STRESS AND ILLNESSAssignment Overview Recall the video from your Module 1 Case Assignment on how stress affects the brain. Stress not only affects the structure and function of the brain, but its gene. Stress not only affects the structure and function of the brain, but its genetic makeup as well. In this module you were introduced to the various effects stress has on each body system, including the reproductive system. New research suggests that experiencing intense psychological trauma may have a genetic impact on a person’s future children. In the following video, Dr. Rachel Yehuda studied the genetic effects in a population of Holocaust survivors and found variations from the norm in both generations for the gene associated with depression and anxiety disorders. The findings imply that children of individuals who experience profound stress in life may be more likely to develop stress or anxiety disorders themselves. Can Trauma Be Passed to the Next Generation Through DNA? PBS Learning Media. Accessed at https://www.pbslearningmedia.org/resource/e9a3377e-ef0d-4815-8f25-166daa4d3114/can-trauma-be-passed-to-the-next-generation-through-dna/#.WZeOTNGQyM8 Case Assignment Answer the following questions in essay format. For additional details, see the Case Assignment directions below. How does experiencing trauma affect a person’s life? Describe the term epigenetics. How does stress play a role in epigenetics? Describe an event in history that could have caused stress-related changes to the next generation (some examples include the Holocaust, 9-11 terrorist attack, the Dutch famine of 1944). Include the disorders these children experienced (such as anxiety, depression, mental disorders, etc). Why might it be helpful to know how children will be affected by trauma their parents experienced? What kinds of events going on in the world right now could be producing similar effects in future generations? Assignment Expectations Organize this essay assignment using subtitles that summarize the topic from each question above. For example, to answer Question 1, use a descriptive subtitle like the following: Effects of Trauma. Answer each question under the subtitle using complete sentences that relate back to the question. Be sure to use APA formatting throughout your essay with 1-inch margins, 12-pt font, and double spacing throughout. Include a title page, introduction, answers to the questions with subtitles, and concluding paragraph. Remember to include in-text citations within the body of the essay referencing your resources (i.e., Murray, 2014). Also, be sure to include a reference section at the end of your assignment listing all required readings and any additional resources you used to complete your essay. See the Trident guide to APA Style, 7th edition. Direct quotes should be limited and must be designated by quotation marks. STRESS AND ILLNESSAssignment Overview Recall the video from your Module 1 Case Assignment on how stress affects the brain. Stress not only affects the structure and function of the brain, but its gene
Evidence Collection Policy Scenario After the recent security breach, Always Fresh decided to form a computer security incident response team (CSIRT). As a security administrator, you have been assigned the responsibility of developing a CSIRT policy that addresses incident evidence collection and handling. The goal is to ensure all evidence collected during investigations is valid and admissible in court. Consider the following questions for collecting and handling evidence: 1. What are the main concerns when collecting evidence? 2. What precautions are necessary to preserve evidence state? 3. How do you ensure evidence remains in its initial state? 4. What information and procedures are necessary to ensure evidence is admissible in court? Tasks Create a policy that ensures all evidence is collected and handled in a secure and efficient manner. Remember, you are writing a policy, not procedures. Focus on the high-level tasks, not the individual steps. Address the following in your policy: § Description of information required for items of evidence § Documentation required in addition to item details (personnel, description of circumstances, and so on) § Description of measures required to preserve initial evidence integrity § Description of measures required to preserve ongoing evidence integrity § Controls necessary to maintain evidence integrity in storage § Documentation required to demonstrate evidence integrity Required Resources § Internet access § Course textbook Submission Requirements § Format: Microsoft Word (or compatible) § Font: Times New Roman, size 12, double-space § Citation Style: APA § Length: 2 pages
This essay will look at the importance of communication in nursing. To begin, the essay will consider the use of communication in nursing in the general context. The latter section will go on to reflect on the application of communication in practice in relation to conversation and basic psychotherapeutic support within the dementia care environment. Introduction Communicating is a fundamental skill in nursing. It governs every task a nurse undertakes from the point of admission to the point of discharge. There are a number of levels from simple phatic exchanges used to initiate conversation, extending to complex counselling techniques. Effective use of communication has been shown to benefit the nurse-patient relationship, contributing to overall well-being and accelerating the process of treatment. It is therefore an essential aspect of the nursing process. In some cases, it can even mean the difference between life and death. Good communication is often regarded as a delicate and complex art, requiring a good understanding of the interplay between numerous factors. This essay intends to provide a definition and to highlight a number of important professional, ethical, legal and moral responsibilities of the nurse in relation to communication (Sheldon, 2005). Discussion There are numerous definitions for communication. Potter and Perry (2001 p.445) offer a definition for communication as ‘…a process in which people affect one another through the exchange of information, ideas, and feelings.’ Thus, it is about sending and receiving a message, both verbally and non-verbally, with a shared goal of conveying a mutual understanding. In general regard to the verbal domain, the process is often reciprocal in nature as both informant and referent change role, seek clarification and offer an acknowledgement of understanding throughout the exchange. It is imperative to be aware of the effect that body language and paralinguistic features have on communication. Thinking about body posture and implementing the principles of SOLER (identified by Egan (1982) cited in Burnard and Gill (2009)) is useful in nursing. A relaxed posture can help in the process of active listening, helping to convey an empathic response to the patient. Argyle (1994) points out that people are often unaware of their own non-verbal communication, whilst it is clearly visible to the receiver. Incongruence between what is being said verbally and what otherwise is perceived does not help in facilitating a positive relationship from a patients’ perspective. However, for a nurse who is trained to be sensitive to such cues (particularly in mental health settings), it can sometimes present useful information about a patient’s mental state and is a possible indicator of deterioration. The Fundamentals of Care (2003) document published by the Welsh Assembly Government highlights that communication should take place using appropriate language and in a sensitive manner. Care should be taken to communicate effectively with people who are mentally impaired. In all patient communication the use of medical jargon should be limited wherever possible. As the Department of Health Valuing People Now (DH 2007) points out, as cited in Baillie (2009), people with learning disabilities have a right to healthcare just as much as other people and it should be just as accessible. In essence, nurses have to be open, flexible and versatile in their approach. Stuart and Laraia (2005) cited in Riley (2008) suggest that communication facilitates the development of a therapeutic relationship. Nurses should adopt a suitable style of questioning, using open and closed questions appropriately depending on the situation. It is always important to convey a warm and accepting attitude that is objective and value free, taking into account the different cultural variations that exist. Nursing is increasingly recognised as a holistic and person-centred process, with so many aspects of a patient’s life regarded as important to the process of recovery that communication in itself forms a significant aspect of treatment. Caris-Verhallen et al. (1999), cited in Crawford et al (2006), imply that communication promotes an increased level of self-esteem and reduces stress. These benefits also promote staff wellbeing. In addition, Watkins (2002) mentions the usage of self-disclosure as a factor that helps develop therapeutic relationships with patients, particularly within mental health settings. Teamwork is a factor too which relies heavily on good communication. Nurses are surrounded by different types of health care professionals and as Peate (2006) acknowledges, interdisciplinary communication can be difficult. The Nursing and Midwifery Council (2008) Code of Conduct states that, as a nurse ‘you must work cooperatively within teams and respect the skills, expertise and contributions of your colleagues.’ It is often the nurse that acts as an intermediary between the patient and another healthcare professional, disseminating information and explaining it in terms suitably appropriate to the understanding of the patient. Poor communication creates barriers which can often lead to patients feeling alienated and making complaints as well as often being a significant factor in cases of malpractice, neglect and negligence. Within many clinical settings, a lack of time presents difficulties in utilising effective communication. Nurses often have to take opportunities to build rapport using synchronous communication whilst carrying out other tasks and duties. As Crawford et al. (2006) point out, healthcare professionals are increasingly task driven and laden with administration which prevents them from spending time talking with patients using the ideal but time consuming ‘counselling type’ communication. Therefore, in modern healthcare settings, they suggest a newer model is used that encompasses Brief, Ordinary and Effective (BOE) communication Crawford et al. (2006). With regard to written communication, the NMC Code of Conduct (2008) highlights that nurses are expected to ensure that accurate and up to date records are maintained, with clear information about when the entry was made together with a signature of the person making the entry. Not only is this therapeutically useful, it is also an essential legal requirement and offers evidence that treatment has been carried out. Finally, Baillie (2009) explains that the telephone also forms an important, often overlooked mode of communication. As with all clinical work, it is essential for nurses to maintain professional etiquette and confidentiality, as well as acknowledge their level of competence to the caller and ensure that the call is documented where necessary (Baillie, 2009) Conclusion Communication has been demonstrated to have an important positive influence on treatment outcome. Nurses as a collective group represent a substantial aspect of all clinical health care professionals. They probably spend the most amount of time with a patient. As such, there is an enormous capacity for influence on treatment. It is therefore clear why there is a need for significant emphasis on this matter in nurse pre-registration programmes. Encouraging future and present generations of nurses to communicate more effectively could have a significant influence on increasing patient satisfaction and recovery time. It is therefore suggested that promoting effective communication has potential cost saving implications for local healthcare authorities too. This is important given the enormous strain that the NHS is under in the current economic climate. From a wider perspective, it could be speculated that effective communication indirectly has some bearing on aspects of future health and social policy. Reflection: Communication in The Dementia Care Context This next section looks reflects on communication within a dementia care setting and utilizes a Reflective Cycle model (appendix 1) adapted from Gibbs et al (1988) as cited in Bulman and Schutz (2008). The model begins by using a description about what has happened and then encourages the person whom is reflecting to acknowledge their feelings about the situation/event. From this, the evaluation phase encourages the reflector to make value judgements and to say what was good or bad about the experience. Next, an analysis can be made about the situation and this should hopefully generate ideas and themes about the situation. Through doing so, conclusions can be drawn both in the general sense and in terms of the reflectors specific personal experience. The final part of the reflection process with this model is the personal action plans stage whereby the reflector can suggest different, perhaps better ways of doing things in a similar future situation. Description The placement was a dementia care ward which was all-female bedded with people who were at various stages in terms of the development of their dementia condition. The majority of the patients were still relatively active in a physical sense and often quite talkative. I spent a significant amount of time sitting with various patients in the dayroom, often for observation reasons to help ensure their safety. This enabled frequent opportunity to talk to the patients and also to gain some insight into the nature of how dementia can affect people. There was one patient that particularly concerned me. In the interests of preserving confidentiality I will change her name and refer to her as Abigale. Although this reflection is predominantly focused on my interaction with Abigale, much of what I mention is relevant to the patient population at large in respect of dementia care. Abigale was an elderly lady, perhaps in her early 70’s, who used to be a school teacher during her working years. Her condition was such that she was often quite talkative although the conversation was very much disjointed. She conveyed a range of emotions and often talked to me as if I resembled a particular character in her former life. Sometimes she spoke in a manner that suggested that she was seemingly happy about something and then for no apparent reason, she would become very upset and tearful. This happened on a frequent basis, with her emotions appearing to cycle between positive and negative affect in relatively short periods of time. Feelings Throughout the time I spent talking with Abigale, I always tried to talk warmly to her and convey an accepting attitude along with empathy, interest and compassion, reflecting the core principles of Roger’s client centred therapy. I was aware that my non-verbal communication was very important both to her and other patients. Within the dementia care setting, non-verbal communication is often even more important because it is often relied to a great extent. I always tried to portray openness in my body language, using the SOLER principles acronym outlined by Egan (1994), (see appendix 2). I found that she often used the mode of touch to communicate when sitting and/or talking with people and I attempted to replicate this in a similar, acceptable manner. I found this to be very effective which did surprise me. With a younger generation, touch tends to be a form of communication that I tend to perceive as not working very well for me. This maybe because I just haven’t utilised this method very much outside of friendship and family settings. I enjoyed spending time talking with Abigale. I particularly liked the way she continued to speak with a degree of authority that would perhaps be commensurate with her former role as a teacher. Even though her conversation was markedly unfocused and incongruent, she spoke in a very articulate manner. When I was able to answer her with a response she appeared to find satisfactory, it felt quite rewarding and it was good to see when she appeared to be happy. Sometimes she acted as if I resembled various people from her life. It was difficult to know whether to simply accept these non-sequiturs and go along with them, or correct her and risk upsetting her. Unfortunately, there were also times when I could not give her a response that she needed. I occasionally found it difficult to determine what she was actually talking about and I didn’t want to respond with something that wasn’t relevant. Despite my best efforts, it was difficult to seek clarification from her as she would often move on to some other topic. I also found it emotionally challenging at the times where she was upset for no apparent reason and I would have liked to have been able to offer more support. Sometimes, I have observed staff using diversion techniques to help distract patients from distressing situations. I have tried to use these occasionally. However, I tend to be a little uncomfortable doing this and I would rather be able to help somehow by having a greater understanding of the person and addressing their questions and concerns more directly. Finally, not having access to the computerised notes system (PARIS) was very frustrating as it meant that I only had information passed verbally from staff. Evaluation Whilst communicating with Abigale and indeed, other patients within the setting, I tried to maximise my listening capacity by blocking out noises that were external to interactions. However, because I felt I had a duty to the other patients, blocking all noises was impracticable. The dayroom tended to be a difficult place to have a conversation. The television appeared to be more or less continually switched on, and there were often domestic staff performing various cleaning duties. The ambient noise levels tended to be quite high and somewhat distracting both for myself and no doubt, the patients. Access to PARIS would have allowed me to gain a greater awareness about the patient as I would have been able to read comments and assessments made by the whole multidisciplinary team. Analysis Good communication forms an intrinsic part of the nursing process and is part of many nursing models. Roper et al. (1996) as cited in Peate (2006) list it as an aspect of daily living. Unfortunately, people who suffer with dementia experience a number of cognitive difficulties according to Mace (2005) as cited in Adams (2008) (see appendix 3) which make communication very difficult. The associated pathological diseases and consequences of aging also exacerbate these difficulties making effective communication even more problematic (Adams, 2008). The role of communication is therefore especially important for dementia patients as they are likely to have difficulties with interpretation of messages (Kitwood, 1997 as cited in Adams (2008)). Indeed, I often found that what Abigale said and how she acted on the responses that I gave was often incongruent suggesting there was a problem with interpretation. However, when I attempted to seek clarification, it was very difficult or indeed impossible. According to Cheston and Bender (2003), dementia care can be improved by beingpsychotherapeutic and using every interaction as an potential opportunity to help and support them. The humanistic and Rogerian aspect of empathic listening is particularly important and provides clues about embedded emotional messages according to Cheston and Bender (2003). However, they go on to suggest that in order to be psychotherapeutic in an approach requires a good understanding of a person’s life history. Unfortunately, the short term nature of the placement meant that I was likely to remain relatively naive in terms of understanding her history and condition to any useful extent, so being truly psychotherapeutic in my actions was difficult. Nevertheless, I attempted to provide a contribution to the nursing process. I found that some of the communication strategies that nurses are encouraged to use in many settings need to be changed when consideration is given to the dementia care environment. Watkins (2001) suggests that clients respond better when nurses ask open questions. However, for dementia patients, asking open questions would appear to have a tendency to induce cognitive overload. As such, the Alzeimer’s Society Advice Sheet (2000) recommends that carers should ask short questions, one at a time which require only short answers. The Alzheimer’s Society (2000) also highlight the need to try and see the person behind the illness: Interests, likes and dislikes, hopes and fears, early life, places they have lived and visited, working life, people they love/have loved, friendships and personality. I did try to find out from Abigale aspects of her former life but in truth, I had very little understanding about these factors. Abigale tended not to respond directly to questions but rather hinted certain aspects on an adhoc basis. Therefore, hypothetically, if I was a named nurse for Abigale in the future, it would perhaps be useful to speak to her close family to gain some insight and as well as potential stimulus for conversations. Perhaps a reminiscence box containing various items such as photographs and objects would be useful in terms of triggering memories and developing conversations. I think it is important to acknowledge that it would have been better to take Abigale to somewhere quieter when she was upset. This would have been more conducive to conversation as well as offering some level privacy for Abigale. However, in the reality of the situation, there were limited places that were actually available on the ward. In addition, it was likely there were other patients that were also episodically distressed that made it difficult to devote full time to Abigale. The other patients tended to demonstrate similar emotions which coincided with the majority; hence there were ‘good’ and ‘bad’ days in terms of patient behaviours. Overall, I feel that on balance I offered a good level of support for Abigale. At times, I believe that I could have offered her more in terms of conversation if I had a better level of knowledge about her background. Indeed, sometimes I felt that I lacked the relevant stimulus to have a lengthy conversation. Despite it being my first placement, there were times where I would have liked to have had the knowledge to use certain basic level therapeutic approaches that are applicable to patients whom suffer from dementia. My mentor also mentioned an interest in validation therapy and I am aware too of the existence of other forms of therapy such as pre-therapy, reminenscence therapy, resolution therapy and the person-focused approach. However, I can clearly appreciate that as a 1st year nursing student, to gain such knowledge is totally impracticable, as well as potentially unethical and unprofessional if actually used without proper registered status. Indeed, under the NMC Code of Conduct (2008) I must recognise and practice within the limits of competency. As such, in order to be in a position to use many therapeutic techniques effectively, I would need significant further training and/or further professional accreditation. Conclusion (General) Communication with patients who have dementia is an extremely difficult and complex process. It is absolutely essential that nurses practice effective communication to help maintain the quality of life of the patients in their care. In practice, it is very difficult to ensure that psychotherapeutic support is well provided, particularly as psychological needs are more subtle and discrete. It could be argued that relatively low levels of staff and the often high levels of physical interventions often found within dementia settings means that the provision for effective communication regarding psychological care presents a significant challenge. I think the psychotherapeutic aspect of care is a important issue, particularly with the number of cases of dementia predicted to rise to almost 1 million in the UK by 2020 (according to Alzeimers Disease International, 1999, cited by Burgess, 2003). Conclusion (Specific) Overall, I feel quite positive about my experience on placement and about the use of communication. I believe that I worked to the best of my ability. Abigale and many other patients appeared to be quite advanced in terms of their dementia condition. This proved to be quite a challenge. I would like to have had more awareness about Abigale’s history. I can now more readily appreciate the importance of family and friends, not only in terms of direct contribution to care but also the indirect contributions that they make through providing information about the patient. Early recognition of emotional distress helps with the nursing process. It could have made it more feasible for me to talk to Abigale to provide reassurance and limit the likelyhood of her becoming upset, therefore preserving her dignity. I have gained a great deal of insight into dementia care both through the placement experience and through the process of reflection. In retrospect, I would like to have been able to offer more in terms of psychological support and this provides some insight into the psychotherapeutic aspect of care for future placements. Action Plan In future, I would like to have acquired a higher level of therapeutic skills to enhance my ability to communicate with people who have dementia. The predicted rise in dementia cases as previously mentioned means there is a greater likely hood of coming into contact and providing nursing care for a patient who has dementia. I think it would therefore be useful to develop a greater awareness into the condition, especially from a psychological perspective. I also hope to have training and therefore approved access to PARIS computerised notes system. References Adams T (2008) Dementia Care Nursing: Promoting Well-Being in People with Dementia and Their Families. Hampshire: Palgrave Macmillan Alzeimer’s Society (2010) Factsheet 500: Communicating. Alzeimer’s Society: London. http://www.alzheimers.org.uk/factsheet/500 Accessed: 30.06.10 Argyle M (1994) The Psychology of Interpersonal Behaviour (5th Edn). London: Penguin Books Baillie L (2009) Developing Practical Adult Nursing Skills (3rd Edn). London: Hodder Arnold. Bullman C Schutz S (2008) Reflective Practice in Nursing (4th Edition). Oxford: Blackwell Publishing. Burgess L (2003) Changing attitudes in dementia care and the role of nurses. Nursing Times, 99 (38) 18. http://www.nursingtimes.net/nursing-practice-clinical-research/changing-attitudes-in-dementia-care-and-the-role-of-nurses/205196.article Accessed: 30.06.10 Burnard P Gill P (2009) Culture, Communication and Nursing. Essex: Pearson Education Limited. Cheston R Bender M (2003) Understanding Dementia: The Man with the Worried Eyes. London: Jessica Kingsley Publishers. Crawford P Brown B Bonham P (2006) Foundations in Nursing and Health Care: Communication in Clinical Settings. Cheltenham: Nelson Thorns Ltd. Nursing and Midwifery Council (NMC) (2008) The Code: Standards of Conduct, Performance and Ethics for Nurses and Midwifes. NMC, London http://www.nmc-uk.org/aDisplayDocument.aspx?documentID=5982 Accessed: 12.04.2010 Peate I (2006) Becoming a Nurse in the 21st Century. West Sussex: Wiley. Potters P A Perry A G (2001) Fundamentals of Nursing (5th Edn). St Louis: Mosby. Riley J B (2008) Communication in Nursing (6th Edn). United States of America: Mosby. Sheldon L K (2005) Communication for Nurses: Talking With Patients. Massachusetts: Jones and Bartlett Publishers Watkins P (2002) Mental Health Nursing: The Art of Compassionate Care. Edinburgh: Butterworth-Heinemann. Welsh Assembly Government (2003) Fundamentals of Care: Guidance for Health and Social Care Staff. Welsh Assembly Government: Cardiff. http://www.wales.nhs.uk/documents/booklet-e.pdf Accessed: 12.04.2010 Bibliography Ellis R B Gates B Kenworthy N (2003) Interpersonal Communication in Nursing: Theory and Practice (2nd Edn). Churchill Livingstone: London. Hamilton S J Martin D J (2007) Clinical Development: A framework for effective communication skill. Nursing Times, 103: 48, 30-31. Appendix 1 The Reflective Cycle (adapted from Gibbs et al.1988) cited in Bulman and Schutz, (2008). Appendix 2 Egan’s SOLAR Principles (Egan, 1994) as cited in Crawford et al. (2006) S Face people Squarely O Maintain an Open shape to the body L Lean forward slightly E Use appropriate Eye contact R Relax
ACT415 Business Taxation. I need an explanation for this Accounting question to help me study.
Option #1: Advising Families on Estate Planning
Click the link below to obtain the case study.
https://hbsp.harvard.edu/tu/fd1952c6 (Links to an external site.)
While you may include your experiences, please remember to maintain a formal tone and cite scholarly research to support your analysis. Back up your discussion with research from five scholarly sources (you may not use the course textbook to fulfill this requirement).
Your analysis should be 4-5 pages in length not counting the title and reference pages. You must include references formatted in APA. Your assignment must be formatted according to CSU-Global Guide to Writing and APA.
ACT415 Business Taxation
Advantages And Disadvantages Of Stem Cell Research
Every year, curable diseases kill patients because of the lack of a clear path for research into the ways through which they could be cured. Stem cell research, although a form of research in its early steps of acceptance in an increasingly sensitive society, shows promise as being the form of scientific manipulation to provide the cure for disease. The current estimate is that stem cell research could solve the ailments of over 4.4 million patients in the USA alone. The sheer potential population size should be enough to convince any government as to the viability of stem cell research… Scientists should be allowed and supported by law to carry out stem cell research. A stem cell is simply an undifferentiated cell. This means that it is a cell with no specific function in the body yet, which makes up the most useful of its characteristics because any stem cell has the potential to become any other type of cell. This happens in the early stages of growth and development. Later, the stem cells serve individual organs as in internal repair mechanisms with otherwise limitless differentiation throughout the organism s life. The other unique thing is that even as the stem cell divides, it has the genetic choice to stick as a stem cell or continue on to become a specific cell. They were first referred to as stem cells by Alexander maksmov, the Russian histologist in 1908 hematologic society congress in Berlin The difference between a stem cell and a differentiated cell is that they are unspecialized and have the capability to continually renew themselves by cell division. The second salient difference is that is the living organism is placed under controlled experimental or physiologic conditions, stem cells can be induced to become either specific to tissue or organs. Actually, such differentiation is common in the gut and the bone marrow while in other organs such as the heart and the pancreases, they only divide under special conditions. Since the discovery of ways of deriving embryonic and non-embryonic stem cell types in animals and humans from mouse embryos in 1981, the development in tee type of cells used has been rather slow and based on the two. The method currently in use is a modified and more efficient one from the 1998 biological research milestone that launched the deriving and nurturing of stem cells. Most of the reasons for making this method were because the human embryonic stem cells specifically for the reproductive purposes as they were studied during in vitro fertilization. Another milestone was achieved in 2006 when researchers identified the specific conditions under which a specialized adult cell could be reprogrammed, in a genetic sense, to become a stem cell or appear to be one. This new cell is referred to as induced pluripotent stem cells, simply abbreviated as iPSCs. Stem Cell Mechanism and Uses The mechanism is very easy to understand, since the stem cell is placed in a cultured or living environment with specialized cells. These specialized cells could be muscle cells or skin cells which have a specific and known role in the body. They are obtained from any part of the body of a fetus, or from the bone marrow, brain and muscle of adults. They offer new potentials in the issue of cell-based therapies, otherwise referred to as reparative or regenerative medicine. Continued research advances knowledge on how healthy cells replace damaged one s in living organisms. This is vital in the potential cures for diabetes, heart disease and other forms of life threatening disease. IPSCs are already proving to be useful tolls for modeling of disuse and drug development, and scientists view them as potentially important in transplantation. This is because many of the ways currently in use are potentially cancer-causing or have the risk of other complications such as viral infections. New research will aloe is vital for the development of identical matches to lower the risk of rejection and increase the number of viable organs Stem cell research is a potential ground for a lot of detailed research for the development of mankind. First, human embryonic stem cell research will potentially yield information into the complex processes that form the tissues and organs during human development. This will provide more information on why and how such genetic disorders as cancer and birth defects can be controlled. Secondly, the use of human stem cells in research on the effects of new drugs will lower the need for human test subjects. Human pluripotent cell lines are potentially very ideal for testing new medication in the safety of the laboratory. The complication here is that the conditions have to be completely identical if the intention is to compare several drugs. The hardest part of this process is controlling the extent and effect of cell differentiation. The potential for a more accurate process is there, but lack of enough knowledge in the real mechanisms of genetic switches and signals is hampering the process. Thirdly, the use of the stem cells in the new field of medicine called stem cell therapies is very arguably its greatest contribution to the advancement of mankind. The reason for this is that current forms of organ and tissue donation is inadequate in the supply link. This is very profound especially where the organ is single and vital. Stem cells, due to their regenerative nature, offer a potentially limitless source of transplant organs. Once directed into differentiation to become specific cell types, offering a possible cure for rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis, heart disease, burns, stroke, burns, Alzheimer s diseases, spinal cord injury and other complications. Other uses are the making of insulin to enhance the management of Type I diabetes. This could be used in transplantation therapies for diabetic persons since the undifferentiated cells could be turned into insulin-prodding cells. The Stem cell controversy The use of embryonic stem cells has been the igniter of many controversies, ethical, legal and moral. The bone of contention is the real viability and need to use cells derived from embryos, and what effects such procedures have on their health and in vitro state. To mitigate this controversy and return to more objective research, the modern scientist has opted to use adult stem cells. This, however, has its own limitations since adult stem cells are found in fewer organs than are fetal tissue. Also, they do not have the complete genetic ability to generate into as much variant type of cells as would fetal stem cells in the same scenario. This is cause by the fact that they have a lower proliferative ability than embryonic stem cells. Simply put, the use of adult stem cells is hindered by the fact that they have a narrower avenue for their end product as compared to embryonic stem cells. The concern for the use of embryonic stem cell is whether it would potentially harm the fetus. This is because the body of the fetus needs the cells that are removed undifferentiated. Pro-life activists argue that it is inherently genetically killing or maiming the fetus, since the removal of undifferentiated stem cells is simply taking away the very cells that the body is made up of. Pro-stem cell researchers recognize the risk, but argue that it is not as bad as the pro-life activists would want to make it sound. The strong point is that the law should allow for written consent where rather than carry out termination of a pregnancy, the couple could make written consent to have the fetus donated for stem cell research. Alternatively, stem cell research has taken to growing the fetus ion the lab. The ova and sperm are obtained and combined in a laboratory; the embryo is nurtured and then implanted in the woman s womb. Since this is a normal procedure where the couple can not get a baby through normal means, the embryos left in the lab cannot be implanted too. They are therefore given the choice of freezing and storing them, or destroying them. Stem cell research offers a more useful alternative to this two since it gives the couple the choice to contribute to the medical research into cures for the human body. Pro-life activist argue that even at this embryonic stage, destroying the embryo is still a form of abortion. The fact of the matter is that the embryos are incapable of forming into a completely new organism or culture of embryonic stem cells that would, in theory, grow in the uterus. Given that most of this are moral inhibitions to stem cell research, the issue of whether t is right for the scientific world to sacrifice the lives of the embryos to aver countless others is worth it. The view that it is, in itself, a sacrifice of undeveloped life for the good of mankind by saving the life s of those with life threatening ailments. Legal Milestones The argument has become legal as in July 2001, President George W. Bush signed an executive order that limited total government funding for the existing stem cell research that use cells derived from already frozen stem cells, and completely ruled out any government funding for any new embryonic stem cell research. In 2007, President Bush had a change of mind and signed another executive order that increased funding for research into somatic stem cell differentiation. This modified form of stem cell research is where the mature of adult stem cells are derived and modified into the cell equivalent of an embryonic stem cell. This serves as the pacifier for stem cell research opponents although its scientific viability is in question. Scientism are still seeking to discover whether the somatic cells will have the same genetic condign as embryonic stem cell. As the war on the ethical basis and the legality rages on, somatic stem cell research could prove to be the clincher for the scientific world to appease the ethical proponents without compromising the quality of the science. In 2009, President Obama signed an executive order that completely overturned the one Bush had signed in 2001, in effect restarting the government funding of embryonic stem cell research. The biggest recipient of this funding is the National Institute of Health which will get over ten billion dollars to run already existing programs and potentially, reignite the research into new embryonic stem cells. The Catholic Church, a prolific opponent of stem cell research, views this as a triumph of the political aspect over ethics and morality, but the gains that can be obtained from productive research are worth the risk. Conclusion Stem cell research offers a seemingly limitless source of cures for many of the diseases that are considered as life-threatening. The fact that it is carried out so meticulously suggests that one of the greatest issues hampering it are the lack of adequate government funding and ethical support. This coupled with a few technical and research oriented glitches mean that it is still not comprehensively documented. It is, however, impossible to ignore its potential uses and the effects on mankind. The fascination with rogation is as old as the human race, and stem cell research offers a way to turn the fantasy into a real scientific cure for disease. Cell therapy will be the future of curing disease since it offers more comprehensive ways for the therapist to detail and control the healing process of the patient. The issue of the life of the fetus can be solved by allowing for stored embryos to be used in stem cell research. It has not ethical basis to argue that it is a form of abortion, since this embryos would still have been lost in the fertilization process. This is built on the fact that the meticulous process of fertilization dictates that only one embryo can be formed from an ova and a sperm. Many excesses are discarded by the body, and it is this portion that the scientific world seeks to use for the betterment of the human race. It is an unstoppable train, but there is need for consensus building to provide a supportive approach to save the lives of many people.
Ethics and code of conduct
assignment helper Ethics and code of conduct. I’m working on a Law question and need guidance to help me study.
Assignment 1: Ethics and Code of Conduct
Due Week 3 and worth 120 points
Review Chapters 1 through 5 in the textbook. Then, research the Code of Conduct / Ethics for your city and state, as well as one to two (1-2) relevant articles that discuss codes of conduct for law enforcement officers.
Write a two to four (2-4) page paper in which you:
Explain three (3) reasons ethics and integrity will be important in your future career choice in law enforcement.
Determine at least two (2) aspects in which ethics, morality, and law differ in regards to affecting the decisions of your local law enforcement officers.
Recommend at least two (2) ways law enforcement officers should use ethics, morality, and a code of conduct in both their professional and personal lives.
Using the Law enforcement code of conduct for the state of your choosing, identify and discuss the two (2) most important aspects of the code as they relate to law enforcement activities in your state.
Support your position with two (2) relevant and credible references, documented according to SWS. (Note: Do not use open source sites such as Ask.com, eHow.com, Answers.com, and Wikipedia.)
Your assignment must follow these formatting requirements:
This course requires use of Strayer Writing Standards (SWS). The format is different than other Strayer University courses. Please take a moment to review the SWS documentation for details.
Include a cover page containing the title of the assignment, the student’s name, the professor’s name, the course title, and the date. The cover page and the reference page are not included in the required assignment page length.
The specific course learning outcomes associated with this assignment are:
Explain the role of ethics and integrity in the criminal justice profession, and the higher standard expected of criminal justice professionals.
Explain the difference between ethics, morality, and the law.
Analyze the issues pertinent to codes of conduct and / or the ethics of duty.
Explain key elements of choice, values, and ethics.
Recommend ways to use ethics to improve decision making in the criminal justice system.
Use technology and information resources to research issues in ethics and leadership in criminal justice.
Write clearly and concisely about ethics and leadership in criminal justice using proper writing mechanics.
Click here to view the grading rubric for this assignment.
Ethics and code of conduct
In an argument-driven MLA format essay of 500-1000 words, answer the following questions. Essays should use specific examples from the Essay
In an argument-driven MLA format essay of 500-1000 words, answer the following questions. Essays should use specific examples from the articles in “Mali Empire“ to address questions in the prompt. After reading the short articles by Hull, Kea, and Babalola, which factors do you believe were most influential in the fall of the Mali Empire in the fifteenth century (1400-1500)? Factors may include political rivalries within Mali, a shrinking international trade system, expensive religious projects, rise of the Songhai empire, among others. Which factors are more important to each historian based on your reading of the historians Hull, Kea, and Babalola? This is a historiography paper, analyzing the work and point of view of the historians. Rubric and readings will be linked below. DUE BEFORE MIDNIGHT 09/25
CJA 355 University of Houston Homeless Grant Funded Project Paper
CJA 355 University of Houston Homeless Grant Funded Project Paper.
Assume that you are a member of a city-wide task force appointed by your mayor for the purpose of addressing the issue of homeless persons in your area. You have been tasked with developing a grant or foundation-funded proposal for a project to assist homeless persons in your community.Develop a project timeline that lists the following:The persons responsible for the project and their job titlesTasks, goals, or dutiesProjected dates when each part of the implementation of the grant will occurInclude a 1,050- to 1,400-word paper that explains your timeline in detail.
CJA 355 University of Houston Homeless Grant Funded Project Paper