crime earlier than boys. Whilst a sociological approach to this seeks to question why this may be, the criminological approach must make do with knowing that after the age of 18, youth offending begins to fall, particularly self-reported offending. As youths mature, they tend to swap certain crimes for others. Thus shoplifting and burglary decrease whilst fraud and workplace theft increase as they enter the labour market. These are questions best answered by the statistician than the sociologist. Theories that rely on concepts of individual pathology are redundant in the light of sociological developments in criminology. In recent years, there has been a wholesale turning away from concepts of individual pathology in sociology, necessitated by advancements in criminology which place a greater social burden on the reasons for crime. Haines draws a contrast ‘between individualised explanations of criminal behaviour and approaches which seek to place crime in its situational and social context.’ [5] However, the positivist view that Darwinian notions of physiognomy may in some way be responsible for defining characteristics of a “criminal” are by now very outdated. More modern theories of criminality, derived in part from sociological studies, but also from the dismantling of the Darwinian myth of universal positivism, have led researchers to take the view that criminals are made, rather than born. That means that they are socialized in a society that views criminal behaviour as entirely rational and in keeping with the social and cultural norms of that milieu. Whilst exceptions still abound, particularly in the case of the clinically, ill, this view informs much policy thinking and policies aimed at reducing youth crime. There are of course exceptions to this, but they remain very much the exception. Individual pathology is so closely linked with the notion of pathology that it is too universal, cutting across all classes, as to be specific enough to the rigours of criminological profiling. Criminology in its current incarnation looks at why crime exists in society and in order to do that, it needs to look at the ills of society. Taking their cues from Marx and Engels, the modern idea of criminology seeks to give answers that look at social questions as much as pathological ones. Accordingly, the ”individual pathology’ model is a control oriented ideology which serves to locate the causes of ‘problems’ in specific individuals and which supplies the relevant knowledge and understanding to develop the appropriate technologies and social policies for controlling deviant members. Criminological theorizing thereby becomes a means of providing…a means of legitimating current policies which become justified as forms of treatment rather than punishment.’ [6] In this argument, the archaic individual pathology view becomes not only outdated, but also unfairly punitive, prescribing a series of judgments upon a larger, unclassifiable group. It strips the moral imperative from those enlisted to uphold it, and takes an awkwardly narrow view of society as a whole.

Marketing and External Variables’ Impact on It Essay

Among all the activities involved in business, marketing is the most visible and far reaching. It is virtually inescapable in the free world. Customers are often confronted with very many marketing messages from televisions, newspapers, radios, billboards, direct mail, and magazines and many more. Due to this reason, marketing is the whipping boy of social critics and business, who bewail the article for foisting all manner of misfits upon an otherwise innocent human population: pollution, materialism, resource depletion, economic inequities, materialism, and even the hole in the ozone layer over Antarctica (Castellan 1993, p. 34). In spite of the criticism all over the spectrum, marketing still remains one of the vital business activities. It is the very lifeblood of organisations revenues, whereby without it, very few if any customers would be aware of the firm’s products and services. Therefore, it can be argued that marketing is the very essence of a free community in which competition of products, ideas, philosophies, among others, find their place in the marketplace. These variables in marketing are also referred to as environmental factors. Most of the external factors have control while others do not. According to the marketers, their vulnerability to the variables is always the function of the marketer’s resources, size and ability to respond. It has been noted that no organisation or firm has total immune to these external variables. The variables nature evolves from time to time. For instance, the impact of yesterday’s variable might be commonplace today, which might have little consequence for everyone. Moreover, the variables have new manifestations that appear as time passes by. For instance, some years back, the door to door retail may have had a great threat to retail in traditional stores. On the other hand, today the mail-order retailing is the current concern where door-to-door retail has very little attraction. To the marketers, they think of external valuables as being either opportunities or threats in their marketplace. Their biggest concern is to keep a steady outlook for both the opportunities and threats to make an appropriate response in a timely fashion (Castellan 1993, p.56). The marketer’s main objective in any marketplace is to maximise income. This can only be achieved through the creation of consumers to achieve their targeted goal. The marketers achieve their objective by increasing customer awareness, increasing brand loyalty, entering a new market segment, and increasing the product range. However, the marketers create influence on customer decision making through the exploitation of these factors. Some of the common external factors in the marketplace which are exploited include; new technological advancement whereby due to improved technology, new products have been put in the marketplace. As a result of new inventions, more consumers go by the new products, thus, abandoning the old fashioned products. Consequently, the marketers enjoy increasing brand loyalty to the consumers, thus, capturing their decision making. The marketers have also exploited competition as an external factor to influence the customer’s decision-making. The competitive environment in business is in a constant evolutional state. In any marketplace, nothing is static in business. The competitors appear in many new forms and shapes. The worse notion in business is that unrecognising of changing face competition does not recognise the competition completely. A clear indication of a soon to die business is one that practices no competition at all. It is true that there is a certain fixed amount of money to be spent by the consumer while all the businesses are out to compete for such finite dollars (Chisnal 1995, p. 87). Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Any short-sightedness implies the demise of the business. A new business entity is another common problem whereby many traders think it will enter a market and command a market share that is sizeable if not dominant. This, in turn, is not the case. The reality of the matter is that the newness of the market does not guarantee it to get larger due to the arrival of new products in the market scene. The growth in the market can only be as a result of having a structural change in the demand curve and also when the market gets larger on its own accord. Generally, when all factors are held constant, the new entrant must literally steal all of its business away from other firms. Most of the marketers have, in turn, exploited this variable which has adversely influenced consumer decisions. This has been through modification of the products to be of better quality, provision of gifts and discounts these services creates more consumers thus differing from one firm to another hence increase of sales. The main types of competitions include; intratype competition, which implies the competition between within type of competition, for instance, a supermarket and another supermarket and intertype competition, which implies competition between the type of competition like as supermarket with a convenience store. Another exploitation of external factors is evident with political aspects. Politics is part and parcel of government activity, which plays a vital role in the economy. An ill political system in the government can lead to failure in the economic sector. When the economy fails, consumers are the most affected group due to high priced products and services. In turn, this influences their purchasing plan through proper consideration of quality when making purchases. Market characteristics is another aspect that influences consumer decision making in that depending on the services found in a certain market, a consumer should decide on what to purchase and vice versa. For instance, the difference in prices of products and their quality, among other aspects, contributes to consumer’s choice in the marketplace. The industrial structure is another external variable that has been exploited by marketers to capture consumer decisions. This is through the industry’s type of products and its locality to the consumers. For instance, if the industry specialises in a certain type of products that are different from other industry’s products, it is the choice of the customer to locate where to get the better services. Social factors also influence consumer decision making through the way a certain community perceives the importance of certain products. For instance, according to the societal norms and beliefs, there are limitations in using some products (Blythe 2006, p.99). Product is another variable that is the main tool for any marketer. They range from totally tangible to intangible items. It becomes the marketer’s decision to know the attributes and services of such a product and decide on its essential benefits, quality and features, among others, so as to attract the consumer. An example is the provision of a service by Federal Express, which has the capability of delivering documents and parcels in less than 24 hours. Promotion as an external variable is used by marketers as a way to communicate between the marketers and the potential customers. It can be through advertisements, personal selling, publicity and also sales promotions. Depending on how the information is delivered to the consumers, it adversely influences their decisions making in evaluating the products. Price is another variable that has had an impact on consumers in decision making. In a free economy state like that of the US, marketers usually set their prices as they wish, although there are some exceptions like utility rates, TV cable rates, and insurance rates. We will write a custom Essay on Marketing and External Variables’ Impact on It specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Marketers have the realities of economic theory as it performs to the elasticity of demand, the structure of market which includes the production and selling cost such selling of price randomly adversely affects consumers buying decisions. Strategic positioning of variables in the marketplace plays a vital role in marketing. How consumers perceive a company’s products influences their buying decisions. For example, a Coca Cola company has much variable position in the marketplace. Consumers see it as patriotic and with a classic beverage, while Pepsi is positioned as youth’s oriented product. The target of the market also influences consumer decisions through the way in which marketers aim at selling their products to consumers. Few of them target all consumers; hence choose a subset of the total market referred to as the target market. The markets examine the market segments through accessibility, potential profitability and size before making target selections which affect consumers in one way or the other (Marley 1997, p.55). The types of marketing communication channels used by marketers to explain consumer decision making include; use of television and radio advertisements which is also called paid-for communication. Through the advertisements, consumers learn the products available, their prices and quality; hence plan on how to acquire such products. Newspapers also act as a communication medium whereby marketers convey their message to the consumers, and in turn, consumers organise on how to get the products. Magazines are also used, although not all consumers have time to read. The same applies to direct mails which target some individuals. A good example includes a billboard that is positioned at a strategic place to be seen by the majority of people. For instance, it can be added to show the services offered by the Federal Express company, which offers quick delivery of parcels and documents, which can attract very many clients. Another example includes how television shows the nature of a product, explains and shows how it is used if complicated, shows the prices and also where it can be acquired. For instance, how Harpic as a household detergent leaner can improve the quality of cleanliness at home. For such an advert, as a form of motivation top the consumers. Some comments like when you buy Harpic, you have bought heath and one used. Other adverts like blue band margarine are clearly shown how they are used, their prices in the marketplace to avoid exploitation, and some comments like when you buy blue band you buy wisdom are used in the adverts which highly motivate the consumers (Zsambok 1997, p. 351). Another form of communication is a channel from the marketer to the consumer through personal selling, whereby the consumer directly interacts with the marketer. It is also referred to as one-on-one selling, which requires direct consumer response. At the same time as the transaction, the consumer is advised on how to use the price of certain products. Of all methods, advertising has proved to be more effective because various groups of consumers are captured through various means. This is facilitated by the use of outdoor media, direct response, print and broadcast media, among many more. On the other hand, the new technology of e-mail has facilitated the marketer’s communication with the consumers. Once products are placed in the advertising media, it costs very little time for more people globally to know the product in the market. For instance, a new brand of the car like Harmer, model, and one can know the details through contacting the manufacturers whereby the quotation of price is made. The Internet has also played a major role in communication in that, through browsing relevant websites, a consumer can be able to get all the information concerning a certain product. In case of any further information, information can be quickly obtained from the marketers through the same channels. Publicity is another channel of communication that exploits consumer decision making include public means. It included free coverage given to the public by news media. It includes the use of press conferences and press releases and other media events like grand openings, appearances, celebrities, among others. Consumers are met face to face and given talks on certain products and in turn left to make their own decision about the products (Dubois 2000, p 77). Not sure if you can write a paper on Marketing and External Variables’ Impact on It by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More References Blythe, J. (2006) The Essence of consumer Behaviour. Mahwah. Castellan N, (1993). Individual and Group Decision Making: Current Issues. Hillside. Chisnall, P. (1995). Consumer Behaviour. New York. Dubois, B. (2000). Understanding the Consumer. Cambridge. Marley A, (1997). Choice, Decision, and Measurement: Essays in Honor of R. Duncan Luce. Mahwah. Zsambok C, (1997). Naturalistic Decision Making. Mahwah.