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Strategies Undertaken By Coca Cola Marketing Essay

This report involves a brief description of strategic and comparative advantage. It also involves different kinds of strategies under taken by Coca Cola Company that have led it to be one of world’s market leaders compared to other multi-national companies. The strategic and comparative bases of advantage discussed based. The item that shall be looked is coca cola marketing strategy that has been developed for years and based on situations. The marketing strategy shall involve advertising, market segmentation, Equity investment and Branding. Though these strategies seem to be common in other companies either local or international, Coca-Cola Company implements them in a special way. Consumer market fit: There is a third “fit” relationship that occurs, fit between consumer and market. This involves the needs and behaviors of consumers under certain market conditions such as specific price points. This relationship between consumer drives and market forces often has direct effect on brand choice. For example a brand might be considered as a good choice to fulfill a particular need or behavior at a particular price that the consumer is prepared to pay, while another brand might not be considered as a good choice for specific combination of need, behavior and price point. The company sets strategies so that it can outperform rivals and it can only do that by establishing a difference in delivering great value to customers or by creating comparable values at a lower cost or do both. Delivering greater value allows a company to charge a high average unit prices and efficiency results into lower average unit costs. All differences between companies in cost or price is derived from hundreds sets of activities required to create, produce, sell and deliver their products or services such as calling on customers, assembling final products and training employees (Porter, 1996) Comparative basis of advantage Deardorff, A. (2003, p. 6) defined Comparative Advantage as “the relative cheapness of a good or service in a country that enables that country to export it. More precisely, a country has a comparative advantage in the good whose price in the absence of trade (autarky), relative to other goods in the same country, is lower than the relative price of that same good on world markets”. Ricardian Model states that countries have comparative advantage in goods whose labor cost, relative to other goods in the same country, is lower than the relative labor cost of that good abroad. Therefore countries are said to have comparative advantage in a good if its labor requirements are relative to the labor requirement abroad. Ricardian model outlines two theoretical implications of Comparative Advantage and these are: firstly if countries are permitted to trade freely then they are undistorted markets and competitive, they will export the good or goods in which they have comparative advantage and import those in which they have comparative disadvantage, secondly under the same conditions, all countries will gain from trade, in the sense that those individuals who gain from trade within each country will gain enough that they could potentially fully compensate those individuals who lose, within the same country, and still remain better off than in autarky(Deardolff,2003). Business overview Coca-Cola is the largest manufacturer, distributor and marketer of concentrated syrup which is used for the production of non-alcoholic beverages. The company has a span of operations covering over 200 countries since its inception in 1886. It has an annual net income of 6.8 billion and employs the services of around 92,400 associates throughout its operations worldwide (Coca-Cola annual report, 2009). Advertising Advertising can be defined as “as any paid form of non-personal presentation and promotion of ideas, goods or services through mass media such as newspapers, magazines, television or radio by an identified sponsor” (Kotler et al, 2008 p.737). Advertising is a practical way of informing and persuasion as well as a means of stimulating response from a target audience. The response could be perceptual where the consumer develops, believes or views about the product or it could be behavioural where the consumer purchases the product or increases his purchases of the product in question (Kotler et al, 2008). Advertising is a process which gives information to the public about the product. It is persuasive, controlled, and identifiable as well as influences the target audience. The basic objective of advertising is to increase sales volume and profit. We shall look at several types of advertising which runs hand in hand with the advertising objectives. Informative advertising appears at the early stages of a particular product and is meant to develop the primary demand of the customers. Persuasive advertising is applicable at the competitive stage where a selective demand is built for a particular category of product (Kummer and Mittar, 2008). Comparison advertising is used to establish the superiority of a particular brand through the use of evaluation with one or more other brands in the product line. Reminder advertising is used to refresh the memory of the consumer regarding messages, ideas etc of a particular product. Reinforcement advertising is used to assure the current buyers that they made the right choice regarding their decision to buy the product. The advertising objective should not be arbitrary but should be developed after a thorough evaluation of the current market situation (Kummer and Mittar, 2008). Coca Cola advertising Advertising is a major element of the promotion mix. Personal selling, sales promotion, publicity and advertising are the four elements of the promotion mix. Advertising has been thought of as the best method of promotion because it stimulates sales, creates demand and reaches customer quickly and effectively (Kummer and Mittar, 2008). Coca-Cola has over the years consolidated its leadership position as the world’s most famous and largest beverage company with huge investments in advertising targeted at its existing and potential consumers worldwide. Coca-Cola works in partnership with leading advertising agencies and market research institutes the world over to develop effective advertising campaigns that conforms to current trends in information technology like the use of internet based mediums like face book and twitter to connect with technology loving target audience (Coca-Cola annual report, 2009). The successful advertising strategies used by Coca-Cola over the years in their operations shall be analysed.( Wieden and Kennedy,1996 ) an advertising agency that worked in partnership with Coca-Cola for the 1996 summer Olympics in Atlanta Georgia came up with four main advertising strategies designed for Coca-Cola for the summer games namely: a home based strategy, a fan based strategy, a global growth strategy and the Olympic torch relay. The home based strategy used by coke was primarily as a result of the fact that Atlanta is the main headquarters of Coca-Cola and so people in Atlanta would readily identify with the brand since they are well familiar with it. Coca-Cola launched several advertisements for the games which include installing 70 new billboards, several street-pole banners and signs in 9 Marta stations (the city’s public transportation system). Coca-Cola created a theme park known as the Coca-Cola Olympic city with countless different coke advertisements including a 165 feet coke bottle in the canter of the park (Wieden and Kennedy, 1996). The company’s signature colour red was the main colour seen throughout the Coca-Cola Olympic city. Coca-Cola deviated from the traditional practice of using athletes for advertising for the games to focus instead on a fan-based strategy where commercials, print advertisements and posters where used to demonstrate the difference made to the outcome of the games by the enthusiasm of the fans. Coca-Cola used the games as a global growth strategy used to target the worldwide audience tuned in for the games. Coca-Cola also used one of the most efficient strategies for gaining exposure in advertising history which is the sponsoring of the 1996 Atlanta Olympic torch relay (Wieden and Kennedy, 1996). The impact of Coca-colas advertisements during the Olympics was so immense that people dubbed the event the “Coca-Cola Olympics”. The event served as a means for the company to effectively advertise its brand to a worldwide audience. In 2003, Coca-Cola used the marketing platform tagged “real” to enhance the image of the brand through the use of television advertisements. This particular advertising strategy was specifically targeted for the teenagers and young adults with resounding success. In the same year, the tropical sprite remix television advertisements which was intended to increase and reconnect the sprite trademark was also targeted at the young, urban consumer base (Coca-Cola annual report, 2003). In 2006, the “make every drop count ” advertising in the United States was purposely designed to create awareness among consumers on the health benefits of Coca-colas beverage portfolio in a response to growing concerns by consumers regardless of age on health concerns like calorie intake and obesity. The “coke side of life” campaign which was the first ever integrated marketing campaign for trademark Coca-Cola was intended to signify the unifying role of Coca-Cola in daily life and has performed better than previous Coca-Cola advertisements and was launched in almost 100 markets in 2006 with great success. The “happiness factory” television commercial is part of this global campaign (Coca-Cola annual report, 2006). In 2009, Coca-Cola commenced the design for advertisement strategies to be used for the 2010 Fifa world cup campaign which included colourful television advertisements for the soccer fiesta in South Africa in 2010 as a means of uniting Coca-colas exuberance with the worldwide love of soccer thereby utilizing the soccer fiesta as a veritable means of connecting with consumers worldwide who have immense passion for the love of football (Coca-Cola annual report, 2009). Coca-Cola develops its advertising campaigns based on a communications strategy that uses means to end research to gain greater insight of current and potential customers and other factors like product attributes, keeping specific marketing goals in mind, taking into account competitive advertising and positioning as well gaining attention and interest by connecting with real needs(Reynolds and Olsen,2008) Market segmentation Market segmentation has been described as “essential to marketing”(Sheth 1967).Market segmentation implies “the division of large heterogeneous markets into smaller segments that can be reached more efficiently and effectively with products and services that match their unique needs”(Kotler et al, 2008 .p.410) There is no single way to segment a market. A marketer apparently has to try different segmentation variables alone or in combination in order to come up with how best to view the market. Markets could be segmented into either business markets or consumer markets. Consumer markets entail those markets that deal on products and services that are used directly by the consumers whereas business markets have to do with transfer of products and services from one point to the other. Market segmentation could be based on the following major variables: demographic, psychographic, behavioural, geographic etc. Demographic segmentation entails segmenting the market based on age, gender, income and education. Psychographic segmentation is based on personality, lifestyle and motives of the population involved. Geographic entails segmenting the market on the basis of regions, city or country. Behavioural involves segmenting the market on benefits sought, product usage, price sensibility or situations (Kotler et al, 2008). Coca cola market segmentation Coca Cola Company has been conquering markets worldwide overtime, through its network of Bottlers, distributers and whole sellers, and later joint ventures. The market network has grown to include most of the world territories and this market has been divided into market segments. Coca-Cola the world’s most famous and leading beverage company has been shown in their operations to vary the sweetness level of their product, its size as well as effervescence on local conditions and preferences which implies that the company employs the use of behavioural and geographical variables in their market segmentation strategies the world over (Hart et al,2008). Coca-Cola Company has operating segments on continental basis involving Eurasia and Africa, Europe, Latin America, North America and the pacific areas. This strategy is clearly a geographical approach in terms of market segmentation by Coca-Cola which is influenced by the fact that these different geographical areas will have diverse preferences and wants (Coca-Cola annual report 2009). Coca-Cola market segmentation strategies regarding diverse consumers base starts with a process of understanding consumer trends within the multicultural marketplace and then developing “depth” and “breath” communications which is based on that knowledge. The Coca-Cola Company has a diversity business development team which serves the purpose of providing diverse consumers with the right beverage portfolio. In 2009, the diversity business development team worked closely with the multicultural marketing team to develop marketing strategies as well as integrating multicultural elements into general market programmes for greater reach (Coca-Cola annual report 2009). The diversity business development team during this period also identified significant opportunities in emerging markets including Asian and disabled consumers. The Asian consumers were subsequently integrated into the existing framework of communications. Coca- colas multicultural consumer marketing team develops and carries out relevant marketing plans targeted at multicultural consumers while working closely with brand and customer teams as well as the bottling system. Coca-Cola North America had their multicultural consumer marketing team refocused on African-American marketing as well as expanded its reach to Hispanic consumers (Coca-Cola annual report 2009). The company is now in the process of implementing a long term strategy targeted at consumer markets on the basis of ethnicity in the United States. Coca-Cola in North America’s operating segment reported in 2009 positive results in its works with its bottling partners to create price and package strategies that will ultimately strengthen their financial results, provide value for customers and provide consumers with choices that meet their needs. This strategy is apparently based on behavioural variables which puts price and preferences of the consumers into consideration Coca-Cola Company introduced the coke zero brand in response to consumer health concerns regarding excess calorie intake (Coca-Cola annual report 2009). The product did well in the market and in 2009, the company made sales on the product on an excess of 600 million cases globally. Currently there are over 800 low and no- calorie beverages in the Coca-Cola portfolio (Coca-Cola annual report 2009). In 2008, the company and foundation spent around 9million dollars to support active, healthy lifestyle programmes. These strategies by Coca-Cola are geared towards effective market segmentation of the target population on behavioural and psychographic basis putting into account the health choices and lifestyle of the consumers. In order for Coca-Cola to meet the diverse and ever changing beverage needs of its consumers worldwide, the company has intensified efforts to add more value for customers in its portfolio of beverages ranging from added benefits of vitamins and minerals to calorie reductions, new ingredients, sweeteners and taste depending on the preferences and wants of the consumers concerned (Coca-Cola annual report 2009). Coca-Cola also has another segmentation strategy which entails different strategies for developing and developed markets. The company’s main strategy for the developed markets like the United States is to maximize value and profit which can be achieved by delivering more value to consumers so that they will continue their patronage of the company’s products at a premium price. In this regard, Coca-Cola are growing the core beverages-trademark namely: coke, sprite, fanta, powerade and improving their benefits and value to the customers through adding vitamins and nutrients to reduced or no calorie options(Coca-Cola annual report 2009). In developing markets Coca-Cola devised a strategy of making the products affordable to the consumers; in Brazil the company offers consumers 26 package options for brand Coca-Cola at different brand points to meet the needs of an economically diverse consumer base (Coca-Cola annual report 2009). In 1963, the product “tab” was launched and was specifically targeted at the female consumers but subsequently the company in order to broaden its customer base by appealing to the men folk as well as the entire family had to introduce diet coke to achieve the above mentioned objectives. In 1983, Coca-Cola introduced the caffeine- free versions of Coca-Cola, diet coke and tab which were specifically targeted at health conscious consumers. Coca-Cola also introduced the minute maid soda which was positioned to attract a market segment that prefers fruit juice as well as health and nutrition conscious consumers (Mochmen and Maze,1998). The Coca-Cola Company today through its market segmentation strategies offers a diverse portfolio of products to identified market segments based on different consumer preferences for flavours, calories and caffeine content effectively which continues to add to their success story globally (Lamb et al, 2008). Equity investment Coca Cola Company has over time been making equity investment in selected bottling companies with the intention of maximising company’s strength and efficiency in its systems, production, distribution, and marketing capabilities around the world. The level of investment generally depends on the bottler’s capital structure and its available resources at the time of investment. Coca cola Company in some instances finds it necessary to acquire a controlling interest. Such controlling interest allows coca cola Company to compensate for limited local resources and enables it to focus on bottler’s sales and marketing programs. Equity investment also assists in the development of bottlers’ business and information systems and the establishment of appropriate capital structures. One of examples of coca cola equity investment is that of Coca Cola Enterprise Inc. (C.C.E) In 2009, Coca Cola Company’s ownership in Coca Cola Enterprise Inc.-bottling company, was 34%. Coca cola Enterprise Inc. is the world’s bottler company of trade mark beverages. The sales of concentrates, syrups, mineral waters, juices, sweeteners and finished products by coca cola Company to C.C.E were approximately 6.6 billion by the year end 2009. The Coca Cola Enterprise Inc. estimates its market beverage products to retailers which include a portion of 46 states of USA, Columbia district of USA, Virgin Islands, Caribbean islands, Canada, Great Britain, Continental France, Netherlands, Luxembourg, Belgium and Monaco. Therefore Coca Company’s investment strategy in CCE was to take advantage of this vast market for it to sell concentrates, syrups and different coca cola product brands through C.C.E (Coca cola annual report,2009). Branding Coca cola has many kinds brands sold worldwide. In developing a company brand, coca cola conducts product and packaging research to establish brand positioning, develop precise consumer communication and solicit consumer feedback. The Coca-Cola brand development strategy emphasizes on price, preference, and persuasive penetration (Annual report, 2009) The Coca Cola Company main brand products are Coca cola classic, diet coke and coca cola zero whereas the main branding strategies at Coca Cola Company include but not limited to Joint brand strategy, brand diversification strategy, personal branding strategy, and packaging/redesigning strategy (Annual report, 2009) Joint brand strategy involves a situation in which two different brands are linked to form joint promotion, as a consequence one product may sell the other examples in early 1990s Bacardirum and Coke cola brand were jointly marketed together. Coca cola, the common known brand was used to market Barcadirum, the new product on the market. The benefits of this strategy is that if the first brand name gives a certain quality signal, then the second brand quality signal is believed to be as powerful as the first one, hence attracting more buyers. (Akshadf and Ruekert, 1994) Brand portfolio/diversification strategy: Coca Cola Company continues to diversify its portfolio and growing sales with new and acquired brands. The some of the diversified brands are vitamin-enhanced water energy brand, and its star water brand Glaceau. The powerade and Nestiea iced tea brand products, a joint venture of Coca Cola Company with Nestle. The importance of this strategy is that multiple brands allow the company to offset coke’s gradual decline with newer, more appropriate brands while removing future potential rivals through acquisition. The strategy also allows coca cola to maintain relatively large market share irrespective of how market changes (VanAnken and Derick Daye, 2007) Personal branding strategy refers to a set of human characteristics as associated with a brand. Users view it as a key way to differentiate a brand in a product category as a central driver of consumer preference and usage that can be used to market a brand across cultures. In coca cola company personal traits associated with coca cola are Cooling, all-American, and real. These three personal traits differentiate coca cola from its competitors. Besides these traits, Coca Cola Company uses slogans, graphic designs, color schemes and trademarks. As a result of personal branding, different categories of people from different denomination find themselves attracted to the brand hence increasing its demand (Aaker, 1997). Packaging/redesigning strategy: Coca Cola Company keeps on redesigning its packaging and visual identity systems. One of examples is its newly identity visual system for its flagship brand introduced in 2008 and contour aluminum bottle initially commercialized in 2005. The nonalcoholic beverage in this new aluminum bottle attracted many buyers especially in 2005 Olympic Games in Beijing-China. (Butler, 2009) Packaging redesigning also continues making coca cola brand a new product in the face of consumers. The most crucial comparative advantage is that the company has over time built a network bottling partners, wholesalers and distributers spread over in many parts of world. These act as marketing agents of coca cola company products worldwide. Bottling partners pray two major roles, Firstly they act as consumers of the concentrates and syrup which they use in manufacture of coca cola products and later sell these products locally or in foreign market, secondary they act as marketer of company brands. (Annual report,2009) The Coca Cola Company has a unique network of bottling partners, distributers, wholesalers and joint ventures spread all over the world which act as channels through which the company promotes and markets its brands. Coca Cola as a result of operating in partnership or in cooperation with foreign companies, it enjoys economies of scale such as cheap labor, land and transport costs. Transport costs are reduced due to the fact its brands are brought closer to customers through a network of bottling partners, wholesalers and distributers. The coca cola company’s leading brands with high level of acceptance, a worldwide network of bottlers and distributers of company’s products, sophisticated marketing capabilities and talented group of dedicated associates are unique company’s achievements overtime compared to other multi-national organizations. (3970 Words)

CU MOD 6 Evaluation in Decentralized Organization Presentation

CU MOD 6 Evaluation in Decentralized Organization Presentation.

I’m working on a management Presentation and need support to help me study.

Discussion: Lecture Videos on Chapters 11 and 12 Concepts.Based on the materials presented in Chapters 11 and 12, complete the following:1. Pick one concept from Chapter 11 and another concept from Chapter 12. Based on the two concepts you picked, produce a lecture video using Power Point. Explain the Power Point using your own voice. You lecture video should contain at least 10 slides. Provide numerical example(s) to support your explanations. This lecture video is your main post. Complete your lecture video no later than Sunday at 11:00 PM EST2. Review at least two of your classmates’ lecture videos. Write a critical analysis of the videos your reviewed. Your reviews should be completed no later than the last day (Sunday) of Module 6.The video materials link below:Classmates presentations attached below.
CU MOD 6 Evaluation in Decentralized Organization Presentation

WU Wk 3 Time Value of Money Financial Management & Present Value Discussion

online dissertation writing WU Wk 3 Time Value of Money Financial Management & Present Value Discussion.

I’m working on a business discussion question and need guidance to help me study.

Time value of money is a very powerful concept, especially when considering the difference between present value and future value. For example, one of the wisest investment decisions is to invest money in a way that compounds its value over time. Compound interest is paid on both the principal amount (i.e., the amount of money you put in) and also on any interest you previously earned (i.e., the “interest on interest”). When your interest earns interest, the phrase “your money makes money for you” becomes true. Financial managers not only need to understand these concepts, but must also be able to communicate them clearly to help leadership teams to make better, more informed decisions.Post a 150- to 225-word (2- to 3-paragraph) explanation of time value of money related to your client’s investments. To support your explanation, do the following:Describe the concepts of present value, future value, and annuities to demonstrate to your client the benefits of investing.As part of your response, perform the following calculation: Take $10,000 of (fictitious) purchased stock, choose an interest rate, and calculate the amount of money that your client would have after 60 years if the interest is compounded annually. What would the $10,000 yield in the future?To support your response, be sure to reference at least one properly cited scholarly source.
WU Wk 3 Time Value of Money Financial Management & Present Value Discussion

Evaluation of Apples decision to enter Thailand market

Apple Inc. decided to enter Thai market by adopted the indirect exporting by sale its products thru authorized dealers, for example, the main authorized in Thailand are Copperwired, Com7, and SPV. Based on this strategy, Apple gave the authorities to authorized dealers for doing their own marketing process under a contract of the annual target import of Apple¿½s products, to their dealers, is set by the Apple Inc. Under this market entry strategy, Apple Inc. transfers the almost all of the risks in doing business to authorized dealers. According to authorized dealers have to concern almost all of the risks, they are required to make the profit on their own. For instance, authorized dealers need to find the prime location e.g. in the big mall of Thailand, place where there¿½s mass of people and target group to gain more potential sales. Furthermore, authorized dealers have to recruit the employees by themselves but all employees are required to be trained thru the Apple¿½s training programs prior to their works to guarantee the high quality of customer services of Apple along with Apple¿½s business strategy. The price is set identically all over the globe, only a bit different due to the vat of each country. Perceptions of Thai consumers, evaluate the social status of people based on their images, in conjunction with the image of Apple¿½s products itself that looked high quality and luxury support and favor the penetration into Thai Market. Various factors, impact the business of Apple in Thailand, are analyzed by using the analysis, computation, and interpretation. The CAPM is used to analyze the Apple¿½s decision to doing the business in Thailand. The result is positive by comparing the CAPM of Apple¿½s in Thailand market with the Thailand Treasury Bills; the CAPM of Apple¿½s in Thailand is higher by 6.451%. However, there¿½s a small problem about intellectual property in Thailand. Fake good sold on internet is slightly growing (Ridder, 2004). But there¿½s a legal protection that allows the Apple Inc. to sue if there¿½s any imitation of its products. Based on the result of this research, the Apple Inc. action to enter the Thailand market was a good decision that favored the company and made the substantial profit to the firm. Table of Contents Introduction 3 Literature Review 4 Methodology 6 Environmental Factors ¿½ Political Economy 7 ¿½ Financial Considerations 9 ¿½ Legal and Technical 11 ¿½ Social and Ethical 12 ¿½ Cultural 14 Internal Strategy, Structure, and Entry Strategy 15 HR and Leadership Issues 18 The Impact of Global Competition/Forces 19 Conclusion 22 Appendix 23 Bibliography 26 Group Workload Self-Assessment 30 Introduction Apple Company (Apple Inc.) is a multinational corporation that established on 1976 in California by Steven Jobs and Stephen Wozniak. The Apple, Inc. was named in year 1977. The company¿½s mission is to change the world by bringing computer to the masses (Freedman and Vohr, 1998). The slogan that Apple uses in its advertising campaign is ¿½Think Different¿½. According to Apple¿½s slogan, it makes Apple has a unique reputation in the consumers¿½ point of view. The company¿½s product categories are personal computing products, a variety of related software, peripherals, application software, mobile communication device, portable digital music, video players, services, networking solutions, third-party hardware and software products. The products and services are selling through iTune stores, online, and retail stores. Apple has 301 retail stores in 10 countries (Apple Inc., 2009). Apple, Inc. does not have subsidiary in Thailand. There are only authorized dealers. The management and marketing of Apple in Thailand is not based on Apple, Inc. Each authorized dealer manages their retail shops by themselves. There are number of authorized dealers with many iStudios in Thailand (Apple.com, 2010). The retail shops that called iStudio are located in many popular areas which are department stores, universities, and IT stores. Apple is one of the technological brands that is popular in Thailand. This report will discuss about Apple in Thailand with the topic of literature review, methodology, environmental factor, internal strategy and structure, HR and leadership issues, and the impact of global competition and forces. Finally, the evaluation of decision to enter Thailand market of Apple will be exhibited. Literature Review Political Economy Aspect From the article of Bangkok Post newspaper, (Subhanij, Ph.D 2001), current Thai political instability seemingly affects the overall economy in Thailand. However, Thailand’s Political Instability Index is still far better than country from Africa and in Central and South Asia. From the studied, the growth of economy is driven by human and physical capital; technological innovation, foreign trade and investment that are directly or indirectly rely on political stability. Hence, the fiscal policy is not enough to push the growth of economy, the clearing of political is also pay the significance role in the growth of Thai economy. Financial Aspect From the journal ¿½Entering into business or Joint Venture in Thailand- A Cultural Perspective¿½, (Sheehan 1996), Thailand has steadily growth in GDP which mainly come from the agricultural sector. Later, the growths are from the export activities and the undertaking business of foreign companies that mostly are from western company. Legal and Technical Aspect According to Gomez-Arias and Montermoso (2007), the technology products have short product life cycle because technology changes quickly. The initial reference customer who is the first group of customers will be the source of revenue for the company that sells technological products. The strong initial reference customer can be the client organization because of the performance, competitive advantage, and vendor-client relationship. The factors for selecting first initial customer are size, industry, approach to innovation, and previous relationship. Moreover, the high technology products need the pre-launch activities for increase the product success rate. The product development and improvement are important after product has been launched. The initial reference customer can create market penetration and reduce business uncertainty. Social and Culture Aspect According to Foscht et al. (2008), the cultural different in a global market can impact the marketing strategy. The brand personality may not be experience by the way company want. The brand personality can be differ depend on the cultural background which is religion, language, values, and standards. The collectivism/individualism, masculinity/femininity, power distance, performance orientation are the cultural factors that the business should concern. For example, Thailand is the collectivism, which can affect the brand management directly because collectivist society has a narrow social network. Consumers will buy the products based on their social network. In Thailand, family opinion is very important in buying decision (Vallaster and Hasen?hrl, 2006). Methodology In this report, we are going to use the information from Latrobe library database to search for the articles and journals that relate to the project. Then, we will interpret all sources and analyze the possibility in each aspect, which are political economy, financial consideration, legal and technical, social and ethical, and cultural aspect. Later, formulation method will be applied by using CAPM model. The interpretation method will summarize the study and research from the author that will place on literature review section. The summary will focus on the findings from the research that the author have done so far and all the result will be used to support the analyzing. The analyzing method will be used on the following section. Our group will analyze the treats that Apple Inc. have faced when doing business in Thailand. There will be the support reference throughout the report. The support information will be use from various sources, such as, Internet, e-journal, and interview with the owner from one of Apple¿½s authorized dealer in Thailand that can guarantee to reader that the information from analyzing are up to date. Lastly, formulating method will be used. We will use CAPM model to calculate expect return rate in investing in Thailand. The CAPM model will lead to our final conclusion whether Apple Inc. make the right decision to invest in Thailand or not. Throughout the process, we have followed what we have learned from the class to ensure that we move to the right direction. Also, we have put the in-text references and the work cited page to support our words. Moreover we include the appendixes to prove some argument that the reader may need in order to have clear understanding in our project. Environmental Factors Political Economy Thailand political system is conducted within the framework of Constitutional Monarchy, which has the King as a chief of the state and Prime Minister as the head of the government of the country. However due to the 19 September 2006, Prime Minister Taksin Chinnawattra was revolted by the Thai military who claimed that Ex-Prime Minister Taksin would overthrow the king system in Thailand. After the year 2006 until now, the conflict between 2 groups of people have been being appeared. First, the people who called themselves red shirt, Red shirt group are the group of poorer people and business people in Thailand who support Ex-Prime Minister Taksin. The other group is yellow shirt which is the group of middle level of people, Royals and King. Yellow shirt group support Mr.Abhisit Vejjajiva, the present Prime Minister of Thailand. On the yellow shirt side, they claim that Ex-prime minister Taksin and red shirt would overthrow the King and royal system down. On the other hand, red shirt group who claim on the protested that they want the justice for their ex-prime minster and also they want King and royals are under the constitution of Thailand. From these conflict, many of economic expert fear that Thailand may has another revolt again in the near future which can lead to lower the investment of foreign investors in Thailand. As the result of Thailand where has well developed infrastructure, free-enterprise and generally pro-investment policy for the foreign investor, Thailand would be one of the best country for foreign investors to invest in Thailand with full cooperated from Thai government. Many investors may see that Thailand has potential ability to grow in the future. However, since Thailand got political problem, it cause lower in annual growth to 3% from 2005 to 2008 (CIA World, 2010). Although, in the year 2010, Thai government launched and promoted many activities to stimulate Thai economy to be better and try to convince foreign investors to trust in country¿½s ability to grow in the future. For example, Central Bank of Thailand reduced the discount rate from 7.25% in 2007 to 7.04% in 2008 to stimulate the lending rate in the banking system (CIA world, 2010). Moreover, Thai economy was forecasted to expand at 3.3% per year or in the range of 2.5 – 4.1% due to the expansion of fiscal policy from 2009, particularly from the program of ¿½Strong Thailand 2012¿½ (Thailand Business News, 2009). Also, the public consumption growth was forecasted to increase 4.8 % per year. While GDP in 2010 was forecasted to increase around 3.7 ¿½ 4.6 %, due to the program of Strong Thailand 2012, private investment was forecasted to increase to 6.6 %. Meanwhile, the rate of import of goods and services was expected to increase between 10.6 ¿½ 14.2%. For inflation in 2010 was expected to increase to 2.5% due to the global oil and agricultural price increase from the recovery of global crisis. Lastly, unemployment rate was expected to reduce to 1.3% of the total labor force (Thailand Business News, 2009). However, if Thailand changes the government then the policy of nation would change as well. As a result, the policy of all sections will be changed and that will finally effect to the Apple Inc. For instance, if the new policy is set to lower number of imported technology¿½s products, then Apple would get the thread of this situation. Financial Considerations Apple Inc. does not have their branches in Thailand, as a result, they need to use authorized dealers which are the local company in Thailand e.g. Copperwired, Com7, SPV, and etc. All of the authorized dealers are the one who sign the contracts with Apple Inc. to be the legal authorized dealer for company. The target of import of the authorized dealers is set by the Apple Inc. every year. Authorized dealers have to open their own shop in the prime location in Thailand for example Siam Paragon, Central World. The reason why the authorized dealers need to open in the prime location is the price of the Apple products are a bit expensive so they need to select the places with most of the people can afford to buy the Apple¿½s product. Moreover, every authorized dealers need to do the advertising by themselves to competing with other authorized dealers in the market. For the product price, all the products of Apple Inc. are using the same price around the world so when Apple Inc. need to distribute their products to Thailand by using local authorized dealers, they do not have to consider much in exchange rate risk that translate from Thai Baht to US Dollar. As the result of exchange rate risk is transferred to the local authorized dealers, thus, local authorized dealers have to concern this risk by themselves. There is only one point that Apple Inc. needs to consider for expansion their products to Thailand which is purchasing power of Thai¿½s consumers. Thailand is a developing country which most of people in the rural area of the country are working in the farm. The products of the country are agriculture goods that export to global e.g. rice, rubbers. However, most teenagers and people in the age around 25-35 year old tends to follow all the new technology in the market which Apple products are one of the latest products in the market with the luxury and modern design which capable to make Thai teenagers feel up to date when using the products. However, according to the research, it shows that average income of Thai consumers per year would be 4,400 US Dollars (Rose, 2010). From the research, if Apple Inc. requires performing the direct exportation, the company needs to consider for export to Thailand due to many people has low income and low in standard of living than the people in the United State of America. The Capital Asset Pricing Model (CAPM) is used to evaluate how interesting of Thai market for Apple Inc. to invest: – Risk-free of Market = 2.4% – Beta of electronic industry = 0.89 – Total risk premium = 6.9% Sources: ThaiBMA.or.th (2010), Damodaran (2010) and Tao (2010), See Appendix 1 CAPM: Ri = Rf [? x (Rm – Rf )] = 2.4% [0.89 x (6.9%)] = 8.541% According to the calculation above, the CAPM is 8.541%. Comparing with Thailand Treasury bills (365 days) in 2010 is only 2.02%. As such, the CAPM is greater than the Thailand Treasury bills 8.541% > 2.02%. Therefore, the Thai market is interested for Apple Inc. to invest their money to make the profit. Legal and Technical Thailand legal system is based on the civil law. Discovery of procedures is not the part of the system. Prescription period is based on the nature of identification which can cause in one month to ten years (Tilleke, 2002). For the case of violation on intellectuals property right in Asia, many of the foreign company or investors reluctant to investing in the countries where lack or low in the standard of protection of property right because they afraid of their product invention that used lots of resource and capital in research would be imitated from other competitors. However, Thailand has the standard of mark legal system for registration, Thailand is currently used to trade mark legal system in Trademark Act B.E. (A.D.1991) as got improved by Trademark Act (No.2) B.E. 2543 (A.D.2000) which effective in 30 June 2000. The Trademark Act has provided good and service into groups which are Trademark, Service mark and Registered user. The legal about intellectual property in Thailand aims to protect the owners who created the product from their ideas. The owners of the intellectual property have the right to file or sue the person or organization who imitates their ideas or products within three years of the date that the owners aware of the imitation but not more than ten years (Tilleke, 2002). For the penalty of the copy of the products or ideas, the person who imitated the products or ideas without the permission from the owner or copyright from the organizations need to be fined up to THB 200,000 or around 7,000 AUS dollars. For the commercial imitation might has to pay higher in THB 800,000 or around 27,000 AUS Dollars or imprisonment up to 4 years or both (Tillleke, 2002). Based on the research, there¿½s less risk to the Apple Inc. regarding the legal and technical factor of Thailand. Only, a potential problem, imitation or violate the intellectual property that would consider to be less risk as there¿½s a legal system that allow the Apple Inc. to sue if there¿½s any imitation exists. Social and Ethical For social system in Thailand, Buddhism is the major religion of the country. As a result, most of Thai¿½s habits are concerned with the Buddhism. From the birth until the death, everything is about the Buddhism which can make Thai people tends to be soft and have a good habit among themselves and also with foreigners. Thailand got the good name as ¿½Land of Smile¿½ because Thai people always smile to the foreigner tourists. They like to help and guide about the culture, food or even invite the foreigners to visiting their own houses. As the result, many of foreigner tourists like to travel to Thailand because Thai people are very kind to them and they can find the happiest day in Thailand. Furthermore, about the ethical of Thai people, people tend to believe in deed of their action or words that they said. In addition, Buddhism teaches about the after death path or the consequence of the previous actions will determine the present, thus, Thai people tend to follow it strictly. From the result, Thai people tend to be calm, soft and gentle to each other (Mahidol, 2002). However, world is changed all the time same as Thai culture. As the result of increasing in the float of foreign culture and value in Thailand, most of Thai people especially teenagers tend to forget about Thai culture and receive more in foreign culture. For example, they are currently receiving Japanese and Korean style. Most of the teenagers in Thailand value other people in the ways of their looks e.g. their dresses and how luxury of the product that they have. They believe that the more expensive of that product, the more value and good looking to them. As such, Thai teenagers tend to buy the products which capable to make them looking good to other views. Apple¿½s products are one of their famous choices to spend their money with because all of Apple¿½s products are looked luxury for them. However, due to the price of Apple¿½s products are very expensive and the advance in the technology of Apple¿½s products, some of Thai teenagers may not be able to buy because of lacking on the money or lacking in the skill of new technology because Thailand is just the developing country and most of the people are poor. From these, Apple Inc. should focusing more in Thai people in the age of 24-35 years old as they are in the age of working in many kinds of works. They have enough money or capability to buy the luxury products for themselves and they tend to buy it because they believe that luxury products will made them look professional and get accepted from other people. Thai people evaluate others from their jobs and how much money do they have. As such, it is appeared to be the good opportunity for Apple¿½s products to penetrate in Thai market because of Thai consumers tend to following foreign products and they love to buy luxury products to make them acquire the acceptance from society. About the ethical part, as Buddhism is the major religion in Thailand therefore most of Thai people are very kind, feel sympathize with other things easily and also tend to oppose to everything that disagree with their belief or oppose with bad criminal for them. As Thailand is the developing country, many parts of the country are under developed from the government and people are suffering from the poor. As such, it may be the good chance for Apple Inc. or even other companies to win the Thai people mind by using charities from the sale volume in the company to create positive reputation to the firm which can create long-term profit for the company. Cultural As the result of Thailand is a developing country, most of people in Thailand are uneducated and poor (CIA World, 2010). There are some Thai people believe that the more luxury and expensive that they buy, the more rich that they are looked by other points of view. They tend to buy the luxury products to gain acceptance from other people because the new generation of society in Thailand is evaluating people from their image not their mind. Thai people tend to justify other people from their dress or their car, for example, most of Thai people believe that people who drive Mercedez Benz are rich people. Moreover, most of Thai people believe that most products that come from the foreign countries are providing the better quality than domestic products (Kesornbua, 2010). As such, they tend to buy for themselves even the price of the products are expensive than other domestic products. This evidence reveals that Thai market is the good choice for Apple Inc. to expand the penetration in the future. According to the culture of Thai consumers who tend to follow the foreign trend and believe that foreign products have better quality than Thai¿½s products, Apple¿½s products are surely gain advantage from this culture and perception of Thai people by their innovation and modern style of its products. Internal Strategy, Structure, and Entry Strategy Apple¿½s Internal Strategy The Apple Inc. aims to enlarge the limits of human potential through its innovative and modern designed products and services. The company is committed to provide the best electronic products e.g. personal computer, mobile communication devices and portable multimedia player to the consumers with the ease-of-use, innovative design and seamless integration (Apple Inc. Annual Report, 2009). The following strategies of the Apple Inc. are employed thru its companies, subsidiaries, and even the authorized dealer all over the globe. The company¿½s strategy is the integration of both its hardware and software products to serve its customer¿½s needs (Inside CRM Editors, 2008). Their hardware products are MacBook, Mac Desktop Computer, iPod, iPhone, iPad, Apple TV and other peripheral products. On the other hand, the company also offers its own software products including the operating system software ¿½Mac OS X¿½, application software ¿½iLife, iWork, iTune¿½ and also internet software ¿½Safari, QuickTime¿½. The complete solutions strategy of company allows its variety of hardware and software products to complement and complete each other (Inside CRM Editors, 2008). The strategy enhances the customer royalty by the control entire user processes, from hardware to software. Thus, the existed consumers are retained. Another significant strategy of the company is the innovation strategy. The company continually invests in various research and development programs as it is considered to be a critical factor to the enhancement and improvement of innovative products and technologies (Apple Inc. Annual Report, 2009). The effective research and development programs of the company enhance the quality of its innovative products. The company consistently comes out with the new products which attract the existed and future consumers and also serve more customer satisfaction. In addition to its research and development programs, the company also offers the developer programs to support the development of third-party products that complement the Apple¿½s products (Apple Inc. Annual Report, 2009). The company¿½s strategy also includes the improvement on customer relations. With high level of buying experience of its customers that provided by the high skilled and knowledgeable salespersons who can deliver the value of its products and services to customers, the company believes that the sale will be enhanced (Apple Inc. Annual Report, 2009). The strategy to directly and effectively reach the targeted customers and provides them a quality sale and after sale services plays an important role to attract the new customers and retain the existed the customers. Direct contact with the targeted customers is the efficient strategy to exhibit the strong point of its products over its competitors (Apple Inc. Annual Report, 2009). The company also initiates and invests in Apple Sales Consultant

Briefing Using the CREAC Rule & Endocrine Disorders Reports

Briefing Using the CREAC Rule & Endocrine Disorders Reports.

I have to present brief on Company Vs Company in court and who won it So you have to write 3 case study not more then 1000 words. 4 pages we can take.The case study follows the CREAC rule C :- Conclusion ( Need to summarize the case study and have to say who which party won and why)R :- Rule ( Need to mention only ONE rule that the study describes)E :- Explanation (So, the case study I will provide you will use past cases mentioned by name Vs name, digit US digit)So, we need to use present exact 3 explanation.A :- Application ( Here we need to provide facts based on our case study)Exact 3 application to be used.C :- Conclusion ( Again need to summarize entire case study) Note that both conclusion reason should be same.Here is just an example of how a case study will look.Sample CREAC paragraph (248 words)• Bill and Jane will not be granted the right to marry as they are minors with no applicable exceptions to needing their parents’ consent (Conclusion). Under Massachusetts law, all persons who wish to marry must be 18 years old, or if not 18, have the written permission of their parent/legal guardian to do so. M.G.L. ch 12, sec 40(b) (2002) (Rule). In Smith v Jones, 144 Mass 72, 89 N.E.2d 56 (2007), the minor plaintiffs were allowed to marry as both had received written permission from their parents before they each turned 18, even though said permission was allegedly revoked by one parent prior to the marriage ceremony taking place. (Explanation). The Court found that a revocation prior to a ceremony taking place could not prevent the minor plaintiffs from marrying, as the permission was valid at the time the marriage license had been granted. The revocation was inapplicable as it came after a marriage license had been issued validating the minor plaintiffs marriage. (Explanation). In the instant case, Jane’s mother, her legal guardian granted permission for Jane to marry Bill, only to revoke it 1 day later. (Application) Bill and Jane had not even filled out a marriage license, let alone been granted one. (Application) Therefore, Jane’s mother’s revocation of permission was valid and as minors, they could not marry. (Application) Therefore, under a strict interpretation of the rule and precedent there are no exceptions that would allow Bill and Jane, as minors, to marry (Conclusion).
Briefing Using the CREAC Rule & Endocrine Disorders Reports