cell culture &Antibody
cell culture &Antibody.
I’m working on a genetics exercise and need guidance to help me understand better.
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cell culture &Antibody
Week 4 Discussion
term paper help Week 4 Discussion. I need help with a History question. All explanations and answers will be used to help me learn.
Week 4 Discussion
Part 1: Post a ResponseVarious reform groups with various causes developed in the US in the late 1800s and early 1900s; these are loosely called “Progressives” as they aimed to use government policies or science to improve and advance society. Also, this period was a time when the US started as a major player in international conflicts—first in the “Spanish American War and then in World War I. There were deep isolationist sentiments about such overseas entanglements, and President Wilson first has one position and then the other.
Choose and discuss (in a full paragraph or two) one of the following two topics related to the late 1800s and early 1900s.
In the Progressive Era (roughly 1890–1920), multiple groups advocated for reforms in various aspects of government, society, and the economy. Discuss here the “muckrakers” and Taylor’s “scientific management”.
Explain briefly the approach and aim of the “muckrakers” and that of F. W. Taylor.
Compare their approaches and describe your feelings about them, and relate some modern situation that reminds you of one of these approaches and reform causes.
Identify the source(s) where you read about the reform cause.
From the text, Wilson did not maintain his own campaign slogan (“He kept us out of war”).
Explain with some specifics why Wilson became pro-war. Describe your own feelings on that issue when you look back at it, and whether he was right to change.
Briefly, identify a similar international consideration today—or of the last 20 years, and what lesson might be drawn from the example in Wilson’s time.
Identify the source(s) where you read about Wilson.
Part 2: Respond to a Peer
Read a post by one of your peers and respond, making sure to extend the conversation by asking questions, offering rich ideas, or sharing personal connections.
Week 4 Learn materials
Chapters 19 and 20
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Peer’s Post I will post a peer’s response when it becomes available.
Week 4 Discussion
Advantages and Disadvantages of International Trade in China
International trade has always been an attractive idea for merchants and businessman since time immemorial. There is always an opportunity to sell more, make more profits, increase the market share, remove seasonality fluctuations of demand and supply, increase in productivity, and of course a business or even a country learns a lot on the product development technologies and strategies from doing business with other countries or regions. Trade also leads to higher GDP, better and more choices of products for consumers, increase in competition in domestic market leads to competitive prices which is good for consumers, competition also leads to better quality in goods and services, and reduces unemployment and poverty. Thus, this leads to growth and maturing of a countries economy as a whole and also the businesses involved. Trade also leads to some problems that are not that obvious at the onset of trade. Even though trade tends to increase employment in one nation it may lead to job cuts in another. As businesses shift manufacturing for instance from richer nations to third world or developing nations, they take advantage of the cheap labor, weaker labor policies, weaker environmental policies, and support of the governments in these countries. They are able to recruit more and thus produce more for less. But this leads to job cuts in the parent rich nations. Trade also leads to job cuts in the developing and third world countries due to competition with multinationals from developed nations and also due to exposure to automation and modernization. Many businesses cannot put up with high productivity and competitive pricing of stronger businesses from richer nations and thus finally may lead to closing down of weaker businesses and unemployment in the face of competition. But we also have to realize that employment also increases through the new businesses from the richer nations. Overall there is a potential increase in employment. There is a problem of increasing income inequalities in China. As the business houses tend to take advantage of weaker policies in labor and environment, there will be environmental pollution leading to health and environmental complications; further labor discrimination leading to weaker social well-being. Businesses particularly also need to realize that protection of Intellectual property rights may not be recognized or understood or at least weak in some of the nations thus, leading to piracy, copyright violations, patents violations, product copies etc. This may well erode the competitive advantage, and the brand image of businesses. The above comments on international trade can be closely associated with the international trade involving China. China has become the manufacturing hub of the world. Substantial part of the economy of China depends on international trade. The advantages it gives for other countries to setup manufacturing plants in China is its strong government support for FDIs, Infrastructure development, cheap labor, weak environment and labor laws, new strong market reach which includes China, India, Japan, Russia, Korea, Thailand, Vietnam, Indonesia, Malaysia etc, access to cheap Chinese supplier base, thus larger sales and profits, seasonality of product supply and demand can be managed (one can always sell the product in China and the markets close to it if the demand is lower in North America or Europe). US has profited considerably through trade with China. Sales of products from US have grown in popularity in China boosting US multinationals (Expanded trade with China has, in fact, been a blessing for large U.S. multinationals like Boeing, Caterpillar, and Cargill, which had trumpeted the prospect of a massive Chinese market for American products and services. China is the world’s fastest growing market for commercial aviation, and needs billions of dollars worth of airplanes from Boeing. Its growing infrastructure has been a boon for companies like Caterpillar, which produces tractors and other heavy equipment. And it is importing billions of dollars worth of farm products, a boon to companies like Cargill. Last year, China bought $2.9 billion worth of soybeans – the top U.S. export crop to China. China also has proven to be a growing market for U.S.-made fertilizer and chemicals.). China’s benefits were as follows: its economy has been growing at a very rapid rate (for instance, China’s economy grew at an average rate of 10% per year during the period 1990-2004, the highest growth rate in the world.), the resulting increase in business activity drastically reduced poverty (China has been credited for greatly lowering the percentage of East Asian population living in poverty in a recent World Bank report – from 80% to 18% in a span of 20 years), created employment (Foreign investment remains a strong element in China’s rapid expansion in world trade and has been an important factor in the growth of urban jobs.), saw a large growth in cities (population: 30% urban in 1950, estimated 60% urban in 2030, 19 mega-cities > 10 million, 22 cities with 5 with 10 million, 370 cities with 1 to 5 million, 440 cities with 0.5 to 1 million), increased the technology and business exposure of domestic firms and the countries technological expertise (China has acquired some highly sophisticated production facilities through trade and also has built a number of advanced engineering plants capable of manufacturing an increasing range of sophisticated equipment, including nuclear weapons and satellites.) making the firms and the country more competitive, increased the variety of products available to the consumers, domestic manufacturers matured and increased competition in local market (e.g. Shanghai motors), prices became competitive, Chinese suppliers matured enough to support the big multinationals (e.g. Toyota, GM) in Japan and China, trade has helped Chinese government earn huge revenues due to trade that helps to increase investment in public welfare and social infrastructure, thus increasing the overall well being of China, China is also exporting and importing to and from many countries respectively thus, it is able to manage seasonality in the supply and demand of the products involved by diverting exports (Cheap Chinese goods export to South Asian, and South East Asian markets) and switching sources of imports (Crude oil from African (e.g. Chad and Darfur), South America (e.g. Venezuela) and Middle-east (e.g. Iran) countries) as and when required, in the process China is also able to reduce dependence on any single country. Chinese exports is around $1216 billion (2007) to countries as US 21.0%, EU 18.1%, Hong Kong 17.0%, Japan 12.4%, ASEAN 7.2%, South Korea 4.7% (2004) while its imports is around $953.9 billion (2007) from Japan 16.8%, EU 12.4%, ASEAN 11.2%, South Korea 11.1%, US 7.9%, Russia 2.2% (2004). However, in spite of the many positives of international trade there have been less obvious problems in the form of labor discrimination (86 percent said discrimination exists in China’s employment market; 51 percent see the discrimination as serious. ; China’s employee market is woefully inefficient and small foreign companies are very well positioned to take advantage of this., even multinationals like Reebok have been found guilty of labor discrimination and of taking unfair advantage of weak labor policies. Even local firms are taking such advantages), environmental problems (State Environmental Protection Administration (SEPA) announced that 130 foreign companies did not comply with current environmental laws. In fact, many multinationals see weak environmental laws as a means for cost reduction and therefore maintain different environmental standards in China than in their home countries. Multinationals can pollute more in China mainly because of an incomplete regulation system and loose supervision with few penalties that lead to a low incentive for keeping to the environmental law.), and legal problems for firms in the areas of protection of Intellectual Property Rights in China (There is little awareness that infringement is a crime in China. Growth of new businesses has outpaced the government’s ability to regulate them). Trade has fired competition which in turn has pushed many of the multinationals and domestic firms to take advantage of limited media rights, weak labor policies and implementation, and weak environmental policies and implementation (90 multinationals that have been found by the environmental protection authorities to have violated water pollution regulations since 2004, Forbes reports. General Motors, Samsung, Unilever, Pepsi and Yum Brands chains Kentucky Fried Chicken and Pizza Hut are just a few of the companies on the list, according to the article.). Both the US and China has suffered job cuts. China is losing millions of manufacturing jobs due to automation and the adoption of new business systems and production techniques, according to The Conference Board in New York. Between 1995 and 2002, 15 million manufacturing jobs were lost in China, or about 15 percent of the total manufacturing workforce, The Conference Board found after working with China’s National Bureau of Statistics. Manufacturing employment in China fell from 98 million in 1995 to 83 million in 2002. By comparison, the United States now has 14.5 million workers in the manufacturing sector, about 3 million less than in 1999. Trade does have enormous benefits but not without some corrections required and some inevitable losses in the form of job cuts. The job cuts can be corrected though with appropriate training of the unemployed to take up jobs requiring higher skills. Countries belonging to the OECD have attempted methods and policies to reduce the unemployment created through the effect of trade. Denmark for instance cut its unemployment from about 10 percent in the early 1990s to less than 5 percent now. The main ingredient for the Danish success is a system called “flexicurity,” a set of liberal policies for hiring and firing, allowing relatively frictionless adjustment to shocks caused by international trade. A generous system of carefully monitored unemployment benefits and funding for retraining displaced workers complement Denmark’s labor-market flexibility. Governments have a range of policies to expand trade while minimizing the loss of jobs. However, a complete solution to the losses from trade is inconclusive and like always not fully repairable. Understanding advantages and disadvantages of International Trade – China
Italian Immigration to Canada
Canada’s Southeast coast was discovered on June 24th, 1947 by an Italian explorer named John Cabot. John Cabot is the first influential Italian who contributed to Italians immigration to Canada. Cabot was an Italian navigator and explorer. In May of 1497 Cabot set out West to explore what he thought was Asia. He sailed from Bristol, England to Eastern Canada. The landfall is unknown, but studies show that he could have landed in Newfoundland, Cape Breton Island or Southern Labrador in June of 1947. Cabot took possession of the land and named a few areas. He returned to Bristol and reported his findings. Cabot met his fate when he set out for his second voyage across the Atlantic. Cabot not only established the groundwork for British land claims in Canada, these expeditions proved a shorter route across the Northern Atlantic Ocean. This allowed the British Colony to facilitate their establishment in Canada. He was the first Italian, and among the first Europeans to have visited and settled in Canada. There was a mass migration of Italians to Canada between 1870-1970 as a part of the Italian Diaspora. Due to the poor Italian economy, many people immigrated to Canada in search for work and a new start. This migration lasted over a century with immigrants settling mostly in Toronto, Montreal, and Vancouver. Over 60,000 Italians immigrated to Canada between 1900 and 1930 for inexpensive labour with Canadian industries. Canada needed workers for construction of the Canadian Pacific Railway and the Canadian National Railway, bringing in thousands of Italians for seasonal labour. The majority of these labourers ended up settling in Canada, establishing many small Italian communities known as “Little Italy’s”. Approximately 40,000 Italians migrated to Canada during the interwar period from 1924-1947, due to economic depression. Canada’s economy started to decline in 1930 and the government implemented strict regulations on immigrants. Approximately 31,000 Italian Canadians were classified as “enemy aliens” under the War Measures Act. Between 1940-1943 over 600 Italian Canadians were arrested and sent to internment camps. Mussolini was the Fascist leader in Italy during this time; Canada feared Italians were potentially dangerous enemy aliens who supported fascism and Mussolini’s leadership. After the Second World War, in the late 1940s, the “enemy aliens” list was abolished. As Italians continued to immigrate to Canada, they faced many difficulties and hardships adjusting Canadian’s lifestyle. In 1952, Italian Canadians established Italian Immigrant Aid Society to assist the immigration transition from Italy to Canada. By the 1960s, more than 15,000 Italian men were working in Toronto Construction industry. Immigration has slowed down in the past century. According to the most resent census conducted by Stats Canada, the population of Italians by mother tongue in Canada is 375,640 as of 2016. This has dropped from 455,040 in 2006. Italy ranked 8th in the top 20 ethnic origins in Canada. In 2011, 67% of Italian immigrants resided in Ontario. There was a population of 105,060 in Toronto, making Italians the fourth largest foreign-born group in the Greater Toronto Area. 22% resided in Quebec, 6% in British Columbia, and 3% in Alberta. From 2006-2015 there were a total of 4,714 new Italian permanent residences in Canada. This number is continuously increasing each year. In 2006 there were 325 new permanent residences from Italy in Canada; in 2015 there were 831. Selected places of birth for the Italian population in private households: Toronto – 45,515 Canada – 236,640 Italian spoken most often at home for the total population excluding institutional residents: Toronto – 27,130 Canada – 115,415 Total Mother Tongue for the Italian population excluding institutional residents: Toronto – 62,640 Canada – 375,635 Canada has its own Italian Canadian Sports Federation. This is an Italian soccer federation that develops players, coaches, and referees. It was founded to bring together the Italian community through soccer. ICSF hosts an annual tournament with over 50 teams. Football is Italy’s most popular sport. Italy won the world cup in 2016 and has one of the best soccer teams in World Cup history, winning a total of four cups. Italy has it’s own professional soccer league, Italian Serie A, and they host their own Italian football annual cup competition called Coppa Italia. Serie A has dominant teams who play in UEFA Champions League, including: Juventus F.C., Inter Milan, and S.S.C. Napoli. Bicycling is another popular sport, with Italians winning more World Cycling Championships than any other country, aside from Belgium. They host the Giro d’Italia, which is one of the three Grand Tours held every May. Italy has hosted the 1956 Winter Olympics, 1960 Summer Olympic, and most recently, the 2016 Winter Olympics in Torino. Other popular sports include rugby, volleyball, and basketball. They are also well known for skiing, hiking, and swimming. Italy is considered as a high-context culture. They emphasize their speech with physical cues and tend to be direct communicators; explanations aren’t needed as often as other cultures like the United States, where they tend to be low-context with specific, analytical, verbal communication. Italians tend to be bold and open with their emotions when communicating; they are eager to give their opinion and advice. Non-verbal cues include standing within close proximity during conversation. They are tactile and affectionate towards one another. Family is an extremely important value in Italian culture. They have many family gatherings and enjoy spending time with each other; this is generally the base of their social circles and networks. Parents tend to have a lot of authority on their children, maintaining their respect throughout their childhood. Italians have one of the highest percentages in Europe of children moving out at an older age. These families are very tight knit with deep connection and dedication towards each other. Parents raise and support their children as they grow up, and they expect to receive the same dedication and assistance from their children as they grow older. Italians are well known for their cuisine and eating habits; many consider Italian cuisine an art. Italian cuisine has influenced the food culture around the world and is seen as a way of life. Family gatherings are centered around food and entertainment. Each geographical region uses different styles of cuisine. Meals generally consist of wine, cheese, and many different kinds of pasta. Roman Catholicism is the major Italian religion. Italians celebrate most Christian holidays. They celebrate what’s called “Pasquetta” the Monday after Easter to mark the beginning of springtime. They also celebrate Saints day on November 1st, a religious holiday which family will visit and decorate the graves of loved ones who have passed away. Liberation Day is celebrated on April 25th, marking the end of World War II in Italy in 1945. Italians have had an impact on Canada, from John Cabot discovering the Southeast coast of Canada and establishing an easy route across the Northern Atlantic Ocean, to Italian communities contributing to Canada’s diverse culture; popularizing Italian cuisine and increasing the fan base of European Football. Today, Italians are successful in Canadian society. Contributing to our economic growth as strong business men, skilled professionals, innovators, and artists. Canadians must embrace the Italian culture as it flourishes in major cities such as Montreal and Toronto. Italians were an important asset to Canada’s growth and helped shaped the country we are today. Italian culture will live on forever in Canada. https://www150.statcan.gc.ca/n1/pub/12-581-x/2018000/pop-eng.htm https://www12.statcan.gc.ca/census-recensement/2016/dp-pd/prof/details/Page.cfm?Lang=E
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