The changing scenario of marketing is exerting pressure and challenges to the retailer companies, in-spite of their competitive position in the market. Marketing plan is the reviving step for the company to give a new direction to their business. Tesco Plc is the largest British retailer and operating well in the retail industry. Tesco plc is a global general merchandising and grocery retailer. It is the biggest UK based retailer in terms of its global sales and domestic market share. It was established in 1919 by Jack Cohen. UK stores of Tesco are 2. Marketing Plan divided into six formats that are Tesco Extra, Tesco Superstars, Tesco Metro, Tesco Express, One Stop and Tesco Homeplus. Tesco plc is the third major global retailer according to the revenue after Wal-Mart and France’s Carrefour. On the basis of profitability, it is the second largest, after Carrefour. Initially, the company specialized in drink and food business; afterward, it expanded into segments like consumer electronics, clothing, telecoms, financial services, health, home and car insurance, dental plans. Other areas in which the company is dealing are CDs, music downloads, retailing and renting DVDs, software and Internet services. Tesco is operating well into its segmented divisions all over the world, but there is a need to have a competitive marketing plan, in order to reap out the benefits offered by the existing opportunities of global market. (Marketing Plan for TESCO, n.d.). Situation analysis is an integral part of a marketing plan, as it mentions organizational strategies, customers, marketing effectiveness, porter’s five forces, SWOT analysis and marketing effectiveness. For situation analysis, FEPSOS approach will be applied in which functions, environment, productivity, systems, organization and strategy will be discussed. These are as follow: Functions: TESCO operates in diverse areas that are profitable. It operates a grocery home shopping service and provides telecommunications, consumer goods and financial services online. It also provides internet based DVD’s on rental basis to the consumers that is a profitable area for its business. It also deals in the area of home phones, mobile phones and VoIP business. The company also executes its activities in the banking sector, as it has a joint venture with the bank of Scotland in the ratio of 50:50 partnerships. (Marketing Plan for TESCO, n.d.). Environment: The firm operates in a competitive marketing environment. The macro and micro environment both are favorable for the company operations. These are as follow: Micro environment: Micro environment consists of different factors that have a direct or indirect influence over the company’s operations and determine the company viability in long run. (Marketing Plan for TESCO, n.d.). These are as described: Customers: The Corporation provides its products and services mainly to the people of U.K. A part from this, it offers its products
For Foucault, ‘knowledge ceases to be about liberation and becomes a mode of surveillance, regulation and discipline’. Examine this statement in relation to Foucault’s analysis of power. The issue of ‘power’ is a topic which has perplexed not only many Sociologists, but certainly many scholars within the field of Philosophy, Psychology and indeed many others. The Sociologist most noted with this theory is Michel Foucault. Foucault gave a comprehensive and in depth analysis of power, which we will discuss later. However, before we do, we must look at the life of Foucault, as to gain a better understanding of his works. Paul-Michel Foucault, a French Philosopher, Historian and Sociologist lived from October 1926- June 1984. He held the title ‘History of Systems of thought at the notably prestigious College de France, as well as lecturing at the University of Buffalo and the University of Berkley, one of America’s most famous institutions. He refused time and time again to call himself a post-modernist, although he was highly influenced by post-modernist thought. He is most publically recognised for his critical studies of Social Institutions, with particular emphasis on medicine, psychiatry and the human sciences. His work on Power, Knowledge and Discourse has become the topic of much discussion, and has been taken up by many other key thinkers. During the 1960’s, Foucault was associated with the structural movement, however he tried to distance himself from this. He preferred to think of himself as a pupil forwarding the Enlightenment views of Kant, trying to show that a side about individual liberty could be applied to improve the Enlightenment theory. According to Giddens, ‘The study of power- how individuals and groups achieve their ends as against those of others- is of fundamental importance in Sociology’. Classical thinkers, such as Karl Marx and Max Weber, placed importance on this theory, with Foucault building upon their foundations of theory. Unlike many before him, Foucault saw power as not being concentrated in the hands of the few in one place. Foucault showed in his complex writings that power could be found in all social relationships and not just in the hands of States. However, much of his work is spent showing the ways in which the States exercise their power over the populations. For Foucault, power is ultimately linked with knowledge; they exist because of one another. Therefore, the State’s power then extends from the development of new types of Knowledge. With the emergence of these, society is able to collect more information about the population and thus control it better. Power, however, whilst restricting people, can also enable them to do things. Power can also only operate if society has a certain amount of freedom, as society tries to restrict, people often try, and succeed, in slipping from its grasp. Foucault’s early work on Madness and Civilisation (1967) described how, by the Eighteenth Century, unemployment, poverty and madness started to be seen as social problems by the States. Before this, the mad were free from state intervention, and were allowed to wander as they liked in rural areas; or they were put to sea in ‘ships of fools’. However, these became replaced with areas of confinement, such as madhouses, where they became isolated and separated from the rest of civilisation. According to Foucault, this was due to the European culture with a sense of responsibility for these social problems. A duty of responsibility was formed for the mad. However, by the 19th Century, these methods of separating groups was seen as being a mistake. New methods were developed to separate the different groups. Psychiatry began to take off, and became a new means by which to categorise people, for example, as being mad or suffering from some form of illness. As this happened, the discourse of the social sciences came to be involved in power relationships. Maden Sarup (1988) argued that the term discourse as used by Foucault, meant “practices that systematically form the object of which they speak”. According to this then, the development of psychiatric theories created mental illness. It was a discourse used to control certain groups within the population. This technique became crucial in the State’s gradual development of administration. The term ‘administration’ allowed monitoring and possible control over people and their behaviour. However, according to Foucault, it was not just a straight forward power held by the state. Rather, it allowed power relationships on an individual level, for example, between a psychiatrist and a patient. In Foucault’s later work, ‘Discipline and Punish’ (1975), he explored these themes in much more depth. Foucault begins with a very gruesome account of the public execution of Damiens in Paris, 1757. He was, in today’s terms, tortured. However, Foucault makes the point that by the late 18th Century the use of public punishment began to dwindle. Punishment became private, rather than public, with the use of better, more efficient methods, for example, hanging. This also saw the implementation of more prison sentences. They obey a strict regime of work, sleep and education. According to Foucault, these changes involved a shift in the practices of punishment. Before the use of prisons, the main focus of punishment was on the pain inflicted to the body. However, the use of prisons focused on punishing the soul. It was to do with a loss of rights now, for example the right to freedom. The almost guarantee of being caught was meant to deter people, rather than the fear of public humiliation which thus had failed. This new method was intended to offer reformation rather than to make the offender suffer. There was, as Foucault made clear no absolute shift in punishment methods, as capital punishment was, as is, still practiced. However, there was a definite shift to the latter method from the former. A change in what exactly was being judged also occurred. Before, it was the act being judged, whereas now it was the type of person they were. Extenuating circumstances were now taken into account. The level of punishment now focused on the motivation behind the crime. As Foucault stated, “The question is no longer ‘has the act been established and is it punishable?’ But also: ‘What is this act, what is this act of violence or this murder?’ To what level or what field of reality does it belong?” These questions could only be answered by a range of specialists, for example, psychiatrists and psychologists. Control became fragmented in this specialist knowledge. Foucault claims “A corpus of knowledge, techniques, and ‘scientific’ discourses is formed and becomes entangled with the practice of the power to punish.” Even as the state developed methods to control people, it gave power to the experts who had the knowledge, thus again proving the link between knowledge and power. However, with the exercise of power and knowledge relationships, Foucault makes the important point that they are not entirely negative. There also exist positive responses to them. It can allow certain things to be achieved. The example Foucault uses is the motivation of workers to become better and improve the labour power that societies may require. Moreover, power is not something possessed by individuals, “power is exercised rather than possessed”. Also, power can only be used when people have a choice about what to do; and Foucault makes the point that there are extremely few occasions when people will have no choice. Someone would be able to resist by possibly “committing suicide, or killing the other”, (Foucault 1988). Therefore, it is always possible to resist those exercising power, the result, however, produces an element of uncertainty. Power has the ability to be reversed. He argues “â€¦the fact that I am older and that at first you were intimidated can, in the course of the conversation, turn about and it is I who can become intimidated before someone, precisely because he is younger”, (Hindess, 1996). In his work on discipline, Foucault again states that power and knowledge are inseparable, “We should admit that power produces knowledgeâ€¦ that power and knowledge directly imply one another; that there is now power relation without correlative constitutions of a field of knowledge, now any knowledge that does not presuppose and constitute at the same time power relations”. Thus, it becomes possible to resist the exertion of power by challenging the knowledge on which it was based. For example, a patient may question a doctor’s diagnosis, thus challenging the knowledge and overcoming the power of the doctor’s expertise. Because each implies the other, power relationships can be seen in all aspects of society. They are not just seen between State and citizen relations, or between classes. Therefore, for Foucault, Marxism is too limited as it only focuses on the power relationships between classes. As the same, Pluralism only focuses on state exerted power. They are inadequate as they are too narrow, and fail to look at the everyday interactions of people and the commonly used discourses involved therein. Foucault does not believe that power and knowledge is not exercised by the state alone; however that does not imply that he feels they are absent from the state either. Attempts are continually made by Governments and other bodies to control and manipulate behaviours. Sophisticated techniques can be developed to do this, although they are never entirely successful. In his text, Foucault enters into extreme detail about the ways in which states oversee activities involving power and knowledge. He discussed the English philosopher Jeremy Bentham’s prison design, the Panopticon. It was never fully used, although pieces of the design were incorporated into prison construction. The main feature of this design was a central tower. It allowed the guards to see into any cell at any given time. Back lighting would mean they could observe without the prisoner’s knowledge; thus forcing them to never misbehave, as they would never know if a guard was looking at them. They would have discipline enforced upon them. For Foucault, discipline was an important feature for modern societies. Surveillance techniques, such as Closed Circuit Television, or CCTV, were used to observe people’s behaviour in public places, thus encouraging a strong regime of self-discipline. People then began to grow accustomed to control their actions, whether being observed or not, the fear was enough. Discipline therefore gives people the power to regulate their own behaviour. This is based on Foucault’s notion that we all have a soul, and this can be manipulated. However, what Foucault calls a soul being manipulated, some may argue that it is, in fact, a psychological technique, thus taking the power away from the state and back to the expert psychologist. This notion is more effective, however, than simply inflicting pain. You do not punish the body; rather you produce docile bodies which pose no threat as they are self-disciplined. Discipline plays an important in Governance, however it is also found in many other organisations, and is never truly successful. According to Hindess (1996), ” the suggestion is, then, that we live in a world of disciplinary projects, all of which suffer from more or less successful attempts at resistance and evasion. The result is a disciplinary, but hardly disciplined society”. For Foucault, government goes beyond the activities of state. The pupil who misbehaves or the patient who denies the diagnosis are as much a feature of modern societies as the docile body of a disciplined citizen. In conclusion, Foucault’s work provides significant insight into the nature of power. He succeeds in showing how power and knowledge are connected closely. He also shows how power is found in other social relationships other than what involves the government, and demonstrates how power is never likely to be absolute. Furthermore, he successfully shows how people will try to evade any exertion of power onto them. His work is much more subtly done than the theory of some Marxists and Pluralists. However, it can be said that he fails to take into account the importance of some of these theories in relation to power. He neglects the view that power can be exercised in the field of economics, and also neglects the power that the military can exercise. Moreover, Foucault at times seems to contradict himself. He claims that the Government’s have an increased ability to surveil and regulate the citizens. However, he then says that power can be exercised when we have some freedom, and that resistance is impossible. These statements would seem to be at opposite ends of the pole. Furthermore, Foucault’s definition is much different than that of, for example, the sociologist Max Weber, who asserts that power is exercised because we do not have freedom to act as we chose to do rather than as we are told to do. However, Foucault does certainly offer an alternative idea which is provocative in the field of research. He uses a very intriguing analysis of how States develop techniques of social control.
Writer’s Choice Essay
1 of 1 1 of 1 Items Question 1 Item 1 Analyzing Telling Details Directions Carefully read the short story, “Powder,” by Tobias Wolff. The two main characters are a father and son. Since the son is the narrator, his thoughts are often expressed directly. On the other hand, figuring out what the father is thinking requires paying close attention to the telling details the author includes. Write a well-written paragraph in which you analyze how the author uses telling details to provide the reader with insight into the father’s character. “POWDER” BY TOBIAS WOLFF Just before Christmas my father took me skiing at Mount Baker. He’d had to fight for the privilege of my company, because my mother was still angry with him for sneaking me into a nightclub during his last visit, to see Thelonious Monk. He wouldn’t give up. He promised, hand on heart, to take good care of me and have me home for dinner on Christmas Eve, and she relented. But as we were checking out of the lodge that morning it began to snow, and in this snow he observed some rare quality that made it necessary for us to get in one last run. We got in several last runs. He was indifferent to my fretting. Snow whirled around us in bitter, blinding squalls, hissing like sand, and still we skied. As the lift bore us to the peak yet again, my father looked at his watch and said, “Criminy. This’ll have to be a fast one.” By now I couldn’t see the trail. There was no point in trying. I stuck close behind him and did what he did and somehow made it to the bottom without sailing off a cliff. We returned our skis and my father put chains on the Austin-Healey while I swayed from foot to foot, clapping my mittens and wishing I was home. I could see everything. The green tablecloth, the plates with the holly pattern, the red candles waiting to be lit. We passed a diner on our way out. “You want some soup?” my father asked. I shook my head. “Buck up,” he said. “I’ll get you there. Right, doctor?” I was supposed to say, “Right, doctor,” but I didn’t say anything. A state trooper waved us down outside the resort, where a pair of sawhorses blocked the road. He came up to our car and bent down to my father’s window, his face bleached by the cold, snowflakes clinging to his eyebrows and to the fur trim of his jacket and cap. “Don’t tell me,” my father said. The trooper told him. The road was closed. It might get cleared, it might not. Storm took everyone by surprise. Hard to get people moving. Christmas Eve. What can you do. My father said, “Look. We’re talking about five, six inches. I’ve taken this car through worse than that.” The trooper straightened up. His face was out of sight but I could hear him. “The road is closed.” My father sat with both hands on the wheel, rubbing the wood with his thumbs. He looked at the barricade for a long time. He seemed to be trying to master the idea of it. Then he thanked the trooper and with a weird, old-maidy show of caution turned the car around. “Your mother will never forgive me for this,” he said. “We should’ve left this morning,” I said. “Doctor.” He didn’t speak to me again until we were in a booth at the diner, waiting for our burgers. “She won’t forgive me,” he said. “Do you understand? Never.” “I guess,” I said, though no guesswork was required. She wouldn’t forgive him. “I can’t let that happen.” He bent toward me. “I’ll tell you what I want. I want us all to be together again. Is that what you want?” “Yes, sir.” He bumped my chin with his knuckles. “That’s all I needed to hear.” When we finished eating he went to the pay phone in the back of the diner, then joined me in the booth again. I figured he’d called my mother, but he didn’t give a report. He sipped at his coffee and stared out the window at the empty road. “Come on, come on,” he said, though not to me. A little while later he said it again. When the trooper’s car went past, lights flashing, he got up and dropped some money on the check. “Okay. Vámonos.” The wind had died. The snow was falling straight down, less of it now and lighter. We drove away from the resort, right up to the barricade. “Move it,” my father told me. When I looked at him, he said, “What are you waiting for?” I got out and dragged one of the sawhorses aside, then put it back after he drove through. He pushed the door open for me. “Now you’re an accomplice,” he said. “We go down together.” He put the car into gear and gave me a look. “Joke, son.” Down the first long stretch I watched the road behind us, to see if the trooper was on our tail. The barricade vanished. Then there was nothing but snow: snow on the road, snow kicking up from the chains, snow on the trees, snow in the sky, and our trail in the snow. Then I faced forward and had a shock. There were no tracks ahead of us. My father was breaking virgin snow between tall treelines. He was humming “Stars Fell on Alabama.” I felt snow brush along the floorboards under my feet. To keep my hands from shaking I clamped them between my knees. My father grunted thoughtfully and said, “Don’t ever try this yourself.” “I won’t.” “That’s what you say now, but someday you’ll get your license and then you’ll think you can do anything. Only you won’t be able to do this. You need, I don’t know—a certain instinct.” “Maybe I have it.” “You don’t. You have your strong points, sure, just not this. I only mention it because I don’t want you to get the idea this is something anybody can do. I’m a great driver. That’s not a virtue, okay? It’s just a fact, and one you should be aware of. Of course you have to give the old heap some credit too. There aren’t many cars I’d try this with. Listen!” I did listen. I heard the slap of the chains, the stiff, jerky rasp of the wipers, the purr of the engine. It really did purr. The old heap was almost new. My father couldn’t afford it, and kept promising to sell it, but here it was. I said, “Where do you think that policeman went to?” “Are you warm enough?” He reached over and cranked up the blower. Then he turned off the wipers. We didn’t need them. The clouds had brightened. A few sparse, feathery flakes drifted into our slipstream and were swept away. We left the trees and entered a broad field of snow that ran level for a while and then tilted sharply downward. Orange stakes had been planted at intervals in two parallel lines and my father steered a course between them, though they were far enough apart to leave considerable doubt in my mind as to exactly where the road lay. He was humming again, doing little scat riffs around the melody. “Okay, then. What are my strong points?” “Don’t get me started,” he said. “It’d take all day.” “Oh, right. Name one.” “Easy. You always think ahead.” True. I always thought ahead. I was a boy who kept his clothes on numbered hangers to ensure proper rotation. I bothered my teachers for homework assignments far ahead of their due dates so I could draw up schedules. I thought ahead, and that was why I knew there would be other troopers waiting for us at the end of our ride, if we even got there. What I didn’t know was that my father would wheedle and plead his way past them—he didn’t sing “O Tannenbaum,” but just about—and get me home for dinner, buying a little more time before my mother decided to make the split final. I knew we’d get caught; I was resigned to it. And maybe for this reason I stopped moping and began to enjoy myself. Why not? This was one for the books. Like being in a speedboat, only better. You can’t go downhill in a boat. And it was all ours. And it kept coming, the laden trees, the unbroken surface of snow, the sudden white vistas. Here and there I saw hints of the road, ditches, fences, stakes, though not so many that I could have found my own way. But then I didn’t have to. My father was driving. My father in his fortyeighth year, rumpled, kind, bankrupt of honor, flushed with certainty. He was a great driver. All persuasion, no coercion. Such subtlety at the wheel, such tactful pedalwork. I actually trusted him. And the best was yet to come—switchbacks and hairpins impossible to describe. Except maybe to say this: if you haven’t driven fresh powder, you haven’t driven.
China’s Critical Economic Problems Research Paper
custom writing service Table of Contents Topic and Statistical Method Statement of the Problem Review of Literature Conclusion References Topic and Statistical Method The rise of China has been the centre of major economic, social, and political controversies around the world. Whereas China has been performing extemporary well over several decades to become the world factory, the economy may become a major problem to the entire world in case it tumbled down (Altbach
IFSM 311 UMUC Enterprise Architecture and SDLC discussion
IFSM 311 UMUC Enterprise Architecture and SDLC discussion.
A well-defined and implemented EA contributes significantly to each of the phases of the SDLC. For this assignment you will write a 3-5 page paper (not counting any cover sheet or reference pages) that explains briefly what enterprise architecture (EA) isand then how it supplements and enables each of the phases of the SDLC:Initiation/planning/concept phaseSystems Analysis and Requirements phase – for this phase, please consider quality or non-functional requirements or the “ilities” (security, maintainability, etc.) System Design phaseDevelopment phaseIntegration and Test phaseImplementation phaseOperations and Maintenance phase Please refer to the Basic IT SDLClink provided in your content area for Week 8 for useful information on each phase. https://www.innovativearchitects.com/KnowledgeCent…You should explain how EA enables each phase, how it fits into each phase, and what unique qualities or capabilitiesa well-defined EA contributes that might not otherwise be available to the organization. Very important!
IFSM 311 UMUC Enterprise Architecture and SDLC discussion
Agents of Socialism Essay
Introduction Children acquire social experiences from the society, and this helps them to live and interact well with other people. Socialism refers to the process that enables people to learn their culture, language and other aspects of their society. This process starts from the time a child is born and continues until when it matures and it involves agents like the media, family, society, peers, schools and churches. This essay investigates the agent of socialism that has the greatest impact on the opinion of an individual regarding political issues. The family shapes the political views of an individual more than other agents of socialism due to the following reasons. First, it brings people very close to one another compared to other agents of socialism and thus enables children to learn communication and socialization skills. In addition, family ties play significant roles in educating children regarding politics, religion, tradition and nature. They learn the differences between various aspects of life like political parties, religions and cultures. Secondly, the family trains children to distinguish between good and bad behavior; therefore, they will always look for these qualities before choosing which political party to follow. On the other hand, other agents of socialism may not distinguish between good and bad and thus they give individuals options to choose from. However, the family ensures its members follow a particular perception about political issues. The comments that parents make regarding political parties will influence the decisions their children make in the future; therefore, most parents will aspire to influence their children to follow their political parties. Those who make bad remarks about a political party will make their children to believe that the party does not support democracy or constitutional issues. Consequently, their children will despise people who are affiliated to that political party. Thirdly, people have the right to join political parties of their choices, and this decision is influenced by the policies and leaders in these parties. When children grow up they try to find out the political parties their parents prefer and investigate the issues that make them to be members of these parties. However, this does not affect their perception unless their parents are staunch followers of these parties. Family members cannot disagree due to political differences compared to work mates, neighbors and peers; therefore, the family has major impacts on the political views of an individual. This means that when children realize that their parents are ardent members of a political party they will follow suit and start accompanying them to political meetings. Moreover, children get social security and confidence by ensuring that their political views are similar to those of their parents. Family members are likely to have similar political views than friends or work mates; therefore, they influence an individual easily because they have limited options. Therefore, the family plays significant roles in shaping the perception of their children regarding political issues. Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Lastly, children spent more time with their parents and other family members compared to other agents of socialization. Therefore, they learn a lot of political issues from their parents since all their childhood years are spent next to them. On the other hand, schools, churches and friends are not very close to individuals because their interactions are limited by circumstances. Conclusion Children develop communication skills and learn other aspects of life from their societies to become independent and productive individuals. Family members have tight relationships; therefore, they can exchange ideas freely without fear of being discriminated against by other people. Therefore, the family is more influential than peers, media, church and school in shaping the political views of its members.