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Strategies to Prevent the Spread of Tuberculosis

Share this: Facebook Twitter Reddit LinkedIn WhatsApp To address the problem of Tuberculosis (TB) within East London Tuberculosis (TB) is caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. People who have infected sputum can transmit the disease to others. Since it is a notifiable disease accurate figures are available. There are about 7000 cases of TB annually in the UK mostly in the large cities especially London (Health Protection Agency figures). The number of cases has increased by 25% in the last ten years (Department of Health figures). Issues Paucity of evidence will mean some decisions on strategy will encompass consensus decisions. Often it is not one single measure that is effective on its own. Those born abroad or homeless are at disproportionately high risk of getting TB. They must not be seen as being victimised if they are screened in preference to other people. The stigma associated with TB is counter productive to the programme. Potential patients are reluctant to seek investigation. Tannahill’s (1985) three overlapping spheres of health promotion; health education, prevention and health protection, will be incorporated into the programme. Prevention Primary This involves changing the environment, behaviour or both. Immunization is the crux here together with health education. The later involves knowledge, changing attitudes and behaviour (Donaldson, 2003). Secondary This involves early detection of TB and prompt treatment. It is necessary to screen asymptomatic individuals. TB fulfils the WHO screening test requirements (Wilson, 1968). Tertiary Rehabilitation needs to be effective and visible. If the community can see the care and curative treatment the stigma of the illness will lessen and more people come for screening. Programme development Since doctors and nurses do not empower but the community empowers itself (Bright, 1997) it is important that the community has control over the way the programme is set up and run. The issues need to be ranked in order of importance (Ewles, 2003). The programme design is one of health promotion and disease prevention. The Healthcare Commission assesses how well the NHS meets the standards set by the Department of Health document ‘Standards for Better Health’ (2004). These standards include taking into account and implementing nationally agreed guidelines. It is therefore assumed, at least for the purpose of this work, that the NICE guidelines are implemented. The chosen program will be supplementary and complimentary to the implementation of the NICE guidelines. A force field analysis can help to determine the helping and hindering aspects the project is likely to encounter and may be valuable at an early stage in planning the project. It will be beneficial to look at ways of promoting the helping forces and lessening the unfavourable ones. The rationale of the study This is based on the policy on TB. The purpose behind this is that the sooner TB is detected the easier it is to treat and the less the risk of transmission to other people. Aims and objectives These are constructed from areas relevant to the NICE guidelines. There are two aspects to the programme and these are both directly obtained from the objectives of the NICE guidelines (2006). The whole purpose of the NICE guideline is diagnosis and treatment (this is stated in the title of the guideline). Those who may be infectious to others require detection and treatment from the purpose of the own health interests and also in order to lessen the chance of transmission. Treatment needs to be effective. The NICE guideline recognises the advent of drug resistance with failure of treatment and remaining risk of transmission. Following directly on from these two points respectively there are two parts to the objectives of this programme: Diagnosis Each case of sputum positive TB detected will be looked at to see if the diagnosis could have been made sooner. A group will assess the prior opportunities for earlier diagnosis and why those opportunities were missed. For instance was it a problem with the patient, the medical care, administration, resources. Each case will be classed to see if there was an element of sub standard care. Information thus obtained from the cases will be amalgamated to see if there can be any “lessens learnt” or whether targeting of resources in one particular aspect might help. Treatment This consists of two parts (the cases concerned will be a subset of group one except for those cases diagnosed outside of the area): Incomplete treatment Each case where directly observed treatment was not completed will be looked at to see what factors might have enhanced compliance. Drug resistance Each drug resistant case will be looked at to see whether there were potentially avoidable factors in the development of resistance. Target group, The appropriate target groups for the different parts of the study are: 1. Diagnosis All the sputum positive cases that are diagnosed in the area within the first six months. 2a) Incomplete treatment All the cases who were on directly observed treatment and failed to complete it. They may be being treated somewhere else but if this cannot be confirmed they are classed as failure of treatment. Six months would be the time frame Those complying with and still on their treatment at the six month point would not be classed as failure to give treatment. 2b) Drug resistance All diagnosed cases of drug resistant TB diagnosed within the six months. Since health inequalities are associated with social class (Black report, 1980) and material deprivation (Townsend, 1987) these groups will feature prominently in the cases. A study in London (Story, 2006) found that 321 of 1941 (17%) of cases of TB there were in people who were homeless, drug abusers or ex prisoners. These three factors were independently associated with poor treatment compliance. Of poor treatment compliance 38% of the patients were in one of these groups and 44% of smear positive and drug resistant cases were in one of these groups. Setting and needs assessment An integral aspect of this project involves identifying ways to change behaviour of those at risk of acquiring or having TB. The Health Belief Model (Becker, 1974) explains people will weigh up the benefits and risks of making a change and the Theory of Reasoned Action (Ajzen 1980) adds in the influences of family and friends. To facilitate the change Ewles (2003) recommends; Working with the community Facilitating healthier choices Relating to individuals Dealing with resistance When working with the community advocacy is a useful way of gaining representation from groups, and indeed individuals, whose views are difficult to obtain. Perhaps they do not speak English, perhaps they are homeless or abuse drugs. The advocates may be non-medical but have some things in common with the group they are representing. It is vitally important to make healthier choices more attractive to people. This will encourage them to present for screening, investigation or vaccination. Whilst this may be relatively easy for an ethnic minority community it is particularly challenging for the drug abuser or homeless person. Empathy with the problematic group and really understanding their views, motives and behaviour is inherent in this project. In identifying whether diagnosis could have been made earlier or treatment completed the people involved in investigating aspects of the cases will need to include the groups of people from whom the index case arose. This will involve people from local ethnic groups, prisoners, drug addicts and homeless people. Most importantly of all it will involve the patients themselves. For instance, although much useful information will be gleaned from meetings with the above groups of people to try and evaluate the reasons why a particularly individual did not present themselves for screening or did not respond to a request to be screened or did not have a baby vaccinated it is going to be extremely valuable to discuss with the person concerned what factors led to the diagnosis being made at the time it was rather than earlier. Much valuable insight may be gained from this process or there again it might not. In a programme of this nature it is important to keep an open mind to whether something is going to work or not hence the importance of building in an appropriate method of evaluation at the design stage of the study. It is too late to add on the choice of statistical analysis once the data has been collected because it might not have been collected in an appropriate way. Resources To be comprehensive the resources will need to include; Primary and secondary care, with consent issues handled at the time of diagnosis and treatment so that only patients willing to participate will be interviewed. A prior plan will need to be formulated in agreement with the ethics committee about what level of investigation can take and mechanisms of anonymising information. Patient confidentiality is of utmost importance. Patients attending genitourinary medicine clinics will often wish to remain anonymous. However this attendance is an opportunity for screening would provide useful information to the programme. If the group set up to look into the issues of potential for earlier diagnosis and treatment failures are from the same local community they may well know the index case. This issue needs to be discussed at community level to find effective ways of making the process anonymous and gaining community confidence. It is difficult to envisage at this stage where the source of funding will come for such a project. Perhaps the best scenario would be to run it at a loss as academic research perhaps involving students for higher degrees and then present the results of a pilot study to then try and gain some central funding to pursue the project on a wider scale. The worst scenario would be that it never becomes more than a research project. Much will depend on its evaluation results and perceived value partly as a result of its marketing. Aagencies, consumers and stake holders The stake holders are those with an interest in the project and seeing how it is run. The stake holders are many and really encompass all groups primary and secondary care, groups outside of healthcare, and community groups. They all need an awareness of the programme. Some will be more directly involved than others and the degree of involvement will alter as the programme progresses. Budget plan, A costing plan and a template are discussed in detail in a Costing report (2006) for implementation of the NICE guidelines. If feedback from this programme results in earlier diagnosis and in more effective treatment there will be less transmission and less drug resistance. Costings are set out in the NICE documentation and so the relevant calculations can be made for cost savings based in estimates of the results of the programme. The costs incurred will be of setting up the relevant community groups and analysing the cases. This will incur staffing costs and administration costs and likely costs for travel and other community member and patient related costs. Policy evaluation It is important to have a comprehensive programme of evaluation the features of which will shortly be outlined. There are three main purposes to the policy evaluation: Can we identify aspects where significantly earlier diagnosis could have been made? If so what are these and what are the resource and practical implications of implementing them? The same question could be asked of avoiding incomplete directly observed treatment and of avoiding drug resistance. If question one is answered in the affirmative can funding be secured for the project? If question one is answered in the affirmative can the actions identified as valuable in that section be set up? If so this would represent effective feedback. How evaluation will be carried out Clinical and statistical significance must be distinguished. The former is arbitrarily chosen as one month for speed of diagnosis. The relevant evaluation will be by qualitative methods of analysis. It will however be useful to compare the percentage where there was an avoidable factor in later diagnosis, treatment failure or development of resistance over a time scale say a number of years to see if the whole systems approach is actually improving with regard to diagnosis or treatment. References/resources Ajzen I Fishbein M 1980 Understanding attitudes and predicting social behaviour. Englewood Cliffs. Prentice Hall. Becker MH 1974 The health belief model and personal health behaviour. New Jersey. Slack. Black Report 1980 Dept of Health and Social Security Inequalities in Health: report of a research working group. London HMSO Bright JS 1997 Health promotion in clinical practice Bailliere Tindall London Costing report. 2006 NICE clinical guideline no. 33 Implementing NICE guidance in England Department of Health Donaldson LJ Donaldson RJ 2003 Essential Public Health 2nd ed Petroc Press Berkshire Ewles L Simnett I 2003 Promoting health, a practical guide. London. Bailliere Tindall. Government’s TB Action plan for England 2005 Health protection Agency www.hpa.org.uk/infections/topics_az/tb/menu.htm accessed 4.5.06 NICE guidelines 2006 Clinical guideline 33 Tuberculosis Clinical diagnosis and management of tuberculosis, and measures for its prevention and control. www.nice.org.uk/CG033 accessed 10 May 2006 Standards for better health 2004 Department of health. Stopping Tuberculosis in England Department of Health 2004 Story A Murad S Roberts W et al 2006 Contribution of homelessness, problem drug use and prison to tuberculosis in London. Tannahill A 1985 What is health promotion? Health Education Journal 44:167-8 Townsend P Phillimore P Beattie A 1987 Deprivation and health: inequality and the North. Beckenham. Croom Helm Whitehead M Tones K 1991 Avoiding the pitfalls. London. Health Education Authority. Wilson JMG Jungner G 1968 The principles and practice of screening for disease. Public Health Papers 34 Geneva. WHO. Share this: Facebook Twitter Reddit LinkedIn WhatsApp
5-2 Discussion: Psychology Experiments.

Read the two articles on experimental research in psychology. To what extent do you think the research methods used by psychologists adequately explain human behavior in the real world? Choose one of the articles that you have read for your final project and discuss how it relates to the arguments made in this week’s articles. When responding to your classmates, incorporate examples from the articles you are reading for your final project.To complete this assignment, review the Discussion Rubric document (attached).Please also respond to the following two students regarding this same topic:student one:Human behavior in the “real world” would be hard to record, let alone manipulate. When one thinks of explorers of new countries or field scientists who study species of animals (I personally think of Jane Goodall or Jane from Tarzan), many spent months, even years just watching the behavior of their focused study sets. Once a variable is manipulated in an environment, there is that much more to observe in order to ensure other factors are not affecting the changed variable. It seems much simpler to just ask a subject to recall how they felt or how they would feel in a situation as opposed to observing their every move. The article Psychology as the Science of Self-Reports and Finger Movements found that researchers utilized questionnaires and self reporting because of the higher cost associated with behavioral observation (Baumeister, Vohs, and Funder, 2007). Economics and logistics have made research methods, seemingly apathetic.The article Service animals: STARS study findings about pet ownership and recovers from serious mental illness, seemed to not have enough direct observation of the participants (Wisdon, Saedi, & Green, 2009). This study evaluated 177 subjects with mental illness to see if pets assisted with their social or mental care. The information from these patients was collected via interview and none of the data collected was collected by direct observation, only what was reported by the subject. This seems to be an oversight on the researchers behalf as the study was evaluating whether or not pets help their owners with mental illness cope with social situations. I don’t believe the owner is the only one who should be relied upon to answer in this case, there should be some observable information collected as well to make this claim. Student two:The time of performing expensive and borderline unethical practices in psychology is no longer an option. Some of the best experiments that revealed advancements in psychology had great discoveries but also controversial. Experiments such as Stanley Milgram’s obedience test used a situation that may be unethical today because although no one sustained injuries, it may have caused psychological damage to the participants as they observed “shock” to an individual (Baumeister, Vohs & Funder, 2007). It does appear that researchers have moved away from the actual observation of behavior and focus on the internal process. Even Baumeister, Vohs and Funder suggest that a study of inner process without behavior is acceptable but it is not the same the other way around (2007).I used the journal from Woods and Scott that focused on the outcome of social media and how it can cause poor sleep quality and eventually affect anxiety, depression, and self-esteem (2016). However, all the data the researchers obtained was in the form of self-reporting and not in an observed environment. In a different journal, Anderson, Lindsay, and Bushman suggest that lab and field have similar outcomes when they looked at aggression in the two settings (2007). This is one example of lab and field using a meta-analytic technique.Unfortunately, I feel there are too many factors that change how people are. For example, just the other day my wife and I were in Spain when this elderly man fell. I did not see this but saw the man on the floor afterward unaware of what occurred while waiting in a crowd for a train to arrive. Only a few individuals helped with others, such as myself, watched confused by what happened. In short, if it was just the man and myself, I would have been more likely to assist but in the large crowd that I was unaware of the incident, I assumed he was under the influence or someone else in front of the crowd would assist him. Circumstances change behavior is what I am trying to convey. In a lab or field, I would differ my response to the situation. So maybe we are trying to generalize so much but we forget to focus on the actual behavior. Lastly, self-reporting is not an ideal way to obtain results. My answers differ from day-to-day depending on my mood.
5-2 Discussion: Psychology Experiments

PHIL 115 Brookdale Community College Utilitarianism Ethics Discussion.

I’m working on a philosophy question and need an explanation to help me study.

M 7 Discussion — Ethics The Trolley ProblemUtilitarianism holds that in any ethical dilemma we can determine what to do by weighing the consequences of the various options open to us. Hence, the moral principle to use is “the greatest good for the greatest number of people.” While this often can solve moral problems, it can also cause injustice to minorities within the culture who might be victimized by the “greater good.” This difficulty is well illustrated in the famous “trolley problem.” The switch man has the ability to switch the runaway train from the track that will kill five workers, to the track that will kill only one. Would you do so to save the greater number? The second dilemma concerns a fat man on a bridge. If he should happen to fall onto the tracks, he could stop the train in time to save the people on the track. Should you and equally could you push him off the bridge and onto the tracks to save them? In order to resolve these issues, answer the following questions:The theory of utilitarianism would agree that you can ethically switch the tracks and push the man over the bridge. Please view the video before you continue. Explain the basis of Utilitarianism. What are the moral principles that it is based on?In the section titled Some Important Implications of Utilitarianism, the text provides reasons why the theory is problematic. Explain those three reasons in detail.If you would feel uneasy switching the tracks or pushing the man on the track you are not alone. Using information from the text, what criticism of utilitarianism fits this situation?Given all of this information, what do you think you would do if you were to face a trolley problem like this some day? Give reasons for your answer.To discuss this adequately, you should write at least 750 words.Please respond to two of your classmates for maximum points.
PHIL 115 Brookdale Community College Utilitarianism Ethics Discussion

Energy Policy For Libya Environmental Sciences Essay

Libya is Africa’s largest oil producing and exporting country, located in the heart of North Africa, the country is home to 6 million inhabitants distributed over an area covering 1,750,000 Km2. Crude oil is an integral part of the Libyan economy and forms the basis on which the Libyan energy policy is formed, however, with increasing global drive towards more sustainable and renewable energy sources, admits issues of climate change, and global warming, there has been renewed and concerted efforts shown by nations around the world to adopt more sustainable energy sources, this has been highlighted in varied global convections and treaties amongst which are, the 1997 Kyoto Protocol, the 2009 Copenhagen summit to mention but a few. This paper attempts to highlight the place of a developing nation and major oil producer and exporter like Libya in renewed efforts to ensure lower dependence on fossil fuel sources, the country’s current energy policies and the state or extent of renewable energy resource in the country admits global CO2 reduction targets of 80% by 2050 to stem human contributions to climate change and global warming from fossil fuels. LIBYAN ENERGY BACKGROUND In Libya, the daily average of solar radiation on a horizontal plane is 7.1 kWh/m2/day within coastal regions, and 8.1 kWh/m2/day in the southern region, with average sun duration of more than 3500 hours per year (Saleh Ibrahim, 1993). The national electric grid consists of high, medium and low voltage networks of about 12,000 km, 12,500 km and 7,000 km power lines respectively with an installed capacity is 5600 MW and a peak Load of 3650 MW (Saleh Ibrahim et al., 1998). However, despite the remarkable energy network for a population of 6 million, energy is mainly concentrated in the major cities as many villages and remote areas are located far away from these networks. The small population and small consumption needs of these areas make their connection to the grid less economically viable. This has led to the use of small diesel generators in these areas contributing albeit minimally to the CO2 emissions. Furthermore the total dependence on fossil fuel sources for the generation of electricity for the national grid belies the tenets of conventions and treaties on climate change, global warming and sustainable energy development. This however calls for the proper assessment of current energy policies in Libya and the place of renewable energy. Libyan renewable energy resource has the potential to provide clean and reliable energy sources which can be used in many applications in remote areas (electricity, water pumping, etc.) and even contribute to the national grid. Albeit the use of renewable energies has been introduced in a wide range of applications due to its convenience and economic attractiveness, application on a much larger scale in Libya has been hampered by the relative abundance of cheaper crude oil sources. GREEN HOUSE GAS EMISSIONS AND CLIMATE CHANGE Carbon emission has witnessed a meteoric rise since the turn of the Industrial age, Industrial processes have churned up 37 percent of amount of carbon in the atmosphere to date (Boden et al, 2009), Since the advent of industrialization, massive use of fossil fuels for energy generation have been recorded, there has been increase in the amount of gaseous waste produced in homes, and from transportation. These Gases collectively result in forming a layer in the earth’s atmosphere shielding radiated sunlight from the earth’s surface, depleting earth’s ozone layer and causing general warming of the earth. The effect of these gases is known as the green house effect, the process of gradual warming of the earth is Global warming and the gases are referred to as green house gases. The gradual increase in the earth’s overall temperatures has a telling effect on activities and life contained in it. Scientist predict, that rising green house gas levels would result in greater earth warming and invariably melting of the ice caps, increase in ocean mean water levels (20mm by 2020), increased flooding of coastal lands enhanced drought in arid lands (IPCC, 2007) etc, and these are part of the deleterious effect of climate change, which has led to a global outcry for the reduction in the emission of gases that give rise to this effect and the setting of CO2 reduction target of 80% by the year 2050. The earth is said to have warmed up by 0.740C over the last hundred years and about 0.40C of this occurred in the last decade (DEFRA, 2006). Agreements, declarations and treaties have been made in summits top on the list of which is the Copenhagen Summit of 2009 borne to develop and exploit means for carbon capture and storage, The Rio declaration of 1992 was to outline support for protection of the environment from the deleterious activities of man, while the Kyoto protocol of 1997, outlined the six major green house gases and set targets for governments to cut down on the production of these gases as waste. Human Drivers Greenhouse gases are released into the atmosphere by various mechanisms, chief amongst them is the burning of fossil fuels like coal, oil, and gas. Over the past fifty years, growth of the world economy has been hinged on worldwide energy use this has resulted in increase in global concentrations of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases in the air. The Kyoto Protocol highlighted anthropogenic emissions as a major cause and as an addendum listed six greenhouse gases. The KYOTO Protocol In 1997, the United Nations having evaluated the potential threat of global warming and the attendant causes (anthropogenic emission of greenhouse gases) proceeded to outlined the six major greenhouse gases and set targets (of 80% reduction in CO2 emissions by 2050) for national governments to cut down on the generation of these gases as waste or emit them as pollutants. The summit held in Kyoto Japan, entered into force in 2005. The Protocol which shared the ultimate objective of the Convention in Kyoto, Japan was to ensure that nations take steps to stabilize atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases ensuring that they do not exceed levels that will enhance dangerous interference with the already delicate climate system. The convention also attempted to build upon with a view to enhancing many of the commitments that were already in place under the Convention (UNFCCC 2007). Albeit the Kyoto Protocol was influenced by political factors, its ratification by most countries may be justified in light of the peculiar features of the global warming debacle, the existence of uncertainties, non-linearities and irreversibilities, possible catastrophes with small probabilities, asymmetric distribution of impacts, and the very long planning horizon (IPCC, 1996). The scientific uncertainties enshrouding the climate change and global warming still remain a rallying point for critics. The Kyoto Protocol tackles emissions of six greenhouse gases: carbon dioxide (CO2); methane (CH4); nitrous oxide (N2O); hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs); perfluorocarbons (PFCs); Sulphur hexafluoride (SF6). CURRENT LIBYAN ENERGY CLIME The Libyan economy has been heavily dependent on the hydrocarbon industry since the discovery of crude oil. In 2008, the hydrocarbon industry in Libya accounted for over 95% of the country’s export earnings, 85-90% of fiscal revenues and over 70% of Libya’s gross domestic product (GDP) (IMF 2009). Libya holds the largest crude oil deposit in Africa amounting close to 44 billion barrels of oil reserves (OGJ 2010). EIA 2008 data indicate that 2008 total oil production in Libya was approximately 1.88 million barrels per day (bbl/d). Energy is the backbone of the economy availability of cheap energy compared to other Mediterranean countries has helped to the expansion of all sectors, like industry, commerce, construction and services. However, as much gas is found in the crude (associated gas), Libya engages in gas flaring activities (to get rid of associated gas) thus ensuring a steady and direct injection of greenhouse gases to the atmosphere. LIBYAN CONVENTIONAL ENERGY RESOURCES Current energy supply in Libya cannot be considered as sustainable sources of energy, with increasing cost of energy from attendant increase in exploration and refining cost, there is also the case of fuel sources being limited and environmental problems. Fossil fuel is limited or finite and Libya relies on energy from two limited conventional sources. Oil: With total discovered resources estimated to 44 billion bbl. Natural Gas: With total discovered resources estimated to 1300 billion m3. It is estimated that Libya’s oil resources will not last more than 50 years with current rate of exploration and production, albeit natural gas is expected to last a little longer (Saleh 2006) It is projected that by the year 2050, prices of crude oil barrel may reach more than $200 while Libya would require about 70 million barrels of oil per year for electricity production requirement costing about 14 billion dollars annually. This would ultimately result in pressure on crude oil sources, its availability and increase in cost of generating electricity therefore underpinning the need for more sustainable forms of energy. By contrast, the abundance of potential sustainable energy in Libya decries the dependence on fossil fuels for example; the solar radiation in Libya is equivalent to a layer of 25 cm of crude oil per year on the land surface. Energy and emissions figures in libya Jacqueline 2000 reports that the amount of greenhouse gases emitted determines the magnitude and rate of future climate change, the sensitivity of climate to these gases and the degree to which the effects are modified by aerosol emissions. Libya, with 2002 estimations, had a 69.2 % energy consumption from oil and 30.8 % from natural gas, the emissions of CO2 attributed mainly to oil (71.7 %) and (28.3 %) natural gas (EIA, 2005), this means invariably that the energy sector which is the main source of greenhouse emissions in Libya depends mainly on fossil fuels (oil and natural gas). CO2 emission in Libya is put at 55.5 million tonnes per annum in 2009 following United Nations reports relating to 9.19 tonnes per capita and 31.5 tonnes per kilometre square (World Bank 2010). Libyan Energy consumption by Sector Current Libyan Energy consumption shows a total dependence on energy from fossil fuel sources. With domestic consumption of 273,000 bbl/d in 2008, shared within the sectors as described below. Residential 34% Industry 27% Commercial 27% Transport 12% Source: Oil and Gas Directory 2010. Figure 1: Current energy consumption in Libya by sector Table 1: Energy Production in Libya Type Production Consumption Export Natural Gas 12 b m3/y 3 b m3/y 9 b m3/y Oil 0.6 b bbl/y 0.1 b bbl/y 0.5 b bbl/y Electicity 20 T Wh/y Source: Saleh 2006 Environmental Impact – Carbon Implication/ Future projections Libyan power stations utilize only fuel from fossil sources to generate electricity, and with the high demand of energy, from all the sectors which is estimated to more than double by 2050, there is going to be substantial increase in CO2 emissions by 2050, thus raising atmospheric carbon levels and contributing ever so gravely to the already deteriorating state of the climate. With the varied effect of global warming already being felt steps need to be taken to limit further emissions and manage present situation. “Anthropic emissions of CO2 amounted to 26 billion tonnes in 2004. In a reference scenario extrapolating current trends, CO2 emissions are set to double by 2050, to more than 50 billion tonnes of CO2 a year. Continuing this trend would lead to an atmospheric concentration of CO2 exceeding 1,000ppm (parts per million) at the end of the 21st century, a concentration that is totally unacceptable in terms of its climate impact and its socio-economic consequences” (IFP 2007). Global Warming Trends/ Future Trends In a bid to predict future climate change conditions, Scientists develop mathematically-based climate models. Adopting different assumptions on how various factors play to predict how atmospheric CO2 levels and temperatures will change in future. The variables in each model include: Population growth rate Economic development Energy use Efficiency of energy use Mix of energy technologies “The graph below shows the results from three climate models used by the IPCC, with predictions starting in 1990 and ending in the year 2100. In all three, the global population rate rises during the first half of the century, and then declines. The A1B model assumes rapid economic growth and increased equity-the reduction of regional differences in per-person income. New and more efficient technologies are introduced, without relying heavily on a single energy source. The A1F1 model is the same as A1B, but assumes the continued use of fossil fuel-intensive technologies. In the B1 model, the world moves rapidly from a producer-consumer economy toward a service and information economy. There is a reduction in the use of raw materials, and an emphasis on clean and efficient technologies and improved equity. Other models have been developed, each based upon a different set of assumptions. Figure 2: Adapted from IPCC, Third Assessment Report on Climate Change, 2001. Global temperature increases predicted by three different IPCC climate models. Although differing in degree, these three climate prediction models show similar trends: The projected rate of global warming in the future is much larger than the rate of global warming during the 20th century. Predicted rates of global warming are greater than any seen in the past 10,000 years”. (Exploring earth 2009) From the chart above it is clear where we have to take a stand. With the above stated premise and the statistical review, it is imperative to develop a strategy that first curtails present carbon emissions and subsequently reduces the overall generation from various sources described above. MITIGATING CLIMATE CHANGE VIA LIBYAN ENERGY POLICY – INCORPORATING RENEWABLE ENERGY Strategies for reducing CO2 emissions by 80% by 2050 and Implementation Techniques Taking into cognisance current emission trends and sectors fingered in CO2 emissions, cutting down of emission cannot be over emphasized. A proactive approach to detailing of strategic plans of action for implementation must take into account past emission log; fully understand the current situation and project reduction measures that proffer solutions through a cost effective and practicable approach. To achieve these, the need to fully understand the scope of the problems at hand is imperative. To this end, I propose a utilitarian based all inclusive approach to reducing 80% emission by 2050. My approach is based on the incorporation of renewable energy in the Libyan energy policy. Libyan Renewable Energy Potential Libyan geographical location positions 88% of its area in the Sahara desert region of Africa, where there is a high propensity of solar energy which can be used to generate electricity via solar energy conversions, of both photovoltaic panels, and or thermally. According to the trans Mediterranean interconnection for concentrating solar power (MED-CSP)highlights Libya’s renewable energy potention as depicted in the table below. Table 2: Renewable energy sources for Libya Type Potentiality Solar electricity 140,000 TWh/y Wind electricity 15 TWh/y Biomass 2 TWh/y Total 157,000 TWh/y Source: Saleh 2006 .This shows enough renewable resource potential to meet 3 times electricity demand in Libya by the year 2050 Renewable energy hold advantages over conventional fossil fuel sources for the provision of energy in that they portend convenience and are economically effective and viable in many areas of applications. Libyan renewable energy resource consists of photovoltaic conversion of solar energy, solar thermal applications, wind energy, and Biomass Solar Energy – conversion of solar energy in Libya for electricity generations could be in two forms, the utilization of photovoltaic’s or solar thermal application. Thermal Conversions Solar heaters were introduced in Libya in 1983 with a pilot project that included 10 systems. The effectiveness of these systems has led to installation of about 2000 additional solar heaters. Figures show that water heating consumes about 12% of energy from national electricity production however, fundamental issues limit wider application of thermal converters for water heating in Libya, these issues include; Absence of decentralised national or personal electricity generation industry. Lack of information for the people. Low electric energy tariff. Solar Photovoltaic’s Operating on the simple principle of direct conversion of solar power into electricity, achieved by the agitation of electrons in P-N junctions by photons which thus creates an electric current which is tapped of by conducting wires. PV resource potential within Libya is enormous; current small scale applications highlight the use of PV in the following areas; PV in Microwave Communication Networks – Amongst the 500 repeater station in Libya, 9 have been run by photovoltaic systems up until the end of 1997 producing a total peak power of 10.5 KWp. Of these, four still run after 26 years of work, with minimal maintenance as the batteries which they use are open type batteries and were replaced three times with an average lifetime of eight years. With the technical and economical success of PV systems, all communication networks previously powered by diesel generators were converted to PV systems thus effectively bringing the total number of PV run station to about 80. The total installed photovoltaic peak power by 2005 was around 420 KWp. (Saleh Ibrahim et al., 2003). PV in Cathodic protection – Saleh Ibrahim et al., (2004), showed it cost $1.4 to supply one KWh of daily supply load of 15 KWh for a cathodic protection (CP) station located 5 Km from a 11 KV electric grid. Also another study showed that PV systems were more convenient and economical for the production of a daily CP load of 7.5 KWh from a distance of more than 1.2 Km from the 11 KV electric grid. This highlighted the importance and value of PV systems and hence their application. Further Future Applications PV systems in Rural Electrification In Libya rural areas face electrification problems because they are far away from the national grid and it wouldn’t be economical to extend electric network to low demand areas, to this end the incorporation of PV systems would be invaluable. Currently, Libya plans to electrify rural areas consist of scattered houses, villages, and water pumping with PV systems, these Villages include; Mrair Gabis village, Swaihat village, Intlat village, Beer al-Merhan village, and Wadi Marsit village (Saleh Ibrahim et al., 2006) The installation of PV systems started in the middle of 2003. The total number of systems installed by General Electric company of Libya (GECOL) is 340 with a total capacity of 220 kWp, while the ones installed by the Center of Solar Energy Studies (CSES) and the Saharan Center are 150 with a total power of 125 KWp. The applications are: 380 systems for isolated houses, 30 systems for police stations, and 100 systems for street illumination. The total peak power is 345 KWp. PV for Water pumping The use of PV systems in Water pumping portends great advantages for rural communities as remote wells which are used to supply water for human and live stock that are located in rural places. Environment: It is worthy to note that the environmental impact of PV is less than that of any other renewable (Boyle 2004), however, concerns have been showed for toxic compounds used in the production of some PV e.g. Cadmium. Economics: From the word go, PV systems have continued to improve in cost effectiveness and if such a trend keeps up, it could become a force for contention with fossil fuels. Integration: With no medium for storing of electricity and the fluctuating nature of PV generation problems accrue over integration of PV electricity to the National grid. Although, the grid is designed to cope with massive fluctuations in demand, and similarly fluctuating supply like PV considered negative loads, analyst suggest that without large amounts of cheap electricity storage PV sources cannot make major contributions (Boyle 2004). Presently the conversion efficiency of PV cells is low (15%-30%) so this may hamper possibilities. Wind Energy Since 1940, wind energy has been utilized for water pumping in many oases. The potential of this renewable energy source has not been fully harnesses in Libya especially for powering rural communities and farms and use in irrigation. 2004 Libyan measurements of the wind speed statistics showed that there is a high potential for wind energy in Libya with the average wind speed at a 40 meter height is between 6- 7.5 m/s. The Libyan government has seen the potential in wind energy generation of electricity and have contracted the the project for use of wind energy for electricity production. This project includes the installation of a 25 MW wind farm as a pilot project. Also, a project to prepare two Atlas that provide fast access to reliable solar and wind data throughout Libya is also been contracted for. The Atlas will allow for accurate analysis of the available wind and solar resources anywhere in Libya, and will be therefore be invaluable to the planning of profitable wind farms and solar projects. In other to meet the target of an 80% reduction in CO2 emissions by 2050, it is imperative to tackle from source electricity generation which utilises fossil fuels by the setting up of an energy policy that seeks to ensure that energy from renewable energy sources contributes 10% to Libya’s electricity demand by the year 2020. As stated above, photovoltaic has been used for small and medium sized remote applications with proven economic feasibility; however, several constraints and barriers, including costs exist. The experience of rural applications shows that there is a high potential of building large scale PV plants in the south of the Mediterranean. The potential for utilizing, home grid connected photovoltaic systems, large scale grid connected electricity generation using Wind farms, and solar thermal for electricity generation is great, with capacities of several thousands of MW. At the business end, Libya can expand its electricity generation capacities from its eneormous renewable source to meet the demands of Mediterranean countries, taking advantage of its proximity to the European energy market. This can be considered as a future plan. The potential for Solar energy resources to effectively replace oil and gas has to be harnessed. Renewable energy resources portend good opportunities for technology transfer and international cooperation. In the current Libyan energy clime, the decentralised nature of renewable energy technologies make them particularly well suited for rural energy development further enhancing use of the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) adopted by Kyoto Protocol in renewable energy applications that would reduce CO2 emissions. For Proper development of Libyan Renewable energy potential, the following have to be met: Promotion of private investment in transfer of renewable energy technology and services. Introduce renewable energy in formal education curriculum as well as Increase informal education on all energy aspects. Development of policies that support the introduction of renewables via local, national and international partnerships Courage the international investment to invest in the industry. International cooperation that seeks to aid the development and construction of large scale solar energy applications as a pilot project. Development and support, of technical, financial, and institutional, research mechanisms for sustainable development. Development of national energy policies and regulatory frameworks that would aid in the creation of the necessary economic, social and institutional conditions in the energy sector and improve access to reliable, affordable, economically viable socially acceptable and environmentally sound energy services for sustainable development. CONCLUSION Current Libyan energy policy depicts a system that lacks efficiency in the production and consumption of energy, challenge lies in the development of energy efficiency in the various sectors with several barriers including: lack of access to technology, capacity building, and institutional issues. In other to achieve energy efficiency in both energy consumption and production sides, it is imperative to incorporate renewable energy in all energy end-using sectors, the focus is on improving equipment efficiency of services, such as heating and air conditioning equipment, appliances, lighting and motors. On the supply and production side, energy management should focus on incorporation of renewable energy in energy generation, improved industrial processes, co generation and energy recovery systems. Energy efficiency can help reducing cost, preserving natural resources and protecting the environment.. Furthermore, as Libya is a non annex I country under the UNFCCC, and a signatory to the Kyoto protocol, Libya is currently eligible for the CDM. The main emitters of CO2 in 2003 are fuel combustion in the power generation sector. Libya’s energy related CO2 emissions increased by more than 78% in one decade mostly due to increased energy supply and significant reduction could be achieved if improved energy utilization efficiency by the major energy sectors is encouraged. Conclusively, The Legislative Act Number 7 of 1982 concerning the protection of the environment which is Libya’s biggest environmental protection act looks into a holistic plan to protect the environment, water, land, wildlife, plants, food etc from the deleterious activities of both man and nature. This piece of legislation which has a total of 11 sections and 75 articles was promulgated by the General People’s Congress, Libya’s highest executive authority. Below are the underlisted sections of this legislation: Section 1 – General Provisions Section 2 – Protection of the Atmosphere Section 3 – Protection of Seas and Marine Resources Section 4 – Protection of Water Resources Section 5 – Protection of Foodstuffs Section 6 – Environmental Health Section 7 – Protection from Contagious Diseases Section 8 – Soils and Plant Protection Section 9 – Protection of Wildlife Section 10 – Interim Provisions Section 11 – Penalties The import of these legislation, and strict enforcements would help Libya in meeting the 2050 target of 80% reduction in CO2 emission.

Procter and Gamble Case Study Case Study

assignment writing services Table of Contents Diamond Philosophy Discussing the organization of Procter and Gamble Qualities of Lafley Supply chain management Reference List Diamond Philosophy Procter and Gamble use the Diamond Philosophy to guide its business product innovation efforts. The Diamond is a symbol of all the aspects that come together during the business product innovation process. Indeed, some of the things that are considered during this process include resources, the innovation strategy, the SIMPL™ new product process, and the project selection process. It is important to note that the Diamond Philosophy has four main drivers. The four drivers are incorporating a product innovation and technology strategy for the business, ensuring resource commitment and portfolio management, investing in the right people to ensure functional and effective teams, and establishing an effective idea to launch process. The company has used these four elements to ensure they remain at the top of the market. Interestingly, these guidelines are applied to the company as a whole and also to individual products. This ensures that the standard is the same throughout the different departments and units in the company. For example, P

RLGN 104 Liberty University Week 4 The Gospel Message Discussion

RLGN 104 Liberty University Week 4 The Gospel Message Discussion.

After reading “The Gospel Message” article in the Module/Week 4
Reading & Study folder, answer the following questions (250–500
words total). These questions must be answered in separate paragraphs.
What are various ways the gospel message is perceived in our culture?
What are some specific moral reasons people may reject the gospel message?
What are some specific emotional reasons people may reject the gospel message?
What are some specific intellectual reasons people may reject the gospel message?
What can Christians do to address these objections and better communicate the gospel message?
Note: Scripture, course content, or research must
be included in your answers where appropriate and must be cited
properly with in-text citations and a reference, works cited or
bibliography section at the end of your thread. See links in Assignment
Instructions for details how to cite content to avoid plagiarism. Review
the Discussion Board Forum 2 Instructions and grading rubric before
completing this assignment.
RLGN 104 Liberty University Week 4 The Gospel Message Discussion

MHA 506 UOPX Tactics and Implementation for Your Marketing Plan Case Study

MHA 506 UOPX Tactics and Implementation for Your Marketing Plan Case Study.

Write a minimum of 2 pages for the Tactics and Implementation portions for your Marketing Plan to address the situation in the case study.I just need this part:Explain any changes you will make to the communication methods between the organization and its target groups. Be specific. If you choose social media, for example, explain why that is the communication channel of choice for your target group.3.For Implementation: Business infrastructure – explain any changes you will make to both types of infrastructure, and why. The physical infrastructure is the buildings and facilities. The Organizational infrastructure defines who reports to who. Explain if you will make changes, or why you will not.
MHA 506 UOPX Tactics and Implementation for Your Marketing Plan Case Study

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