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Strengths And Weaknesses Of The British Economy

Britains economic position in 1913 was founded on its activities post-1870. The British economy exhibited both strengths and weaknesses in 1913, the reasons for which are still controversially discussed by economic historians. In this paper, I will discuss and evaluate the main strengths and weaknesses of the British economy in 1913 in further detail. In order to analyse the strengths and weaknesses of the British economy, it is important to examine the changing circumstances in the World market. Britain was the first industrial nation but by the end of the twentieth century had become another ‘Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development’ (OECD) economy, with an income below that of North America, most of western Europe and parts of East Asia. By 1913, Britain’s comparative economic advantage had diminished as the United States and Germany had developed large-scale industries. Both the United States and Germany emerged as powerful economic rivals with the U.S. having the largest economy, followed by Germany (Floud, Johnson, 2008). However, London was still at the global centre of financial payments and a large creditor nation. At the start of the 20th Century, Britain’s economy was in relative decline. Some contemporaries thought that Britain’s position in 1913 was weak. In terms of trade, Britain’s percentage share in World manufacturing exports declined from 37.1% in 1883 to 25.4% in 1913, whilst at the same time the U.S. and Germany’s grew. Some economists argued that relative decline was inevitable as other countries were progressing through the industrial revolution phase, whilst others came to the conclusion that it reflected internal weaknesses within the British economy. These weaknesses include failure to adopt the latest machines, inadequate commercial and technical education, over-commitment to older industries such as coal, steel and textiles and the abundance of small-scale firms with inadequate marketing and size. However, this viewpoint has now been dismissed, as more evidence has emerged. It is now believed the main causes of relative decline were external to British firms. This is illustrated by two different theses. The ‘factor supply thesis’ describes Britain as losing ground to countries with more resources and larger markets such as the USA. The ‘early start thesis’ however explains how Britain was the first country to industrialise, propelling its economy forward. I personally believe both these theses are equally valid, however they fail to address the extent to which they contributed to Britain’s relative decline therefore accurate weighting of each thesis and its overall contribution to Britain’s relative decline cannot be determined. Furthermore, other countries benefited from avoiding Britain’s mistakes during this process, therefore were catching up through faster growth, enabling them to reduce the income gap and eventually surpass Britain. Also, due to Britain’s early start, some aspects of the British economy had become outdated and are now difficult to change, such as the Victorian railway system which was not as efficient as it could have been. In terms of income per head, Britain was a clear leader with an output of 1302 U.S. dollars in 2010 but was overtaken by the USA but still had an income level greater than that of France or Germany. Imports in manufactured goods increased, highlighted by Britain being the World’s largest iron and steel importer pre-1914. However, Britain was falling behind in advanced products, including machinery, electricals and chemicals (Feinstein). I believe this was a major flaw in the structure of the British economy, as foreigners were gaining an increasing share of Britain’s domestic market. Some argue business needs to be more efficient. However, many blame government policy for relative decline, particularly free trade adopted in the 1840s/50s. It was assumed that ‘free trade policy’ was the best way to maintain Britain’s position as the dominant global power. As Britain produces the cheapest manufactured goods, it seems desirable to liberalise World markets as much as possible. Some politicians argued that German and U.S. producers were building up their strength behind domestic tariff walls and then selling in the unprotected markets of the British Empire, causing Britain’s cost of trading to increase. This led to a ‘tariff reform campaign’ in 1903 led by Joseph Chamberlain who wanted domestic protection and Empire trade block. However, tariff reformers were divided on what protection was for and free trade still had a lot of support in business and amongst the public due to a larger share of home market for British firms, secure empire demand for exports therefore higher home investment. However, there is no conclusive evidence on whether free trade was of benefit or detriment to the British economy in 1913 and on its links between international trade and growth. Britain’s immense capital export for overseas investment was among the most important historical phenomena, which was intensely debated as to whether it was of benefit or a handicap to the British economy in 1913. By 1913, one-third of British wealth was held abroad. Some contemporaries believe that this was due to a combination of factors pushing funds out of Britain, as well as factors abroad attracting funds. At this time, there were poor returns on ‘safe’ investments with Britain and a high risk premium attached. Furthermore, there were limited investor opportunities within Britain. In contrast, overseas governments were eager to attract outside financial capital, in order to fuel their domestic activities. Overseas governments issued bonds to attract this capital, which were low risk with a solid return of 4-5% per annum, compared with 2% from Britain. Capital was necessary to develop infrastructure such as railways, ports and power in the emerging primary product economies in order to develop trade, as well as fuelling the expansion of agriculture, mining and commercial activities. Others have argued that the capital export was a result of weakness in the domestic British economy. Domestic investment demand weakened due to a slowdown in British productivity growth. Another argument is that the distribution of income and wealth within Britain led to tendencies to over-save, with the excess capital being exported abroad (Floud, Johnson, 2008). In contrast to the other arguments, this argument is very superficial as it does not explain the measure used to assess the level of income and savings, with no data to support the argument. Living standards are also a key measure of the stability of the British economy in 1913. The British economy exhibited relatively high living standards in 1913. Most economic historians agree that real wages increased significantly from 1851 to 1913. However, social surveys revealed high rates of urban poverty. The indicates economic difficulties within the working class, despite improvements in material living standards. The discrepancies in conclusions are based upon the information analysed. Economic historians measure living standards in various ways, including trends in real wage rates or incomes, national income per capita and life expectancy, which can be grouped into economic indicators of living standards. However, these different measures such as the weighting of index wellbeing can lead to inaccurate conclusions, therefore it is very likely the high rates of poverty revealed by the social surveys is unreliable. Overall, on average British workers in 1913 had significantly higher living standards compared to the 19th century, highlighted by an increase in real wages and per capita consumption (Floud, Johnson, 2008). Despite these problems the British economy was still very advanced in 1913. Britain was the World’s leading trading and lending nation, highlighted by more international trade being invoiced in sterling than any other currency. International trade and services accounted for 30% of GDP, emphasising Britain’s integration with the rest of the World. London was the World’s leading financial centre. Pre-1914, World trade grew faster than World output, reflecting industrialization, falling transport costs and mass emigration. Britain had a small agricultural sector, encompassing 11.5% share of employment, highlighting a more advanced economic structure, in contrast to that of Germany and USA in 1913. However, the British agricultural sector was key to the national economy. Agriculture’s share of national income, share of national capital stock, share of rents as a proportion of total income and proportion of total employment had all fallen below ten percent by 1914 (Floud, Johnson, 2008). But it still supplied one-fifth of home grain consumption and three-fifths of meat, which argues for a relatively productive sector. Britain had large firms in many sectors of the economy including engineering, shipping and banking, in addition to a highly sophisticated service economy. To summarise, pre-1870 the ‘Mid-Victorian Boom’ propelled the British economy to global dominance. Post-1870, other economies started to industrialise, therefore quickly caught up and even surpassed the British economy. Despite these problems, in 1913 the outlook for the British economy was still good as its output per head was highest in Europe. Britain also maintained a surplus on its balance of payments and was still a key player in the World economy. I believe at this time the British economy was envisaged in being in much worse shape than it actually was, due to other economies performing extraordinarily well, hence Britain was entering the first World war with a comparatively stable economic structure.
Discussion Board.. I’m stuck on a Management question and need an explanation.

Define total compensation and identify the components of a total compensation program. Discuss why it is important for HR professionals to understand legislation, unions, and interindustry wage differentials when establishing total compensation programs. Use the following headings to organize your paper: Introduction, Total Compensation, Conclusion. Remember to use you text book and at least one other source for this paper.
Your response to the discussion prompt should contain a minimum of 500 words. Your response should be formatted in APA style and reference the text book as well as one other authored source.

References MUST be cited within your paper in APA format. Your reference page and citations must match 100%.
Always include a cover page and reference page with all submissions
Your paper must have headings in it. For discussion posts Introduction, Prompt/Question, and Conclusion will suffice as headings.
Provide the EXACT web link for all online sources – do not provide just the home page, but the EXACT LINK – I check all sources
No abbreviations, no contractions – write formally
Write in the third person formal voice (no first or second person pronouns)
Write MORE than the minimum requirement of the word count assigned
As always, the word count is ONLY for the BODY of the paper – the cover page, reference page, and / or Appendix (if included) do not count towards the word count for the paper
Indent the first line of each new paragraph five spaces
Refer to the example APA paper in the getting started folder under the content tab if you need an example. Also, a power is provided under the information tab that addresses APA format.
Use double-spacing / zero point line spacing, a running header, page numbers, and left justify the margins.

Discussion Board.

MDC Lack of Affordable Housing as A Public Health Issue Affect Essay.

professor remarks and critiques: Make sure to center your titles and they are not in bold. I do not see a research question here so you did not do the title page . You have to have a research question because that’s what gives you direction on what you’re going to discuss in your paper and keeps you focused. In that research question you have a particular population that you’re going to focus on and then you are also going to have a medical condition that you’re focusing on. So it looks like in your research question you’re going to use minorities as your population and I would say for your medical condition you could just do health outcomes because you kind of list an array of issues. In your last sentence of the second section say which increases the risk for a public health issue instead of chances of illness because then that will give you a good transition into your third section . Get rid of your last sentence in your third section you’ll be able to discuss the solutions in a different part of the paper.
MDC Lack of Affordable Housing as A Public Health Issue Affect Essay

Ashford University Operant Conditioning Principles Situation Discussion Paper.

To prepare for this discussion, please read Chapters 5 and 6 of your textbook, as well as Chapter 1: In a Nutshell and Chapter 10: Assessment in Context: The Alternative to Standardized Testing in Multiple Intelligences: New Horizons. Also read the article Cultural Explorations of Human Intelligence Around the World (Links to an external site.). In addition, watch the Classical and Operant Conditioning video.
A-M: Learning: Classroom of Life
Based on Chapter 5 and Classical and Operant Conditioning, consider how we learn from a behaviorist perspective by explaining operant conditioning and applying it to a real-life scenario.
To complete this activity,

Choose one of the following situations from everyday life in which learning (i.e., a relatively permanent change in behavior) is desirable.

Margot wants her husband, Todd, to stop leaving his dirty laundry on the floor.
Coach K wants to increase his basketball players’ free-throw percentages.
Moore wants his dog to stop jumping up on visitors.
Biggs Boss wants his employees to arrive on time.
O’Neill wants her preschoolers to raise their hands before speaking.
Joe wants his son to earn good grades.
Jack wants his girlfriend, Jill, to show more affection.
Marty wants his friend, Dave, to stop smoking.
Insert your own situation: ____________________________________

Prepare a plan utilizing operant conditioning principles to change the behavior of the targeted individual(s), clearly identifying and justifying suitable reinforcers or punishers to attain your desired outcome.

Example: If I want my son to eat his vegetables (i.e., increase a desired behavior), I could do several things.

If he eats his vegetables, I could apply a positive reinforcer by adding something he does like, such as screen time; alternatively, I could apply a negative reinforcer by taking away something he does not like, such as one of his weekly chores.
If he does not eat his vegetables, I could apply a positive punisher by adding something he does not like, such as a new weekly chore; alternatively, I could apply a negative punisher by taking away something he does like, such as screen time.

After you have shared your plan, discuss at least three factors that might impact the success of your plan, including social and cultural considerations.
Describe at least one ethical consideration as relevant to operant conditioning.
To complete this activity,

Choose a famous person (or fictional character) who you believe epitomizes successful intelligence as outlined in the textbook and assigned readings.
Illustrate why you believe this person demonstrates successful intelligence through specific characteristics or behaviors (at least three) that support your selection with regard to analytical, creative, and practical abilities. Also consider other perspectives on intelligence, such as multiple intelligences.
Explain how both nature and nurture (including social and cultural factors) may have played a role in the development of this individual’s intelligence.
Predict whether this person would do well on a standard intelligence test, based on what you have read, providing rationales.
To fully demonstrate content knowledge and critical thinking, the Learning and Intelligence discussion must
Appraise course concepts explicitly, applying them to your personal experiences/observations, and cite the required readings as appropriate.
Be thorough and specific, structuring your work intentionally (with an introductory and concluding sentence or two), providing clear context, and concisely and precisely explaining relevant course concepts.
Use personal examples to illustrate as appropriate, but do be sure to provide an objective analysis too, referencing required materials and using additional credible sources as needed to support your insight. For more, see Summary vs. Analysis (Links to an external site.).

Ashford University Operant Conditioning Principles Situation Discussion Paper

HC310 Herzing Ethical Implication of Calling Adult Protective Services Assignment

HC310 Herzing Ethical Implication of Calling Adult Protective Services Assignment.

Unit 6 Assignment 2 – EthicsSubmit AssignmentDue Apr 14 by 11:59pm Points 50Submitting a text entry box, a website url, a media recording, or a file uploadEthical dilemmas are often solved by various stakeholders coming together, analyzing the situation, and making recommendations. In the health care setting, this is the responsibility of an ethics committee. Ethics committees may be comprised of individuals from various roles within the organization, ranging from leadership positions to mid-level patient care professionals.Instructions:Scenario:You are a member of your hospital’s ethics committee. A physician, Dr. Pierce, presents the following case to the committee, seeking a recommendation:Jane Smith is currently hospitalized, for the seventh time in 11 months, and is suffering from the following conditions: hypertension, atrial fibrillation, and alcoholic fatty liver (exacerbated by continued heavy alcohol consumption). Jane is severely obese and unable to walk unassisted. Jane’s medical condition is stable enough to be discharged, however, Dr. Pierce cannot in good conscience discharge her home, as she is unable to walk, and has no assistance at home. Jane is resistant to transfer to a skilled nursing facility, which is Dr. Pierce’s professional recommendation. Jane is also receiving Medicare benefits.Briefly summarize the discussion points you would make during the committee meeting, including any questions for Dr. Pierce.One of your fellow committee members proposes that Adult Protective Services be called. What is the ethical implication of following this course of action, without informing Jane first?If Jane continues to refuse the skilled nursing transfer, and Adult Protective Services is not involved, could Dr. Pierce and/or the hospital be held liable if Jane passes away at her home due to her lack of mobility? Be sure to include in-text citations to support this response.In a concise paragraph, provide the committee’s official recommendation, including rationale, for Jane’s case. [Assume answers to your questions for Dr. Pierce]. This recommendation will be a legal and ethical protection for Dr. Pierce, and the hospital.Include a minimum of three references, in APA format, for this assignment.Estimated time to complete: 3 hoursHC310 Unit 6 Assignment 2 – EthicsHC310 Unit 6 Assignment 2 – EthicsCriteriaRatingsPtsThis criterion is linked to a Learning OutcomeContent20.0 ptsLevel 5Demonstrates the ability to construct a clear and insightful problem statement/thesis statement/topic statement with evidence of all relevant contextual factors.18.0 ptsLevel 4Demonstrates the ability to construct a problem statement, thesis statement/topic statement with evidence of most relevant contextual factors, and problem statement is adequately detailed.16.0 ptsLevel 3Begins to demonstrate the ability to construct a problem statement/thesis statement/topic statement with evidence of most relevant contextual factors, but problem statement is superficial.14.0 ptsLevel 2Demonstrates a limited ability in identifying a problem statement/thesis statement/topic statement or related contextual factors.12.0 ptsLevel 1Demonstrates the ability to explain contextual factors but does not provide a defined statement.0.0 ptsLevel 0There is no evidence of a defined statement.20.0 ptsThis criterion is linked to a Learning OutcomeAnalysis20.0 ptsLevel 5Organizes and compares evidence to reveal insightful patterns, differences, or similarities related to focus.18.0 ptsLevel 4Organizes and interprets evidence to reveal patterns, differences, or similarities related to focus.16.0 ptsLevel 3Organizes and describes evidence according to patterns, differences, or similarities related to focus.14.0 ptsLevel 2Organizes evidence, but the organization is not effective in revealing patterns, differences, or similarities.12.0 ptsLevel 1Describes evidence, but it is not organized and/or is unrelated to focus.0.0 ptsLevel 0Lists evidence, but it is not organized and/or is unrelated to focus.20.0 ptsThis criterion is linked to a Learning OutcomeWriting5.0 ptsLevel 5The paper exhibits an excellent command of written English language conventions. The paper has no errors in mechanics, grammar, or spelling.4.5 ptsLevel 4The paper exhibits a good command of written English language conventions. The paper has no errors in mechanics or spelling with minor grammatical errors that impair the flow of communication.4.0 ptsLevel 3The paper exhibits a basic command of written English language conventions. The paper has minor errors in mechanics, grammar, or spelling that impact the flow of communication.3.5 ptsLevel 2The paper exhibits a limited command of written English language conventions. The paper has frequent errors in mechanics, grammar, or spelling that impede the flow of communication.3.0 ptsLevel 1The paper exhibits little command of written English language conventions. The paper has errors in mechanics, grammar, or spelling that cause the reader to stop and reread parts of the writing to discern meaning.0.0 ptsLevel 0The paper does not demonstrate command of written English language conventions. The paper has multiple errors in mechanics, grammar, or spelling that cause the reader difficulty in discerning the meaning.5.0 ptsThis criterion is linked to a Learning OutcomeAPA5.0 ptsLevel 5The required APA elements are all included with correct formatting, including in-text citations and references.4.5 ptsLevel 4The required APA elements are all included with minor formatting errors, including in-text citations and references.4.0 ptsLevel 3The required APA elements are all included with multiple formatting errors, including in-text citations and references.3.5 ptsLevel 2The required APA elements are not all included and/or there are major formatting errors, including in-text citations and references.3.0 ptsLevel 1Several APA elements are missing. The errors in formatting demonstrate a limited understanding of APA guidelines, in-text-citations, and references.0.0 ptsLevel 0There is little to no evidence of APA formatting and/or there are no in-text citations and/or references.5.0 ptsTotal Points: 50.0PreviousNextSubmission Not Submitted!Submission Details(50 pts possible)Graded Anonymously: no View Rubric EvaluationComments:No submission.
HC310 Herzing Ethical Implication of Calling Adult Protective Services Assignment

Trial By Fire Death Penalty Critical Analysis of the Todd Willingham Case

java assignment help Trial By Fire Death Penalty Critical Analysis of the Todd Willingham Case.

When writing your essay, respond to the prompt thoroughly, and completely. Essays must be a minimum of 2 pages in length, double spaced, 1 inch margins, 12 point font, and written in Times New Roman.A bibliography, references or works cited page, must accompany submission. Bibliographies should be uploaded, as a single file, along with your 1.5 page essay. This page does not count towards the minimum length, of the paper. When completing your essay, you must also include in-text citations for any work that is directly quoted or paraphrased. Failure to properly, or consistently cite paraphrased or directly quoted work, from the original work, thoughts and/or ideas of someone, other than your own, (according to 1 of the 3 approved formats…MLA, APA, or Chicago) will result in an automatic 0, with no make-up work being accepted. For assistance with proper citation formatting, use the easybib website. Access this website, by clicking HERE (Links to an external site.) (Links to an external site.)Your response should be your own original thoughts and analysis. Research and resources should be incorporated with scholarly application. I.e. used as examples or evidence to support your analysis. Make sure to use complete sentences, and proper grammar. Your response to the prompt should focus on analyzing the information you gathered. Incorporate the information you gathered by using it to provide examples and support for your response.“A” papers should include a critical analysis of the video’s by applying at least 1 example from each film to support your position.PART 1: Video Access and Viewing The video you are required to watch, in order to complete this assignment is 50 minute in length. The video is over the Todd Willingham Case. The video is publicly accessible through PBS Frontline’s official website. You can access the video one of two ways, following the instructions provided belowClick the link below, or copy and paste the link , into a new tab, in your internet browser. (Links to an external site.) (Links to an external site.)PART 2: Video Reflection, Analysis and Submission InstructionsWrite a reflective analysis of crime, justice and punishment under application of the Death Penalty, in Texas, based on application of what you learned from the Todd Willingham Case Video.Write an essay that addresses each of prompt’s 2 components, Issue Position and Explanation and Application, outlined belowIssue Position:First, Identify whether you are for, or against use of the death penalty as a form of criminal punishment (there is NO right or wrong answer). Successful completion of this assignment, and it’s learning objective, require your compliance in identification or your personal position, and perspective, towards the issue of the “death penalty”. Responses are confidential and will be graded objectively, based on student’s independent, reflective analysis of their own individual personal perspectives, and application of the information.Explanation and ApplicationThen, Discuss, and describe, the nature of political debate, surrounding the issue of the death penalty, and explain how your personal position toward the issue has changed or been reinforced, with regard to application to crime, punishment and justice in Texas, based on what you learned from the movie.
Trial By Fire Death Penalty Critical Analysis of the Todd Willingham Case

NRS 433V Grand Canyon University Research Critique Essay

NRS 433V Grand Canyon University Research Critique Essay.

I’m working on a nursing writing question and need an explanation to help me study.

Write a critical appraisal that demonstrates comprehension of two qualitative research studies. Use the “Research Critique Guidelines – Part 1” document to organize your essay. Successful completion of this assignment requires that you provide rationale, include examples, and reference content from the studies in your responses.Use the practice problem and two qualitative, peer-reviewed research article you identified in the Topic 1 assignment to complete this assignment.In a 1,000–1,250 word essay, summarize two qualitative studies, explain the ways in which the findings might be used in nursing practice, and address ethical considerations associated with the conduct of the study.Prepare this assignment according to the guidelines found in the APA Style Guide, located in the Student Success Center. An abstract is not required.This assignment uses a rubric. Please review the rubric prior to beginning the assignment to become familiar with the expectations for successful completion.You are required to submit this assignment to LopesWrite. Refer to the LopesWrite Technical Support articles for assistance.
NRS 433V Grand Canyon University Research Critique Essay

write an informal essay about thanksgiving holiday

write an informal essay about thanksgiving holiday. I need support with this English question so I can learn better.

Last week is thankgiving and black Friday
1. I living in SF I went to LA for thanksgiving Holiday with my friends
2. Meet friends who is my very close frends they are living in LA and having dinner together
3 We went to Universal Studios Hollywood and Beverly Hills
We travel to LA live 4 days
totall gonna be 400 words write anything that you want about thanksgiving
write an informal essay about thanksgiving holiday

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