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Strategic Management Plan unit 32 part B

Strategic Management Plan unit 32 part B. Paper details   This part is related to the previous one it is about Qatar Airways, So please file the templet start from page 2Strategic Management Plan unit 32 part B
Share this: Facebook Twitter Reddit LinkedIn WhatsApp MESOTHERAPY INTRODUCTION Mesotherapy is an art of injecting small quantities of various medicinal preparations such as vitamins, minerals and other conventional drugs directly into the mesoderm to treat pathological conditions locally. It involves the administration of intradermal or subcutaneous injections of compounds to treat a variety of medical conditions and avoiding systemic adverse effects due to drugs. It appears to be a novel technique to administer medicines local to the pathology while the skin serves as a natural time- release system. BACKGROUND OF MESOTHERAPY The term mesotherapy (derived from Greek mesos. “Middle” and therapeia to treat medically) denotes injection of substances into middle layer of skin ( mesoderm) for medical purposes. Historical aspects[1] Mesotherapy was originally used to treat painful conditions using local procaine injections. Michael Pistor who coined the term mesotherapy is considered the father of mesotherapy. In his original article,he described treating deafness, tinnitus, vertigo and headaches using local injections of procaine. Earlier to this in 1884, Koller an ophthalmologist used local cocaine to relieve pain. In 1925 Lerich used intradermal injections in the intercostal spaces. In 1937 Aron studied the use of intradermal injections to have an analgesic effect. Albert Lemaire, a Belgian physician used procaine injections to treat trigeminal neuralgia. In 1952, Michel Pistor a French physician popularized mesotherapy to treat various conditions in dermatology,sports,traumatology and vascular disease chiefly as a pain-relieving therapy. He defined mesotherapyas a techniquethat was used to treat mesoderm,(primary germ layer that develops into connective tissue, muscle and the circulatory system). In 1953, Dr.Mario Lebel invented a 3mm length needle that could be used precisely for injection of substances into the dermis. In 1964, the French society of Mesotherapy was founded by Michel Pistor and use of mesotherapy was extended to treat cosmetic conditions. The American influence was evident after Dr. Lionel Bissoon popularized the technique in North America. Despite the fact that mesotherapy is gaining popularity in aesthetic medicine especially for localized cellulite reduction, it continues to be a controversial topic and therefore requires cautious approach. The safety and efficacy of these mesotherapy remain ambiguous to patients and physicians alike. [2] Applied basic science [1, 3] The concept that led to discovery of mesotherapy is quite interesting. Pistor saw recovery of chronic hearing loss while treating a patient with procaineinjections for an asthma attack. Subsequent intradermal injections of this product into the mastoid region proved this effect to be true. However the depth of injection was considered important. This led the researchers to the fact that at a depth of 1.5 to 2mm the local activity of the product would last longer due to a persistent reservoir with weak local diffusion in the dermis whereas products injected into dermis would dissipate to greater distances.A product when injected intradermally acts in two ways. Firstly, by stimulating dermal receptors in situ and secondly, over long distances by reaching other organs via circulation. A concept of meso-interface exists which is the surface of contact established between the injected products and the tissue injected. The more the multiple punctures are made and the more fragmented products are delivered in small quantities, the greater the meso-interface and proportionately greater numbers of dermal receptors get activated.Pistor has always described this technique as follows. “A little volume, a few times and in the right place”. The idea was that by placing these products in the dermis, the skin acts as a reservoir for drugs to diffuse slowly via microcirculation to activate dermal receptors. A general mechanism of action (based on the target site, dermis) and a specific mechanism of action (based on the ingredients used) has been proposed to explain the concept of mesotherapy. The dermis is considered to be common denominator for circulatory, neurological and immunological functions; and the general mode of action is believed to occur by correction of these altered functions. Individual drugs or agents target the specific indication of mesotherapy. EQUIPMENTS The various equipments used in mesotherapy are Mesogun (Fig 1) Mircromesotherapy device Needleless Mesotherapy Mesogun Mesogun is a syringe infusion pump that is capable of injecting the desired substance at a required amount, speed and depth using the injector and needle. Syringes varying from 2cc-10cc and needle lengthsvarying in size from 4mm to 13mm can be used based on the indication, and desired depth of injection. A device known as guide is used to keep the needle at a constant depth. Once the parameters are chosen, the product can be injected by one of the following modes. Continuous – Min 3cc/min Max 10cc/min. Mircrodose – Max0.1cc/trigger. Standard dose – Max 0.3cc/trigger. Mesoperfusion – Max 0.3cc/trigger. Nappage – 0.1cc/trigger. Advantages of Mesogun Good comfort level for patient and physician Procedure is faster and relatively painless Accurate delivery system Versatality – Ability to perform various modes such as nappage, continuous, mesoperfusion in dosimetry. Syringes used in Mesogun: Generally 1ml, 5ml, 10ml and 20ml syringes with luer lock system is used based on the indication. MesoNeedles (Fig2 a): Mesoneedles or “Lebel needles” are commonly used in mesotherapy.The John Screw needles have an adjustable length.The recommended parameters for needles are based on the site of injection: Face and neck – 4mm 30G mesoneedles Fat and cellulite – 6mm 30G mesoneedles, ½ inch 30G needles. Multi-injectors and plates (Fig2 b): These accessories help to cover larger areas in a short time facilitating faster and easier procedure for the injector. There are sterile circular and linear multi-injectors with needles ready to be used for any body part. Micromesotherapy Device Micromesotherapy is an evolution of conventional mesotherapy. Usually mesotherapy uses needles to deliver drugs in deep dermal layer. Here a reverse cone shaped device has ultrafine needle 32Gx2mm by which drugs are injected into the superficial layer of dermis therebyminimizing incidence of bruising, pain and scarring. Needle-Less Mesotherapy or No Needle Mesotherapy This is a needle free device that pushes mesotherapy products painlessly through the skin using electrical waves known as isophoresis. The main features of needle less mesotherapy are: Less painful and less traumatic Uses ultrasound/electroporation technology. Probably around 20% efficiency compared to traditional mesotherapy as there is no neocollagenesis or neo angiogenesis reactions that occur with needle micro injury. This may be an option if mesotherapy is not allowed in the country. It has been discussed in details in Chapter 12. MESO SOLUTIONS (Fig6[VG1] The basic requirements of meso products is that it should be approved and skin-compatible.Systemic administration (intravenous, intramuscular, subcutaneous or intradermal) should be safe and known pharmacological actions to be effective. The ingredients used in mesotherapy products should be water soluble, isotonic and non-allergenic. The mesoproducts vary with the indications chosen for treatment. [4] [ Figure 3]Products used for mesotherapy involves combination of products some of which are main ingredients known as principals as they have high grade of evidence in the treatment of each indications and complementary agents that have been approved for treatment of each indications. For a mixture to be effective it should contain 2 – 3 principals for any given indication. Therefore the ingredients in mesosolutions are broadly classified into main categories: Principal (P) / Major Complementary (C) / Minor. The main targets for mesotherapy are skin, hair, fat and cellulite. (Table 11.1). Table 11.1 Principal and Complementary ingredients in meso solutions in various indications INDICATION PRINCIPAL/MAJOR COMPLEMENTARY/MINOR SKIN REJUVENATION Mesolift Hyaluronic Acid5 DMAE Organic silicum Fibronectin Vegetal Proteins Vitamin C Glycolic Acid Xadenal Vitamin A Growth Factors Stem Cells Mesoglow Hyaluronic Acid Siloag Vitamin C Xadenal Taurine Meso lightening Kojic Acid Azalaic Acid Vitamin C Glutathione Tretinoin Glycolic Acid Striae or stretch marks Stretch Marks Organic silicum Centella Asiatica Vegetal Proteins Fibronectin DMAE Vitamin C Idebenone Hair Loss Androgenetic Alopecia Minoxidil Finasteride Dutasteride Dexenol Biotin Amino acids Peptides Zinc Azelaic Acid Stem Cells Telogen effluvium Biotin Dexapanthenol Pyridoxine Multi Vitamins Trace Elements Cellulite and Fat Meso Cellulite Caffeine Carnitine Aminophylline DMAE Rutin Artichoke Yohimbine Procaine Vitamin C Fat deposits Body Sculpting, localized fat, Cellulite PPC Deoxy cholate L – Carnitine Aminophylline Pentoxifylline DMAE -Dimethylaminoethanol ; PPC – Phosphatidylcholine TECHNIQUES FOR MESOTHERAPY INJECTIONS The mesoproducts can be injected into the skin by various injection techniques to reach desired depth.The commonly used techniques and the desired depth reached are summarized in Table 11.2and Illustration 11.1 Table 11.2: Techniques and depth in mesotherapy injections Technique Depth Intraepidermal 1mm Papular 2mm Nappage 2-4mm Point by point 4mm Mesoperfusion > 4mm The salient features of various techniques are outlined below: Intra-epidermal This is one of the most superficial of the techniques described by Perrin. Depth: 1mm within the epidermis Painless, no bleeding Simple and large surface covered Ideal for patients with low pain threshold Ideal for facial rejuvenation, mesoglow Papular Depth:2mm dermoepidermal junction Painful Useful in mesobotox Ideal treatment of wrinkles Nappage(French for ‘covering’) Also known as picotage is the classic injection technique in mesotherapy. (Illustration 11.2) It is the most widely used technique in aesthetic dermatology. The syringe is held obliquely and the physician applies constant pressure on the plunger flicks the wrist to infuse a drop of the solutioninto the dermis(Fig 4). The injections are 2-2.5mm deep and 1cm apart. This technique can also be used for injections using a mesogun. (Fig 5) Depth 2-4mm Less pain and less bleeding Ideal for rejuvenation and scalp treatments Point by Point(Fig 6) Depth 4mm Perpendicular injection Ideal for fat reduction Mesoperfusion Depth > 4 mm Mesosolution is injected slowly over a priod of 10 minutes Not commonly used in dermatology PRACTICAL ASPECTS OF MESOTHERAPY Indications and contraindications for mesotherapy are listed in box 11.1 and box11.2. Box 11.1 Indications for mesotherapy Box 11.2 : Contraindications for mesotherapy Related to patient Unrealistic expectations Body mass index greater than 30 Pregnancy / Lactation H/O strokes, recent cancer. H/o multiple meds for heart disease H/o allergy to ingredients e.g. Soy proteins, lignocaine. Autoimmune disorders Epilepsy Insulin dependent diabetes Related to product Aminophylline – Known hypersensitivity to drug, active peptic ulcer, Pentoxiphylline, aminophylline- recent cerebral retinal bleed L. carnitine – history of seizure disorder Phosphatidyl – choline relative contraindications with antiphospholipid antibody syndrome Caffeine – arrhythmias, anxiety, insomnia hypotension Mannitol – pulmonary edema, renal disease. Patient selection Selecting the patient with a valid indication for mesotherapy is the key to success. Care should be taken to avoid patients with active skin diseases, too elderly and patients with history of sensitive skin. For androgenetic alopecia better results are seen in patient with Grades 1 – 3. Counseling and preparing the patient A proper counseling is essential before starting mesotherapy. Patients with body dysmorphic disorders and those with unrealistic expectations should not be treated. Alternate procedures should be discussed sufficiently as mesotherapy is still in the controversial stage. A written informed consentis mandatory in the present medical scenario. A good before and after clinical photograph is needed to evaluate results following the procedure. Procedural aspects The area to be treated is marked and thoroughly cleaned with an antiseptic solution. For anesthesia, a local anesthetic cream may be applied or ice-anesthesia can be used to numb the treatment area. Patients are preferably injected in a lying down position. The required quantity of ingredients is drawn into the syringe using an 18Gx11/2needle. The injection is given either manually or using a device to deliver by the papular, nappage or point by point technique. A gentle massage is given after the treatments. Fresh normal saline and a mositurising cream can be applied to the treated area and massaged gently. [9]. The procedure takes about 20 – 30 minutes depending on the indication and area to be treated. There is no downtime after the procedure and the patient will be able to return to normal activities immediately. Good results are seen with mesotherapy done for skin rejuvenation, cellulite and double chin. [Fig 7, 8, 9] Post procedure care and counseling for follow up There may be mild pain, pinpoint bleeding, itching, burning or erythema after the injection which will subside spontaneously. Bruising and hematoma can appear occasionally and can be managed symptomatically. Mild swelling at site of injection may require anti-inflammatory agents for few days. The patients need to be counseled on the following aspects: Avoid sun exposure and smoking for next 48 hours Loose fitting clothes to be worn especially after lipolytic injections. The area to be treated is generally massaged after 72 hours and continued daily till disappearance of nodules if any. Follow up: Generally treatments are given once every 1-2weeks for 6 sessions, then once a month for 5months. Maintenance sessions are to be done once or twice a year. This protocol may be altered depending on the indication, patient’s lifestyle, financial position and response to previous treatments. Complications Though there are few evidence based studies on the efficacy of mesotherapy, there are documented reports on various complications. [10-17] The complications can be classified as local and systemic complications. (Box 11. 3) Box 11.3: Complications Local Bruising Burning or itching Pain, Tenderness, swelling Urticaria [10] Skin necrosis, Ulcers [11] Abscess [12] Hyper pigmentation Atypical mycobacterial infection [13] Rare – granulomatous panniculitis [14,15], koebnerisation, granuloma annulare, Oleoma [16] Systemic Anaphylaxis Nausea Vasovagal shock Hepatic toxicity Nerve demyelination Allergy to specific ingredients Thyrotoxicosis Ischaemic colitis [17] Management of Complications: Bruising: It is a common but preventable complication. Always advice patient to stop aspirin or NSAIDs at least 2 weeks prior to the day of procedure. While injecting be slow and gentle. It is advisable to avoid mesotherapy during menstruation. Burning/Itching: Burning can be overcome by adding lignocaine to the products if compatible. A mesomask applied immediately following procedure can also minimize burning and itching as it has a soothing effect. Pain/Tenderness: Procedural pain can be minimized by using adequate topical anaesthesia. Immediate post treatment pain can be alleviated by cold compresses with ice. Other methods that help to minimize pain are by pinching the skin for point by point injections or by stretching it when giving a nappage. Change needles after every few pricks to reduce the pain caused by blunt injecting needles Urticaria: Urticaria can be avoided by a careful history to avoid products that would provoke an allergic reaction. E.g. phosphatidyl choline in individuals with history of allergy to soy proteins. Skin necrosis: Skin necrosis occurs usually with phosphatidyl choline when the injections are given superficially <1cm below the epidermal surface, excessive injection volume at each point, or in appropriately small distances between the points. Ulcers: Ulcers can due to infection or irritant nature of the drugs. Irritant induced ulcers can be prevented by minimizing the number of drugs used in the cocktail to 4 or 5. Infective ulcers can be avoided by disinfecting the treatment area thoroughly and by wearing sterile gloves and using sterile equipment and materials. Hyper pigmentation: This can be avoided by advising the patient photo protection for 48 hours after the procedure and by addition of topical skin lightening agents in patients with a history of post inflammatory hyper pigmentation. COMBINING MESOTHERAPY WITH OTHER TECHNIQUES Mesotherapy can be combined with other techniques to enhance results.Soon after injection of mesotherapy products, ultrasound, radiofrequency or electroporation may be applied to help in better diffusion of the injected products. The techniques are discussed in chapter 12. Mesomasks can be applied immediately after the injections to minimize bleeding points and to overcome the discomfort that follows injections.It is a 150 g of powder to be mixed with water to form a paste which is applied for 15minutes as a mask over gauze. This allows all products to penetrate deeper in the skin to give a better effect. These masks contain a mixture of calcium sulfate, talc and orange oil. Other procedures such as chemical peels, fillers and neurotoxins can be carried out between the mesotherapy sessions. In countries where mesotherapy is not practiced, mesotherapy products can be used following cosmetic skin needling. By using a dermaroller in the area to be treated, it is possible to create micro perforations that will be used as channels to deliver a product deeply into the skin. CLINICAL STUDIES Mesotherapy has been in history for a long time and there are proponents who have been successfully using it in practice for the benefits of their patients. However there are few indexed studies about the safety and efficacy of mesotherapy but many about its complications, hence it only natural to distrust proponents in relation to this technique Hence adequate controlled studies are needed to establish the value of mesotherapy in aesthetic dermatology. [18] Mesotherapy for skin rejuvenation, treatment of local fat deposits, body sculpting have been assigned Evidence Level C, whereas cellulite treatment has been assigned Evidence Level D [18]. Few recent studies have shown promising results for mesotherapy in various aesthetic indications. A study by Larruba et al showed good results with hyaluronic acid mesotherapy on photoaging and assessed by ultrasound techniques. [5] A study by Savoia etal showed promising [VG1] An excellent compilation with evidence for few of them are given in these two articles from IJDVL Sarkar R, Garg VK, Mysore V. Position paper on mesotherapy. Indian J Dermatol Venereol Leprol 2011;77:232-7 Konda D, Thappa DM. Mesotherapy: What is new?. Indian J Dermatol Venereol Leprol 2013;79:127-34 Another review of various indication s of mesotherapy is in this article by Dr. premlatha 3.Latha P. and Vandana K.R. / International Journal of Advanced Pharmaceutics / 1 (1), 2011, 19-29 ( full text available of all three) The meso solutions can be tabulated in the format below Indication Product Mechanism of action ( should include original intention versus intention in mesotherapy e.g. aminophylline was originally used for brochodilation. In mesotherapy it is used for vasodilatation etc Evidence grade ( wherever available) Share this: Facebook Twitter Reddit LinkedIn WhatsApp

Answering Paper#15

Answering Paper#15.

*Answering Paper #15
1. Why do immigrants in Europe seem to have more difficulty integrating into their host societies than in
the United States?
2. Why might globalization affect Europe more than the United States?
3. What are the central factors that determine the extent of globalization?—-1. On MS-Word menu bar, click Home – Times New Roman – 12 font; Layout – Margins – Narrow and adjust Indent zero for all (Left, Right, Before, and After); and Paragraph – Alignment Left – Line Spacing zero.2. Please edit your answering paper again if it’s longer than two pages. I wanted you answer to all three questions smartly within two pages.
Answering Paper#15

Iowa State University Floy Enterprises Pension Simulation Worksheet

assignment writing services Iowa State University Floy Enterprises Pension Simulation Worksheet.

To accomplish this assignment, you will need to simulate the solution. I suggest using Frontline’s Premium Risk Solver platform. You can download and install Frontline Premium Risk Solver at If you have a different simulation package you would prefer to use, feel free.ProblemYou have been hired to help Floyd Enterprises determine how much to contribute to their company’s pension plan. They use a ten-year planning horizon to determine the contribution, which, if made annually in next 10 years, would allow for only a 10% chance of the fund running short of money. The company then makes that contribution in the current year and repeats this process in each subsequent year to determine the specific amount to contribute each year. Last year, the company contributed $23 million to the plan. The pension plan covers both hourly and salaried employees.This year, 6,000 former hourly employees and 3,000 former salaried employees are receiving benefits from the plan. The changes in the number of retired hourly employees from one year to the next is expected to vary according to a normal distribution with a mean of 4% and a standard deviation of 1%. The change in the number of retired salaried employees from one year to the next is expected to vary between 1% and 4% according to a truncated normal distribution with a mean of 2% and a standard deviation of 1%. Currently, hourly retirees receive an average benefit of $15,000 per year, and salaried retirees receive an average annual benefit of $40,000. Both of these averages are expected to increase annually with the rate of inflation, which is assumed to vary between 2% and 7% according to a triangular distribution with a most likely value of 3.5%. The current balance in the company’s pension fund is $1.5 billion. Investments in this fund earn an annual return that is assumed to be normally distributed with a mean of 12% and a standard deviation of 2%. Create a model for this problem and use simulation to determine the pension fund contribution the company should make in the current year. What is your recommendation?Turn in your simulation file, whether it is a spreadsheet, R script, etc.
Iowa State University Floy Enterprises Pension Simulation Worksheet

COUC 501 LU Ethical Violations & Board Discipline Psychologist Regulations Discussion

COUC 501 LU Ethical Violations & Board Discipline Psychologist Regulations Discussion.

The initial video must be minimum of 3 minutes to a maximum of 5 minutes long and must contain at least 1 scholarly source. This source must be verbally referred to in the video (you can state you are getting the information from: author and year).You will then comment on your video, once posted, with a written APA reference for the source you cited. For full points the source needs to be outside your Reading & Study materials. Note: Acceptable scholarly sources include Reading & Study materials or professional journal articles (no websites).Topic: Ethical Violations and Board Discipline Prompt: As pointed out in your text, ensuring counselor competence is an ongoing responsibility for every counselor. Go to your particular state board’s website and look up cases of counselor’s who were disciplined by the board. You may want to look under such terms as “case decisions,” enforcement actions,” “actions taken by board,” or “discipline.” If you cannot find your particular state’s disciplinary decisions, then pick another state. Look over the cases that have come before your state board and answer all of the following questions:What are the most common reasons for a board to discipline a counselor, and what is your personal reaction as you read through the list?What are some themes you see when you look at the common reasons for board discipline?Choose one of the more recent cases and discuss the following points:What was the behavior that led to the discipline? * Identify and share the ACA Code of Ethics and your State Code that was violated.What was the outcome of the board discipline?What does the ACA Code of Ethics and your state(Florida) code say about counselor impairment?What is a question this bring to mind for you?
COUC 501 LU Ethical Violations & Board Discipline Psychologist Regulations Discussion

A Look at My Mortality and the Meaning of My Life Essay

Table of Contents Introduction Mortality and Meaning of Life Conclusion References Introduction The meaning of life and mortality is a question that remains a puzzle to many even today. Different philosophers and psychology experts have thrown their hands in the issue but they emerge without a conclusive answer why we are alive (Bryock, 1998). The biggest question is why we are in the universe and some answers have been given. Different people give different reasons for being alive. Some of the answers for the purpose and meaning of life are to take care of the universe, to serve God, to make people conform to religion, to help each other, to be useful and honorable, to make things out of nothing, to bring forth something that nobody else would have created among other answers. The significance of life and the general purpose for existence is expressed through various questions such as “why are we alive?”, “what is the meaning of life?”, “what is life about?” Throughout history, people have attempted to answer these questions from philosophical, theological and psychological points of views. The scientific answers to the questions answer the “how?” part of the questions rather than addressing the “why?” part hence it leaves us more confused that before. The psychological and the philosophical answers are thus more reliable than the scientific ones, though they contradict in themselves (Kubler-Ross, 1973). There are various perspectives that attempt to explain the meaning of life and mortality. Most of these perspectives were developed by Greek philosophers like Aristotle, Plato, Epicurus and other famous philosophers. The perspectives were named after the philosophers who developed the perspectives. Platonism is about the theory of forms and it states that universal exists as ghosts and not in physical form. According to this perspective, the purpose of life is to attain knowledge that will help us to achieve good, from which all good things come from. Aristotelianism on the other hand proposed that the meaning of life can be understood by viewing life as a series of goals that must be achieved. Other perspectives include cynicism, Cyrenaicism and Stoicism among other perspectives (Marcellino, 1996). Mortality and Meaning of Life Philosophers agree that the meaning of the meaning of life is vague and lacks clarity. Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The question increases confusion rather than bringing people to light about the issue. The most important thing to know is whether there is purpose for life, whether it is worth living and whether there is any other reason to live apart from the personal interests and circumstances in life. One can search for the meaning of life by looking at his values, beliefs, reasons and purposes derived from external points of view (Dick, 1996). One can also limit himself or herself to the desires and goals that are dictated by the community. Death is a relevant issue in somebody’s life since it marks the end of life. Philosophers have argued about the importance of mortality to give life a meaning. They argue that if the fact that we will all die makes life lose meaning, then what would the assumption that we will live forever make on the meaning of life? Will it make the situation any better or worse? It is clear that the understanding that an individual will die at some point reduces his or her happiness. On the other hand, if one had to live forever, life would be full of boredom and lose meaning (Hamilton, 1964). Before looking at the meaning of life, it will do some good to try to understand the meaning of ‘meaning of life’. It is universally agreed that some periods in life are more meaningful than others and that some lives are more purposeful than others. This is hard to accept given that human beings have equal moral standings. Meaning of life is therefore evaluated as the function of the exercise of the view that people have some intrinsic value within themselves brought about by the choices they make in life. There is no consensus on the meaning of meaning of life. To me, the meaning of the phrase ‘meaning of life’ is not precise and I take it as any analysis that gives life some concept (Christopher, 2005). We will write a custom Essay on A Look at My Mortality and the Meaning of My Life specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More To me, the meaning of life can be approached from the soul-centered point of view. I belief that there is a spiritual form that controls my body when am alive as well as when I will die. I believe that a person without a soul or a person who relates his or her soul to the wrong way is doomed to lose the meaning of life. For life to be meaningful there must be a reason for everything we do. Everything we do should be aimed at making a permanent change in the universe; otherwise, it will not be worth doing (Bostrom, 2003). Another meaning of life based on the soul-centered views is that existence of a soul is crucial for justice which gives life meaning. Life would not have meaning if the wicked seem to do better in life than the upright. I am alive or no apparent reason unless I invent one reason for being alive (Chardin, 1965). The universe is made up of many things, which include the solar system, and other things. Among all those things, it is hard to define the importance of human life in the universe. Albert Einstein observed that “human beings are part of a whole, which is they are a part that is; they are part of the universe that is limited in time and space” (Stewart, 2001, p.43). According to him, the human life of an individual is something distinct from the rest of the universe and it is a kind of illusion defined by ones’ consciousness. According to Albert, the meaning of life is working towards attaining omnipotence and omnipresence in life. The main reason for existence of the universe is to make us realize our goal in life. When we were brought into this world, we did not have anything and when we die, we will not leave with anything. Is there need thus to acquire material possession? The only possession that we will take with us when we die is consciousness, which we will have achieved in life (Ruse, 1996). When we were born, we were very ignorant but we achieve self- activation and consciousness in the course of life. It is therefore imperative that the only goal in life should be to acquire consciousness. The others should be secondary goals which are supposed to sustain one in life. I am alive therefore to acquire consciousness (Lewis, 2001). Most people believe that their persona in their ‘self’. These people thus live in order to satisfy their personal desires and they believe that because you only live once, you should ensure that you acquire and accomplish all you can before you die. This approach is wrong because it does not make one to develop his or her consciousness. Not sure if you can write a paper on A Look at My Mortality and the Meaning of My Life by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More These people lose focus in life and they become worn out because the progress is usually slow. It is good to appreciate the fact that each individual has a unique character and each has a unique set of experiences (Rudolph, 1981). Life can be viewed as a series of scenarios and situations, which contribute to growth in our consciousness. According to this argument, life does not have a meaning and it is upon us to give it a meaning. And to give life a meaning, we have to take advantage of various scenarios and situations and ensure that we achieve the highest level of development in our consciousness. We should not waste opportunities or waste out time with activities that do not contribute to development of our consciousness. We should also avoid the emotionality of life because ‘now’ counts much than the past in our lives. Life itself is cyclic in nature and it involves a repetition of situations and experiences. The human beings are slow learners and they fail to take advantage of the repetition of situations in order to improve their consciousness. This argument puts an eye opener to the meaning of life, and that life is aimed at achieving omniscience, omnipotence and liberation of the human beings. We all have the same goal in life and the paths we use are all the same, none are better than the others (Chardin, 1965). First and foremost, I have to admit that the existence of mortality gives life meaning. Without mortality, life would be meaningless. Also, I have to admit from the outset that there is a supreme being why can be described as the mover of the universe. Another thing I will have to admit is that I believe there is a purpose for life even if the purpose is not inscribed in the divine plan. After these admissions, I can thus explore the meaning of life and mortality to me. There are some challenges in understanding the meaning of life and that is why I will rely heavily on arguments by previous philosophers and psychologists. According to me, life and mortality is meaningful when one dies after some time and at the time of death, manages to have contributed to the divine plan. I am not religious but I believe there is a supreme being who is behind the universe. If one dies and his or her contributions to the higher scheme are not realized because the world comes to an end, then life does not have a meaning (Rudolph, 1981). This is because all will have come to nothing and it will not matter whether the person existed or not. I think that life is simply LIFE, meaning that life is simply IS. Life itself is an event or a series of events, a process and not a definite thing. It can be viewed as an arrangement in the universe that is different from what is not life. This means that we can know something that is in life-form and easily differentiate it from something else that is not in life-form. In life, there is evolution and reproduction which has brought forth me (Marcellino, 1986). Drawing heavily from philosophers and psychologists in the past, I can say that I am alive because I evolved. The famous English Naturalist Charles Darwin answered the meaning of life in a simple sentence that we evolved and that is why we are alive (Stewart, 2001). However, this argument does not provide the meaning and purpose of life to me. It simply tells me where I came from and not the reason why I am alive. I can answer the meaning of life to me based heavily on teleological explanations. These explanations are based on the purposes and future consequences of our actions. They say that we use the limbs and body parts that have been provided to us to propagate life. However, Charles Darwin ruled out the explanation that we are alive to propagate genes and life in general. The future biological design is beyond our ability and we can do less to contribute to it. The teleological explanations for the meaning of life therefore lose the meaning and make us to look for alternative meaning of life. Although we have our own small purposes in life, we are not in the universe for any purpose. I can however say that the conclusion that life is meaningless is a philosophical conclusion and it is very abstract in nature. The view that an individual’s own life is meaningless is a symptom of depression. Therefore, I view life as a joke without a joke teller, a strange kind of feeling and amusing in nature (Stewart, 2001). The conclusion that life is meaningless can however be beaten by the argument that even if life does not have a meaning, we can give life meaning ourselves. We are thus free to choose the meaning of life from within ourselves, which is better than accepting externally imposed meanings of life. The meaning of life that we choose for ourselves will leave us more liberated and in a good position to shape the way forward for our lives. An external meaning of life dictated by the universe would leave us cold and plain. I am therefore happy that life does not have a meaning, because I am free to come up with my own meaning of life and this will leave me more liberated (Kubler-Ross, 1973). Life is in multiple forms but it is finite in any of its forms. I can then define my life as a wave in the deep sea, where the water is my body and the wave is some energy flowing in my body. Without the energy in my body (water), there is no life (wave). Some energy lifts water up in the form of a wave which remains for some time and then subsidizes when the energy is withdrawn. According to me, this is the true explanation of life (Hamilton, 1964). My body is meaningless unless it contains some energy from some source which is divine. This force drives us without a specific direction and is then withdrawn, at which point we die. After the wave subsidizes, the water just settles down and the energy moves on. Likewise in our lives, when we die, our bodies lie helpless and the energy that was driving us moves forward. So I conclude this idea that human life is a combination of energy and the body that lasts for some time, and once the energy is withdrawn, then end o life (mortality) comes in. the energy moves on after the death of a person (Hamilton, 1964). Therefore, life simply IS. I have discovered this through wide reading of philosophical and psychological works, listening to my ego, being rational and trusting my silence. People might think that I am too reductive and that I am not open to the wonders of God. However, they should understand that this is my feeling towards life and it feels right to me. I believe that life IS and not MEANS and this is intuitive and it leaves me liberated. Every day in life, you must understand that life itself IS and does not have a meaning. It is upon us to give life a meaning. We have to draw meanings from the universe by making sense out of our surroundings (Dick, 1996). To me, there are a lot of meanings from my surroundings such as the trees, wonderful people and other things. I have a feeling of association with other people who we are alive with, thus I don’t have the feeling of isolation and I don’t feel abandoned. In fact, I feel liberated and embraced because I am surrounded by many things which give life meaning in their own little ways. There are meanings in life but life itself does not have a meaning. Life simply is. Mortality is very important in providing the meaning of life. To illustrate this, let us remember the prophesy that the world would come to an end on May 21st, 2011. These prophesy made people to lose meaning of life and most of them gave up everything. It is evident that doomsdays prophesy leaves people doomed and makes people lose the meaning of life. This brings an important twist in the question of mortality. If people know very well they will die one day, why then do they lose the meaning of life when they know the exact time they will die? It is evident that the precariousness of death and its unpredictability helps to give life itself some meaning (Lewis, 2001). Even the philosophers who were known for questioning everything have now come to a conclusion that death is very important to give life meaning. Most philosophers regarded death as an evil but his view has changed. I am glad that one day I will die since an unending life would be meaningless. Life without an end would be cold, full of indifference and a lot of boredom. I have noted earlier in this discussion that life is a repetition of situations and scenarios. An unending life would therefore be devoid of joy and freshness since it will be revolving about the same situations and scenarios (Christopher, 2005). Conclusion Any discussions on the meaning of life are approached as a way of finding the place and role of human beings in the universe. This usually gives rise to the subjective and objective meaning of life. We should not restrict the accounts of meaning of life to purely subjective or objective arguments. Life is given meaning by subjective points and circumstances that are judged from external forces. Whatever life means to an individual has a strong influence on the personality and life of that person (Ruse, 1996). A person who understands the meaning of life well is more successful than the one who does not. The biggest challenge is then how to discover the meaning of life. Attempting to answer the question ‘what is the meaning of life?’ is hard. The better question would be ‘what is life? Or why are we in the universe?’ this can give rise to various answers depending on ones religious beliefs and background. Attempting to answer these questions gives us undue pressure and it leaves us with discontentment and more questions about life. However, according to me, the life can be viewed as ‘being’ and not a ‘what’. This means that the big question about the meaning of life could be rewritten as ‘what in life means for you?’ (Chardin, 1965). We were born, we live, and we die. This is the clinical point of view of looking at life. This is however more soul searching that philosophical and psychological. To understand the meaning of life, one has to look at the surroundings and view the sunrise, sunset, waxing, and growth of new trees, death of trees and other processes. These are things that give life itself some meaning. To cap it all, life is given meaning by death, or mortality (Bryock, 1998). This is because death puts things in order and in perspective, gives us focus and limits us on time frames of life. Another meaning of life could be death. References Bostrom, N. (2003). 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