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Stress And The Workplace Causes And Effects Psychology Essay

Work related stress and burnout turn into a more widespread problem everyday in the American workforce. Employees and employers face problems when dealing with this issue. One of the common definitions of stress is “Stress is an adaptive response, mediated by individual characteristics and or psychological process, that is a consequence of any external action, situation, or event that places special physical and or psychological demands upon a person” ( or Pressure, strain; a factor that tends to distort a body: a factor that induces bodily and mental tension (Webster Dictionary 2001). Stress is much more than just a fastidious situation. Stress basically is a responsive reaction of an individual to a particular situation. This is why stress is usually difficult to cope with because every person reacts differently to a certain situation. Overwork, job insecurity, and other numerous factors have a negative effect on a person. Distress is produced, and an employees’ physiologically and psychologically deviates in his or her experiences in comparison to healthy functioning. Office jobs are among the high stress rated occupations, administrative support staff of: bookkeepers, administrative assistance and accounting clerks rank 48% to have a Neurotic reaction to stress. White collar workers have a 64% reaction to Neurotic stress (Bureau of Labor Statistic 1999). The reason seems to point towards the organization of work within the office, with employees having little control over their workloads. Positions such as data entry operators find themselves at the mercy of the computers since their salaries are paid according to their output. Heavy workloads and stress are also directly related as it is found that office staff and even policeman are usually overwhelmed by the large amount of paperwork, often unsuccessfully completed by the end of the business week. Paperwork carried over into the next week therefore becomes a common occurrence adding to the stress level of the employee. Jobs of little status and little opportunity for job advancement are particularly more stressful since employees find that the organization does not value them as much. Women are more often found to be concentrated around jobs that entail characteristics, heavy workloads and low job status, compiled with the natural responsibilities to watch over the home and family; it is clear why stress is a greater problem to women than men. While mild stress can be beneficial to a person, providing stimulus and challenge. Stress becomes health threatening only when individuals feel unable to cope with the demands expected from them. Stress can be a powerful motivator to help us accomplish goals in life. It is also can truly be a killer of the body and the spirit when it comes in too big of doses. You need to know yourself inside and be aware of the stress level. You need to recognize that stress comes from both positive and negative events and regardless of the source stress accumulates (Dr. Joseph Trueblood Minister and CEO, February 2009) Acute stress triggered by circumstances such as divorce and loss of employment can put people under intense pressure. Long term difficulties in their work situation or home life, such as unresolved family conflicts and loss of promotion opportunities can lead to chronic stress. Chronic stress issues can burden people both psychologically, defined by symptom such as restlessness, loss of confidence, self esteem, depression, anxiety; as well as physical symptoms such as insomnia, fatigue, heart disease, ulcers, hair loss sexual dysfunction (Stress Management May 4, 2009). Chronic stress not only leads to employees underperforming at the work place, it also increases absenteeism and accident rates (The True Cost Volume 11 1997). These facts point out those unnecessary pressures at work can not only be detrimental to the well being of an employee but also affects the company in a negative way. Medical evidence discounts working at a terminal as a cause of headaches and eyestrain, although flickering screens or an inadequately lit office might lead to employees experiencing these symptoms. Even in the case of epilepsy, or a more rare form of the condition, photosensitive epilepsy, a flickering screen is most unlikely to trigger the onset of the illness itself. Research has also shown no relationship between monitor screens and miscarriages or other birth defects. Occupational stress though, has claimed to increase when employees work with terminals. Work carried out in poor conditions such as poor lighting, inadequate workspaces are some of the factors that can induce stress within the workplace. Computerization, which is suppose to enable routine task to be, performed with more efficiency and in theory, allow job descriptions to be widened has the complete opposite effect on employees, who find themselves expecting a greater increase load of mundane task. These employees who work with screens have to maintain a high level of concentration and often have little variety in their work and little say in decision making. Changes in the organizations of work could minimize health problems, previously stated and the overall quality of the job. Environmental conditions that lead to stress are called stressors. Stressors can be any condition that places a physical or emotional demand on a person. A number of these stressors can be found in an organizational setting and face many employees on a daily basis. Good organizational habits are extremely important in the work environment; overall design of your work area should not be ignored in your quest for a happy job life ( Peralta, The Seattle Times 2008 January 2nd). There are three stressors that are particularly important in today’s workforce that should be identified and properly managed to maintain a healthy environment. The first group of stressors is called role related stressors and these stressors include conditions where employees have difficulty understanding and performing various roles in their life. The first type of role related stressors is called role conflict and this is when an employee may have received contradicting messages about how to perform their role or when organizational values conflict with personal values. For example you may have to entertain and be nice to clients that you do not like or get along with. As well in industries like pharmaceutical sales there are sometimes conflicting values when sales reps have to sell a product they do not believe in or entertain doctors just to get them to prescribe their products. The second type of role related stressor is called role ambiguity which is when employees are not confident or do not fully understand their job duties, performance expectation, level of authority or other job conditions. This is usually more common for employees that are entering new positions or new organizations and they are uncertain about their task and social expectations. The third type of role related stressor is called workload and this is when employees have too much to do in too little time and they work far too many hours in a day. Work overload can lead to an unhealthy lifestyle where different physical ailments like heart disease or high blood pressure can result from high workloads on a daily basis. Work under load is less common but can also occur and this is when employees do not receive enough work or responabilities and feel they are not making sufficient use of their full potential. The last type of stressor is called task control and this is when employees get stressed out because they do not have enough control over how and when they perform their tasks and the pace of work activity. A recent study reported that employees in production, dales and service jobs have higher stress because of their lack of work control (Bureau of Labor Statistics September Summary 1999). Overall role related stressors are very important to the current workforce because there are so many ways in which an employee’s role within an organization can lead to stress. Employee’s and organizations have to consider all of these different things when trying to eliminate or reduce workforce stress. The second type of work related stressor that is important to the workforce is interpersonal stressors. These types of stressors include ineffective supervision, office politics and all types of conflict we may experience with fellow employees. Interpersonal stress can also come with work duties such as customer service operators who are often under a great deal of stress because they are dealing with customer complaints and unpleasant conversations constantly throughout the day. Interpersonal stressors can also be issues like sexual harassment (The True Cost 1997). Victims of sexual harassment experience a high level of stress because they have to endure tense relationships with co-workers as well as the stress that can occur while the incident is under investigation. Interpersonal stressors can also include incidents such as workplace violence. The highest number of incidents reported is from health-care workers or employees in social and community services (Bureau of Labor Statistics 1999). Individuals who experience workplace violence can have symptoms of severe distress after even on traumatic event and some victims will never be able to return to work. The final stressor that employee’s have to deal with in the workforce today is called organizational stressors. These types of stressors can come in many forms and can involve any type of organizational changes. Downsizing is where the number of employees has to be reduced usually because of the financial situation of the organization and can be stressful not only for the employees being let go but also for the survivors that have to remain after co-workers have gone. Other forms of organization changes that can lead to stress are restructuring, privatization, and mergers that may lead to increased job insecurity, uncertain work demands and new interpersonal conflicts, which are all events that can lead to higher stress for employees. Various physical and emotional stimuli can be the causative agents for stress and affect the way we perform within our lives. Major life events such as the birth of a new baby to starting a new job, or minor events such as a parking ticket affect people differently. Genetically, we are all programmed differently for coping with, and controlling our stressors. The amount of time we are subjected to certain stressors defines the two classifications of stress as acute or chronic. Acute stress is temporary in nature and can catalyze peak performance in some people. In small doses it is known as the “good” stress and can keep us alert and challenged. Physically our body releases large amounts of “stress fighting” hormones and we get into a “fight or flight” stance. Stress can trigger the body’s response to perceived threat or danger, the Fight or Flight response (Scott E. M.S. 2009 May 4th). During this reaction, certain hormones like adrenalin and cortisol are released, speeding the heart rate, slowing digestion, shunting blood flow to major muscle groups, and changing various other autonomic nervous functions, giving the body a burst of energy and strength. Originally named for its ability to enable us to physically fight or run away when faced with danger, it’s now activated in situations where neither response is appropriate, like in traffic or during a stressful day at work. When the perceived threat is gone, systems are designed to return to normal function via the relaxation response, but in our times of chronic stress, this often doesn’t happen enough, causing damage to the body. Psychologically, chronic stress interferes with the brain’s chemical transportation system. When this system is interrupted many physical and emotional symptoms will occur. Some examples are sleeplessness, fatigue, frequent headaches, and lack of concentration. All the examples lead to poor quality of work. To conclude, human performance is detrimentally affected by chronic stress and should be avoided. A sense of powerlessness leaves you helpless and hopeless. An employee who is told to perform another job without training feels powerless. He / she does not try to do anything about their predicament because they do not believe that anything can or will be done. Without the proper skills the assignment could not be done appropriately therefore leaving the employee with a feeling of defeat and afraid of losing their job. The Bureau of Labor Statistics’ research findings warn business that increasing job stress is responsible for an estimated annual cost of $10,000 per worker, #300 billion for the U.S. economy. Among the nation’s top executives, and estimated $10 to $20 billion is lost each year through absences, hospitalization, and early death, much of it a direct result of stress. The taboo of admitting t being stressed has been “outed.” Medical journals and organizations cite stress as the cause of 60 to 90% of illness, with job stresses a major contributor. Up to 75% of Americans say their jobs are very stressful, and 65% of are taking steps to control stress in their lives (Fact and Figures about Stress BLS 2002). There must be reasonable job demands. Employers must provide training so that the employees learn the job before having them perform the task. Several overseas companies are using Reflexology treatments. This is an ancient form of therapy that is used to apply pressure to points on the feet to affect health. Some companies in the U.S. are looking into this type of treatment for their employees. “Another stress reduction method is to give people permission to acknowledge how stressed out they are. Too often healthcare workers feel that administration is not interested in and does not appreciate how difficult the health care work place has become. Maintaing the corporate “happy face” becomes an additional burden. Talking about stress and its triggers is an effective stress reliever that allows people to understand. Complaining without a focus on solutions will compound stress levels. To reduce stress staff needs to express themselves and then develop a solution”. “Organization changes may include efforts to ensure that workload is in line with workers capabilities and resources; to design stimulating, meaningful jobs; to define workers’ roles and responabilities clearly; to give workers opportunity to participate in decisions about their job; to improve communication; to provide opportunities for social interaction among workers; and to establish work schedules that are compatible with demands and responabilites outside of work(Hamilton-McGinty Stress in the work Place Audio Book, no date given). Another method that employers could implement is to provide counseling for their staff. The employee should have the opportunity to have their own psychologist if they prefer, some methods of relaxation techniques such as deep breathing stretching, along with clearing your mind and muscle. These relaxation techniques are very helpful to remain calm in a bad situation. The results for the research suggest that employees continue to be sick because of the high workloads and increased work hours. Employees’ continues to have a negative impact on their job performance due to the stress. Bosses are not taking it seriously and continue to increase, management does not listen. Organizations and agencies could decrease workplace stress by providing the proper training, communicating with the employees’ instead of commanding them. Recognizing when an employee is stressed out and offer assistance would alleviate some difficulties. It is this researchers belief that employees must stop being afraid and take a stand. If we do not then the workforce will continue to hurt. Another way to remove stressors in the workplace is to give employees more power so that they have more control over their work duties and environment. Organizations can minimize role related stressors by effectively selecting and placing employees in roles that adequately reflect employee competencies for the job requirements. Helping new employees enter their roles within a company can be achieved by giving employees a detailed description of their expected duties and roles within the company. Also having company outings such as baseball tournaments or golf tournaments can help improve the relationship of co-workers and help new employees fit in and feel a part of the organization. Companies can reduce employee stress by ensuring that safety and noise risk are considered and met with appropriate circumstances as both of these events can lead to increased levels of stress for employees. Employees can also take an active role removing stressors from their workplace. If employees feel there is ambiguity in their job role they can seek out information that will help clarify the situation. If a particular job or expectation is too challenging to take on employees can break the task into smaller task that seem more realistic to meet. Employees can also request to be withdrawn from stressors by transferring to a position they feel is better suited to their abilities. As well as mentioned above employees often experience different levels of stress in the same situations so one option for managing stress may simply be changing perceptions of situations; for example strengthening self esteem and self efficacy may make job challenges not as threatening. Overall workplace stress is becoming a greater problem for many in the workforce today. There are a variety of different stressors that are role related, that come from interpersonal relationships, or that evolve from organizational changes that can lead to stress for employees. In order to properly accommodate these potential problems they need to first be identified and then solutions can be found to help resolve or reduce the amount of stress these conditions can result in for employees. REFERANCE PAGE Rosie Hamilton-McGinty (Narrator), No date given, Stress in the Work Place [Audio Book]. Summerdale Publishers Ltd. Peralta, J (2008, January 2). How to Rise Above Work Place Stress. The Seattle Times, pg 12 U.S. Department of Labor -Bureau of Labor Statistics (1999) Facts and Figures about Stress in the Workplace. Retrieved from Batts, G (2010, February). Interviews with 25 Franklin United Methodist Community employees, of different ranking levels. Scott, E. MS (2009, May 4th) Stress Management. Retrieved from helath.htm?p=1 Employee Stress: The True Cost.(1997) Retrieved from, Stress Quiz- How Stressed Are You?(2009) Retrieved from

cell culture &Antibody

cell culture &Antibody.

I’m working on a genetics exercise and need guidance to help me understand better.

All questions will be passed through word matching software (Turnitin) to detect potential p lagiarism and collusion. Draft dropboxes will not be available.We encourage you to show your understanding by including annotated, hand-drawn diagrams (adding labels and further details) where necessary. You may draw these on paper and then photograph them and insert as images into your Word document. You must not copy and paste any images and diagrams from lecture slides, textbooks or online sources into your qoustions answers.References can be used but need to be cited and formatted correctly. The reference list does not contribute to any final word count limit.The word limit for each essay question is 750 words. This will be strictly applied and words beyond 750 will not be read or graded. Your answers need to be focused and address the question posed.When you have finished the my home work, save your completed paper as a Word document stating your N number and the numbers of the optional questions you have completed, where applicable. For example, “NXXXXXXX Q1,Q4.docx
cell culture &Antibody

Week 4 Discussion

term paper help Week 4 Discussion. I need help with a History question. All explanations and answers will be used to help me learn.

Week 4 Discussion

Part 1: Post a ResponseVarious reform groups with various causes developed in the US in the late 1800s and early 1900s; these are loosely called “Progressives” as they aimed to use government policies or science to improve and advance society. Also, this period was a time when the US started as a major player in international conflicts—first in the “Spanish American War and then in World War I. There were deep isolationist sentiments about such overseas entanglements, and President Wilson first has one position and then the other.
Choose and discuss (in a full paragraph or two) one of the following two topics related to the late 1800s and early 1900s.

In the Progressive Era (roughly 1890–1920), multiple groups advocated for reforms in various aspects of government, society, and the economy. Discuss here the “muckrakers” and Taylor’s “scientific management”.

Explain briefly the approach and aim of the “muckrakers” and that of F. W. Taylor.
Compare their approaches and describe your feelings about them, and relate some modern situation that reminds you of one of these approaches and reform causes.
Identify the source(s) where you read about the reform cause.

From the text, Wilson did not maintain his own campaign slogan (“He kept us out of war”).

Explain with some specifics why Wilson became pro-war. Describe your own feelings on that issue when you look back at it, and whether he was right to change.
Briefly, identify a similar international consideration today—or of the last 20 years, and what lesson might be drawn from the example in Wilson’s time.
Identify the source(s) where you read about Wilson.

Part 2: Respond to a Peer
Read a post by one of your peers and respond, making sure to extend the conversation by asking questions, offering rich ideas, or sharing personal connections.
Reference Material
Week 4 Learn materials
Chapters 19 and 20
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Peer’s Post I will post a peer’s response when it becomes available.

Week 4 Discussion

Advantages and Disadvantages of International Trade in China

International trade has always been an attractive idea for merchants and businessman since time immemorial. There is always an opportunity to sell more, make more profits, increase the market share, remove seasonality fluctuations of demand and supply, increase in productivity, and of course a business or even a country learns a lot on the product development technologies and strategies from doing business with other countries or regions. Trade also leads to higher GDP, better and more choices of products for consumers, increase in competition in domestic market leads to competitive prices which is good for consumers, competition also leads to better quality in goods and services, and reduces unemployment and poverty. Thus, this leads to growth and maturing of a countries economy as a whole and also the businesses involved. Trade also leads to some problems that are not that obvious at the onset of trade. Even though trade tends to increase employment in one nation it may lead to job cuts in another. As businesses shift manufacturing for instance from richer nations to third world or developing nations, they take advantage of the cheap labor, weaker labor policies, weaker environmental policies, and support of the governments in these countries. They are able to recruit more and thus produce more for less. But this leads to job cuts in the parent rich nations. Trade also leads to job cuts in the developing and third world countries due to competition with multinationals from developed nations and also due to exposure to automation and modernization. Many businesses cannot put up with high productivity and competitive pricing of stronger businesses from richer nations and thus finally may lead to closing down of weaker businesses and unemployment in the face of competition. But we also have to realize that employment also increases through the new businesses from the richer nations. Overall there is a potential increase in employment. There is a problem of increasing income inequalities in China. As the business houses tend to take advantage of weaker policies in labor and environment, there will be environmental pollution leading to health and environmental complications; further labor discrimination leading to weaker social well-being. Businesses particularly also need to realize that protection of Intellectual property rights may not be recognized or understood or at least weak in some of the nations thus, leading to piracy, copyright violations, patents violations, product copies etc. This may well erode the competitive advantage, and the brand image of businesses. The above comments on international trade can be closely associated with the international trade involving China. China has become the manufacturing hub of the world. Substantial part of the economy of China depends on international trade. The advantages it gives for other countries to setup manufacturing plants in China is its strong government support for FDIs, Infrastructure development, cheap labor, weak environment and labor laws, new strong market reach which includes China, India, Japan, Russia, Korea, Thailand, Vietnam, Indonesia, Malaysia etc, access to cheap Chinese supplier base, thus larger sales and profits, seasonality of product supply and demand can be managed (one can always sell the product in China and the markets close to it if the demand is lower in North America or Europe). US has profited considerably through trade with China. Sales of products from US have grown in popularity in China boosting US multinationals (Expanded trade with China has, in fact, been a blessing for large U.S. multinationals like Boeing, Caterpillar, and Cargill, which had trumpeted the prospect of a massive Chinese market for American products and services. China is the world’s fastest growing market for commercial aviation, and needs billions of dollars worth of airplanes from Boeing. Its growing infrastructure has been a boon for companies like Caterpillar, which produces tractors and other heavy equipment. And it is importing billions of dollars worth of farm products, a boon to companies like Cargill. Last year, China bought $2.9 billion worth of soybeans – the top U.S. export crop to China. China also has proven to be a growing market for U.S.-made fertilizer and chemicals.). China’s benefits were as follows: its economy has been growing at a very rapid rate (for instance, China’s economy grew at an average rate of 10% per year during the period 1990-2004, the highest growth rate in the world.), the resulting increase in business activity drastically reduced poverty (China has been credited for greatly lowering the percentage of East Asian population living in poverty in a recent World Bank report – from 80% to 18% in a span of 20 years), created employment (Foreign investment remains a strong element in China’s rapid expansion in world trade and has been an important factor in the growth of urban jobs.), saw a large growth in cities (population: 30% urban in 1950, estimated 60% urban in 2030, 19 mega-cities > 10 million, 22 cities with 5 with 10 million, 370 cities with 1 to 5 million, 440 cities with 0.5 to 1 million), increased the technology and business exposure of domestic firms and the countries technological expertise (China has acquired some highly sophisticated production facilities through trade and also has built a number of advanced engineering plants capable of manufacturing an increasing range of sophisticated equipment, including nuclear weapons and satellites.) making the firms and the country more competitive, increased the variety of products available to the consumers, domestic manufacturers matured and increased competition in local market (e.g. Shanghai motors), prices became competitive, Chinese suppliers matured enough to support the big multinationals (e.g. Toyota, GM) in Japan and China, trade has helped Chinese government earn huge revenues due to trade that helps to increase investment in public welfare and social infrastructure, thus increasing the overall well being of China, China is also exporting and importing to and from many countries respectively thus, it is able to manage seasonality in the supply and demand of the products involved by diverting exports (Cheap Chinese goods export to South Asian, and South East Asian markets) and switching sources of imports (Crude oil from African (e.g. Chad and Darfur), South America (e.g. Venezuela) and Middle-east (e.g. Iran) countries) as and when required, in the process China is also able to reduce dependence on any single country. Chinese exports is around $1216 billion (2007) to countries as US 21.0%, EU 18.1%, Hong Kong 17.0%, Japan 12.4%, ASEAN 7.2%, South Korea 4.7% (2004) while its imports is around $953.9 billion (2007) from Japan 16.8%, EU 12.4%, ASEAN 11.2%, South Korea 11.1%, US 7.9%, Russia 2.2% (2004). However, in spite of the many positives of international trade there have been less obvious problems in the form of labor discrimination (86 percent said discrimination exists in China’s employment market; 51 percent see the discrimination as serious. ; China’s employee market is woefully inefficient and small foreign companies are very well positioned to take advantage of this., even multinationals like Reebok have been found guilty of labor discrimination and of taking unfair advantage of weak labor policies. Even local firms are taking such advantages), environmental problems (State Environmental Protection Administration (SEPA) announced that 130 foreign companies did not comply with current environmental laws. In fact, many multinationals see weak environmental laws as a means for cost reduction and therefore maintain different environmental standards in China than in their home countries. Multinationals can pollute more in China mainly because of an incomplete regulation system and loose supervision with few penalties that lead to a low incentive for keeping to the environmental law.), and legal problems for firms in the areas of protection of Intellectual Property Rights in China (There is little awareness that infringement is a crime in China. Growth of new businesses has outpaced the government’s ability to regulate them). Trade has fired competition which in turn has pushed many of the multinationals and domestic firms to take advantage of limited media rights, weak labor policies and implementation, and weak environmental policies and implementation (90 multinationals that have been found by the environmental protection authorities to have violated water pollution regulations since 2004, Forbes reports. General Motors, Samsung, Unilever, Pepsi and Yum Brands chains Kentucky Fried Chicken and Pizza Hut are just a few of the companies on the list, according to the article.). Both the US and China has suffered job cuts. China is losing millions of manufacturing jobs due to automation and the adoption of new business systems and production techniques, according to The Conference Board in New York. Between 1995 and 2002, 15 million manufacturing jobs were lost in China, or about 15 percent of the total manufacturing workforce, The Conference Board found after working with China’s National Bureau of Statistics. Manufacturing employment in China fell from 98 million in 1995 to 83 million in 2002. By comparison, the United States now has 14.5 million workers in the manufacturing sector, about 3 million less than in 1999. Trade does have enormous benefits but not without some corrections required and some inevitable losses in the form of job cuts. The job cuts can be corrected though with appropriate training of the unemployed to take up jobs requiring higher skills. Countries belonging to the OECD have attempted methods and policies to reduce the unemployment created through the effect of trade. Denmark for instance cut its unemployment from about 10 percent in the early 1990s to less than 5 percent now. The main ingredient for the Danish success is a system called “flexicurity,” a set of liberal policies for hiring and firing, allowing relatively frictionless adjustment to shocks caused by international trade. A generous system of carefully monitored unemployment benefits and funding for retraining displaced workers complement Denmark’s labor-market flexibility. Governments have a range of policies to expand trade while minimizing the loss of jobs. However, a complete solution to the losses from trade is inconclusive and like always not fully repairable. Understanding advantages and disadvantages of International Trade – China

Italian Immigration to Canada

Canada’s Southeast coast was discovered on June 24th, 1947 by an Italian explorer named John Cabot. John Cabot is the first influential Italian who contributed to Italians immigration to Canada. Cabot was an Italian navigator and explorer. In May of 1497 Cabot set out West to explore what he thought was Asia. He sailed from Bristol, England to Eastern Canada. The landfall is unknown, but studies show that he could have landed in Newfoundland, Cape Breton Island or Southern Labrador in June of 1947. Cabot took possession of the land and named a few areas. He returned to Bristol and reported his findings. Cabot met his fate when he set out for his second voyage across the Atlantic. Cabot not only established the groundwork for British land claims in Canada, these expeditions proved a shorter route across the Northern Atlantic Ocean. This allowed the British Colony to facilitate their establishment in Canada. He was the first Italian, and among the first Europeans to have visited and settled in Canada. There was a mass migration of Italians to Canada between 1870-1970 as a part of the Italian Diaspora. Due to the poor Italian economy, many people immigrated to Canada in search for work and a new start. This migration lasted over a century with immigrants settling mostly in Toronto, Montreal, and Vancouver. Over 60,000 Italians immigrated to Canada between 1900 and 1930 for inexpensive labour with Canadian industries. Canada needed workers for construction of the Canadian Pacific Railway and the Canadian National Railway, bringing in thousands of Italians for seasonal labour. The majority of these labourers ended up settling in Canada, establishing many small Italian communities known as “Little Italy’s”. Approximately 40,000 Italians migrated to Canada during the interwar period from 1924-1947, due to economic depression. Canada’s economy started to decline in 1930 and the government implemented strict regulations on immigrants. Approximately 31,000 Italian Canadians were classified as “enemy aliens” under the War Measures Act. Between 1940-1943 over 600 Italian Canadians were arrested and sent to internment camps. Mussolini was the Fascist leader in Italy during this time; Canada feared Italians were potentially dangerous enemy aliens who supported fascism and Mussolini’s leadership. After the Second World War, in the late 1940s, the “enemy aliens” list was abolished. As Italians continued to immigrate to Canada, they faced many difficulties and hardships adjusting Canadian’s lifestyle. In 1952, Italian Canadians established Italian Immigrant Aid Society to assist the immigration transition from Italy to Canada. By the 1960s, more than 15,000 Italian men were working in Toronto Construction industry. Immigration has slowed down in the past century. According to the most resent census conducted by Stats Canada, the population of Italians by mother tongue in Canada is 375,640 as of 2016. This has dropped from 455,040 in 2006. Italy ranked 8th in the top 20 ethnic origins in Canada. In 2011, 67% of Italian immigrants resided in Ontario. There was a population of 105,060 in Toronto, making Italians the fourth largest foreign-born group in the Greater Toronto Area. 22% resided in Quebec, 6% in British Columbia, and 3% in Alberta. From 2006-2015 there were a total of 4,714 new Italian permanent residences in Canada. This number is continuously increasing each year. In 2006 there were 325 new permanent residences from Italy in Canada; in 2015 there were 831. Selected places of birth for the Italian population in private households: Toronto – 45,515 Canada – 236,640 Italian spoken most often at home for the total population excluding institutional residents: Toronto – 27,130 Canada – 115,415 Total Mother Tongue for the Italian population excluding institutional residents: Toronto – 62,640 Canada – 375,635 Canada has its own Italian Canadian Sports Federation. This is an Italian soccer federation that develops players, coaches, and referees. It was founded to bring together the Italian community through soccer. ICSF hosts an annual tournament with over 50 teams. Football is Italy’s most popular sport. Italy won the world cup in 2016 and has one of the best soccer teams in World Cup history, winning a total of four cups. Italy has it’s own professional soccer league, Italian Serie A, and they host their own Italian football annual cup competition called Coppa Italia. Serie A has dominant teams who play in UEFA Champions League, including: Juventus F.C., Inter Milan, and S.S.C. Napoli. Bicycling is another popular sport, with Italians winning more World Cycling Championships than any other country, aside from Belgium. They host the Giro d’Italia, which is one of the three Grand Tours held every May. Italy has hosted the 1956 Winter Olympics, 1960 Summer Olympic, and most recently, the 2016 Winter Olympics in Torino. Other popular sports include rugby, volleyball, and basketball. They are also well known for skiing, hiking, and swimming. Italy is considered as a high-context culture. They emphasize their speech with physical cues and tend to be direct communicators; explanations aren’t needed as often as other cultures like the United States, where they tend to be low-context with specific, analytical, verbal communication. Italians tend to be bold and open with their emotions when communicating; they are eager to give their opinion and advice. Non-verbal cues include standing within close proximity during conversation. They are tactile and affectionate towards one another. Family is an extremely important value in Italian culture. They have many family gatherings and enjoy spending time with each other; this is generally the base of their social circles and networks. Parents tend to have a lot of authority on their children, maintaining their respect throughout their childhood. Italians have one of the highest percentages in Europe of children moving out at an older age. These families are very tight knit with deep connection and dedication towards each other. Parents raise and support their children as they grow up, and they expect to receive the same dedication and assistance from their children as they grow older. Italians are well known for their cuisine and eating habits; many consider Italian cuisine an art. Italian cuisine has influenced the food culture around the world and is seen as a way of life. Family gatherings are centered around food and entertainment. Each geographical region uses different styles of cuisine. Meals generally consist of wine, cheese, and many different kinds of pasta. Roman Catholicism is the major Italian religion. Italians celebrate most Christian holidays. They celebrate what’s called “Pasquetta” the Monday after Easter to mark the beginning of springtime. They also celebrate Saints day on November 1st, a religious holiday which family will visit and decorate the graves of loved ones who have passed away. Liberation Day is celebrated on April 25th, marking the end of World War II in Italy in 1945. Italians have had an impact on Canada, from John Cabot discovering the Southeast coast of Canada and establishing an easy route across the Northern Atlantic Ocean, to Italian communities contributing to Canada’s diverse culture; popularizing Italian cuisine and increasing the fan base of European Football. Today, Italians are successful in Canadian society. Contributing to our economic growth as strong business men, skilled professionals, innovators, and artists. Canadians must embrace the Italian culture as it flourishes in major cities such as Montreal and Toronto. Italians were an important asset to Canada’s growth and helped shaped the country we are today. Italian culture will live on forever in Canada.

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