The culminating argumentative paper is a strategic reordering of the first four papers, with the addition of an introduction and discussion/conclusion.The final discussion is a concluding argument revealing a “defensible solution” to the healthcare topic, supported by the “evidence” explained in the first four papers.Revise and re-order each of the informative papers you have composed for the course, placing them in a strategic arrangement that supports the final section of this final paper, your argument for a “defensible solution” to the health care issue you have studied, researched, and written about. As a result, this final paper will be comprehensive and summative.Important: this final paper should include a newly composed introductory section, and a final conclusion section which presents your discussion of (and argument for) the solution. Your argument for the defensible solution that you propose should be the focus of this paper. Your paper must:Be 15–20 pages in lengthTitle page (1 page)Introduction (1–2 pages)Reworked informative papers (10-15 pages)Conclusion (1–2 pages)References page (1–2 pages)Reference 12–15 scholarly, peer-reviewed resources (compiled by combining all of the references from your Perspective of Inquiry papers and any additional resources you use in this final paper.)Follow all APA formatting guidelines for this paper, with each of your previous four papers being presented as “sections” of this fifth paper, using Level 1 headings.Use the provided template. I have attached the two papers you need to reword and combine. After that an abstract , title page, introduction, and conclusion should be addedThe topic is on lung cancer
Identify how government regulations discussed in the textbook relate to the government’s national strategy to secure cyberspace.
How do COSO and CobiT® vary from ISO 17799?
According to FISMA, who is the focal point for information security? Why is this?
State and briefly describe the federal regulation that concerns publicly traded companies.
Why is testing restoration so critical for small businesses?
How would you respond to a small business owner who believes that his/her business is less likely to be attacked precisely because it is so small?
Explain the various reasons why users are not allowed to install software on company owned systems.
No more than 400 words, no plagiarism.
Discussion Board secure cyberspace
Assisting In Endotracheal Intubation Nursing Essay
Share this: Facebook Twitter Reddit LinkedIn WhatsApp An ETT is an advanced measure of airway management, where a catheter is inserted in the trachea generally through the mouth. This creates a direct passage between mechanical ventilator, which simulates breathing, and the lungs, where gaseous exchange occurs. ETT is most commonly used in unconscious or sedated patients, where the patient may lose spontaneous breathing, also bringing about benefits like protection from aspiration of gastric contents into the lungs, which lead to infection and complications. Considerable amount of attention is given to the intubation procedure, avoiding trauma and infection. Preparing a patient for intubation requires the patient to be positioned in the ‘sniff in the morning’, that being body straight with head slightly tilted to the front to obtain a straight airway. An anaesthetist will perform this procedure and the nurse prepares the necessary: an intubation set including an Ambu with face mask and other connectors and a laryngoscope with different blade sizes and muscle relaxant (Atracurium) and sedation (Propofol) medication are prepared. Once everything is checked that is in perfect working order, the anaesthetist, positioned behind the patient’s head, starts by giving the first IV bolus of Propofol later followed by the Atracurium. From this point onwards sedation will be administered by the nurse, and the anaesthetist will keep the head in position to maintain an open airway and bag the patient for 1-minute using the soft Ambu attached to the mask with 100% oxygen at 10-15l/min to hyper-oxygenate. After this 1-minute the first try for intubation is began and this should be no longer than 30secoonds. A laryngoscope is then inserted from the right side pushing the tongue to the side and lower, this will create physical space to see the epiglottis and the laryngoscope will be advanced slightly more to see the larynx. Once identified, the ETT is carefully advanced from the right side over the laryngoscope and straight between the larynxes. Then the tube is advanced up to 21-24cm from its markings, laryngoscope withdrawn and the soft Ambu is now connected with a specific connector to attach to the ETT. The anaesthetist will now bag and auscultate over the chest to check position of ETT, and to check that air is going into both sides of lung, or only a single side or worse the stomach. During the process the nurse may be requested to give more boluses of sedation, depending on what the anaesthetist encounters. Once the position is confirmed, the ETT is secured using a tie or a facial adhesive. The patient is then connected to the ventilator, where the anaesthetist gives the initial setting and liaises with the nurse on the aims and guidelines needed to safeguard the patient’s health and especially avoid unnecessary complications. Continuous sedation is as well started as now the patient is preferably left unconscious to stabilise, as a patient may extubated once semi-conscious and agitated. Parameters post-intubation are checked and charted, blood gases are taken and analysed. Shortly after insertion a chest X-ray is performed to verify positioning thanks to the radio-opaque strip incorporated in the ETT. Indications for intubation may vary from hypoxemia, loss of consciousness, airway obstruction or manipulation of the airway. In one of the cases I had the opportunity to observe clearly, the patient was suffering from pneumonia and was losing consciousness as she could not maintain a decent pO2 via a non-rebreather mask and started to get agitated and therefore continue lowering her oxygen saturation level. I took a blood gases sample and it resulted in a low enough result that the nurse decided to advise the anaesthetist to try intubation, apart from the fact that she was definitely in need to be sedated to reduce her agitation. In a pneumonia case a sedated patient may benefit more from care and obtain a healthier outcome as consciousness is then resumed when infection has started to clear. Intubation as like all the other invasive procedures carries numerous risks for the patient. To start with is the high risk of infection, which may come from lack of attention to asepsis during the procedure, and there can even be trauma to the lungs if the anaesthetist goes in too far with the ETT, or can even cause trauma to the buccal cavity, where with the use of the laryngoscope, leverage over the teeth may be exerted leading to the breaking of teeth. Moreover, if the patient takes too long to be intubated hypoxia may result, since the patient is not breathing at all. Single-sided or stomach intubation may occur as well. In the intubation procedure, precautions to prevent complications include patient sedation and muscle relaxation at the start of the procedure to avoid movements of any muscles. The patient is positioned to help the anaesthetist have an improved visualization of the larynx while using the laryngoscope. A measurement of the length of the airway is taken, to avoid inserting the ETT too much further down into the lungs. A patient is bagged for 1-minute prior to trial of intubation and no try takes longer than 30seconds, and ultimately a chest X-ray is performed to confirm ETT position. Blood sampling through an arterial catheter An arterial catheter is one of the most common lines required in ITU, indispensable for continuous intra-arterial blood pressure which is essential in a critically ill patient supported by vasoactive drugs. Moreover it aids in arterial blood sampling, being routines or ABG of an intubated patient, where if a patient doesn’t have an arterial line would be pricked countless times during a single day, therefore is a benefit for the patient as well. Taking a blood sample through an arterial line requires following step by step instructions, while always keeping in mind asepsis, as although it is not actual invasive procedure, we are dealing with arterial blood and colonising a cannula imposes great risks of infection. To start with, perform hand hygiene and prepare essentials within easy reach, including alcoholic 2%chlorohexidine wipes (clinell), a packet of sterile non-woven swabs, pair of non-sterile gloves, luer lock stopper, 5ml syringe, ABG syringe, appropriate vacutainers and luer lock adaptor. Once everything is prepared and patency of line is checked by using the flushing device, perform hand hygiene once again and wear gloves. Place the open packet of sterile swabs under the area you will be working around, i.e. the 3-way tap on the arterial line. Wipe the stopper locked port at the 3-way tap for 15seconds using a clinell wipe. Now the 3-way tap ‘OFF’ position should be facing the port that has just been disinfected, remove the stopper and attach 5ml syringe using a non-touch technique, turn the 3-way tap to ‘OFF’ from flushing device and aspirate the first 3-5ml which will contain mostly heparinised saline. Turn the tap back to ‘OFF’ from the port being used. Now, remove the 5ml syringe and start from collecting blood sample for ABG, using the same non-touch technique attach the syringe to the port, turn the stopper ‘OFF’ from the flushing device. Withdraw small sample of blood (up to half of ABG syringe, approximately 1ml), if you require more blood samples turn the tap ‘OFF’ to port again and remove ABG syringe while attaching its stopper at its end, connect luer lock adaptor for vacutainer use. Now turn the tap ‘OFF’ to flushing device and start pressing each vacutainer until it stops filling, always changing the vacutainers using non-touch technique. It is suggested to leave for last any blood test sample that its result is affected by the amount of heparin in the sample, eg. APTT/INR. Once finished from taking the necessary blood samples, turn tap ‘OFF’ to patient and flush using flushing device onto the packet of swabs. Once clear from blood, close with luer lock stopper using non-touch technique. Now turn the tap ‘OFF’ to port and flush the remaining part of the arterial line. Avoiding leaving blood traces in the lines will ensure longer lifetime and patency of the arterial line itself. Patients in a critical care setting most often need several blood sampling every day, one indication may be ABG monitoring due to the patient being supported by a mechanical ventilator. ABG sampling is also needed in the weaning off process, but can also be used to monitor any acidosis or alkalosis the patient may be suffering from, due to his admitting condition. Other blood samples are mostly taken routinely in the morning and more investigations may be required throughout the day. The withdrawal of blood via an arterial line is not an invasive procedure, though it is still a manipulation of a catheter leading to the bloodstream, therefore it exposes the patient to a high risk of acquiring a nosocomial infection through the line if asepsis is not maintained throughout the procedure. The colonisation of the line without adequate disinfection may eventually lead to life-threatening septicaemia. Prevention of infection was applied using universal precautions like hand hygiene, disinfection using alcoholic 2%chlorohexidine wipes (clinell) and non-touch technique. This minimised drastically the chances of nosocomial infections. Section B – INTERPROFESSIONAL COLLABORATION IN THE CRITICAL CARE SETTING Describe the role of the nurse in each of the following units: Intensive Therapy Unit (ITU) Neonatal and Paediatric Intensive Care Unit (NPICU) Burns and Plastic Surgery Unit Renal Unit Intensive Therapy Unit (ITU) An Intensive Therapy Unit (ITU) nurse is required to work in a setting where patients are experiencing or at-risk of experiencing life-threatening conditions, thus require complex assessment, high-intensity therapies and interventions, continuous nursing care and high-tech monitoring. Critical care nurses trust upon a particular organization of knowledge, skills and experience to provide care to patients and families and create healing, humane and caring environments. Patient advocacy is a major role in ITU nursing, as usually the conditions of a patient may be poor to the extent that the patient is unconscious or else is induced into unconsciousness. Therefore the nurse has to act on behalf of and in the patient’s best interest as the patient’s advocate and ensuring that the patient’s family are well informed about the care that the patient is receiving. The necessary information needs to be given to help make highly personal decisions about the patient’s care, and that the patient and family’s decisions are respected in the development of any treatment plan for the patient. Advanced and continuous assessment needs to be carried out to verify patient’s health status; physical assessment may include Glasgow Coma Scale, eye sensitivity test, cardiac auscultation, abdominal palpation and more. Leading then to high-tech monitoring from highly specialised bedside monitors, requires critical nurses to be trained in telemetry. Telemetry is a computerized monitoring system that transmits essential information about the condition of the patient (heart and lung activity), and the nurse using this information can make healthcare judgements. Therefore with the help of telemetry in conjunction with the extensive knowledge of pathophysiology of illnesses, nurses assess the need to perform any intensive interventions that the patient might need. For instance, take arterial blood gases of a patient if oxygen saturation are getting lower, or perform suctioning if certain breathing sounds are noticed. More assessment may be done after certain interventions and therefore prevention of degrading in the patient’s condition is another main responsibility of the ITU nurse. This requires the nurse to be able to interpret any result and respond with an appropriate intervention, these may include; titration with inotropic substances to maintain a pre-determined arterial pressure, increase oxygen supply through the mechanical ventilator or change the mode it is set to wean off from extra support. ITU nursing in certain large-scale hospitals may be split in specialized sectors, like for instance the Cardiac Intensive Care Unit (CICU) in Mater Dei Hospital is a post-surgery intensive unit mostly dedicated to open heart surgery, leaving the ITU to take care of mostly post-laparotomy patients, serious trauma and other life-threating cases, including severe infections. Neonatal and Paediatrics Intensive Care Unit (NPICU) Nurses working in Neonatal and Paediatrics Intensive Care Unit (NPICU) require being extremely careful and vigilant, as this field requires working with neonates which may have some sort of complication from birth (or even before) to kids up to four years. As with all patients of this age group, symptoms and conditions change drastically, due to the frailty of the neonates, therefore continuous assessment is of extreme importance. As cases can differ from premature babies to post major operation neonates, the care is split into three: Intensive, High-Dependency, and Special Care. Caring for this type of population, care is adopted to support the patient medically and physically, assess and monitor but a great input in supporting psychologically the parents is a major requirement in these cases as they will be going through a really rough period, especially in the most serious cases like complications. Necessary time and information is given to the parents to understand what is going on with their child, involvement in the baby’s needs in special care. In intensive and high dependency cases, the patients will be connected to high tech bedside monitors; monitoring vital signs like arterial blood pressure, ECG traces, respirations, oxygen saturation and pulse. Most often patient with such frailty will be in a temperature controlled and humidified incubator to keep a stable environment, promoting recovery. The need of certain accesses may be essential as well, an umbilical line (usually arterial) is needed in cases of drug and fluid therapy, intubation may be needed in some of the cases as well. Inputs and outputs are strictly monitored throughout all levels of care provided in the unit, but as blood gases and other blood investigations may also be essential in certain intensive cases, keeping the blood volume withdrew as low as possible is of extreme importance as too much blood withdrawal in neonate may lead to serious complications. For special care there is more the usual care of a baby, therefore involving basic feeding, bathing and nappy changes, but need some extra care especially in calculation and handling due to the their small structures. Naso-gastric or oro-gastric tubes may be necessary in patients premature enough not to have a fully developed swallowing reflex or those too frail to suckle all the milk they need to maintain themselves. In this type of care, parents (especially the mother) are encouraged to handle and take care of the baby themselves as this has positive effects on both the mother and baby’s health. The nurse is responsible to liaise with the mother to set appointment regarding washing her baby or nappy changes which the mother may wish to do herself. Monitoring of daily weight, measurement of Occipitofrontal Circumference (OFC) and nappy weighting are some of the documentation taken by the nurse apart from the regular vital sign like temperature and heart rate. Plastic Surgery and Burns Unit Nurses working on the Plastic Surgery and Burns Unit (PSBU) may encounter the extremes of wounds through skin layers, since those present in burns cases could involve from only skin to muscles, nerves, blood vessels and even bones. On the other hand, plastic surgery is more related to the surgical grafts done post-recovery from a burns accident, or superficial level surgery like the removal of melanomas and other skin disorders. Burns nurses are responsible in fluid resuscitation given through wide-bore IV lines in severe cases of burns. In conjunction with fluid resuscitation, is a strict input and output charting to assess renal perfusion due to large volume loss from interstitial spaces due to loss of skin. Haemodynamic monitoring is another essential role, as the fluid loss from wounds may lead to hypotension, inotropic substances may be needed to support the heart muscle in extreme cases. Furthermore, the importance to keep sterility over wound and to aseptically cover using a special type of dressing containing paraffin oil, which does not allow water to transpire, is stressed in burns cases, as once the skin layer is lost, all the infection and water loss prevention which the integumentary system was responsible for, are now absent. In the plastic surgery cases, nurses are mostly responsible in post-op wound reviews and change of dressings. The nurse also advises the patients to protect fresh wounds and prevent infections. Renal Unit Dialysis Nurses on the Renal Unit work with a patient population of solely End Stage Renal Disease (ESRD), therefore their insight into the illness and its treatment needs to be well-defined. Dialysis treatment, which is the process of removing waste from the blood of a patient whose kidneys lost this function, is available in two modalities, namely; Haemodialysis (HD) and Peritoneal Dialysis (PD). Nurses in charge of PD patients conduct periodical reviews to collect blood, peritoneal fluid and swabs for investigations. Their main responsibility though, is to check progress from the personal log that the patient is encouraged to keep from the start of the treatment, this includes daily weight, oral intake, dialysate input (type and amount), dialysate output (colour/consistency and amount). Since PD is a self-care treatment at home, a high-quality nurse-patient relationship is required to assess for adherence to treatment. The nurse is responsible to liaise with patient and relatives if they are encountering any challenges during treatment. Advices about the necessity of any treatment changes and the importance of asepsis during treatment, to avoid unnecessary exposure to infection, i.e. peritonitis, are one of the key responsibilities of a PD nurse. On the other hand, nurses responsible of HD patients, unlike PD, have a more direct responsibility with the patient’s infection prevention. The nurse first responsibility is to inspect equipment, ensuring it is in perfect working order before use and all lines are new and sterile to minimize chance of infection. Review of the patient’s previous session handover and preparation of any treatment needed during the dialysis is carried out by the nurse. A typical dialysis treatment starts with morning weighting and then, the nurse, using strict aseptic technique, inserts two wide bore cannulas into the patient’s AV access. Finally the patient is connected to an HD machine for 4 hours, set to target weight calculated by the physician, to remove excess water and waste products from the bloodstream. Before, during and after these 4 hours, vital signs are checked and charted. Routine blood investigations are also taken and any indicated medications from previous investigations are administered and documented. The patient is advised of the possible complications and suggested to notify as soon as any abnormal feelings set on. Any pain complaint reported by the patient during the dialysis is reported in the documentation for hand over and physicians are contacted in view of treatment changes requirements. Moreover, as HD patients have to attend these sessions 3-4 times weekly, the need of a quality nurse-patient relationship is essential. The dialysis nurse spends time with the patient assessing any psychological or physical ill effects of the illness and documents an adequate handover to obtain successful treatment of this condition. Compile a list of the different types of health care workers whom you encountered during this entire placement. Physiotherapists Anaesthetists Midwives Nurses Nursing Aides Care workers Radiographers Speech Language Pathologists Occupational Therapists Audiologists Electrocardiogram (ECG) Technicians Describe the role of THREE other (non-nursing) members of the ITU team. Include key responsibilities of these persons for the patient. From your observation, what is the nature of their interaction, if any, with the critical care nurse? Physiotherapists Physiotherapists in an intensive care setting are mainly responsible for clearing secretion from chest walls using positioning, percussion, manual hyperinflation and vibration. These methods clear the peripheries of the lungs and mobilize secretions to the central airways to be easily suctioned and therefore re-establish a larger lung capacity. Apart from chest-physio, they also work with conscious patients on the early movement of limbs to resume physical function and avoid muscle waste due to being sedated and bed-bound. Whilst encouraging the patient to do these exercises on his/her own initiative as needed, the physiotherapist reports to the nurse any result of his/her actions and reminds the nurse to encourage and observe the patient doing the exercise needed for further improvement in recovery. Radiographers Radiographers in the ITU setting are not mainly responsible for diagnosis, as in critically ill patients usually the underlying conditions of illness are discovered prior to admission. Though, with the use of portable X-ray machines, their help is essential in confirming the positions of any tubes or lines inserted in the unit or theatre, whilst minimizing discomfort of unnecessary transport to the Medical Imaging. Moreover through radiography any degradation of the ITU admission health insults may be identified, for example comparisons of previous chest x-ray to analyse if consolidations increased or decreased. The radiographer-nurse relationship is usually more concerned in helping to position the patient well to get a clear ‘shot’, giving the possibility to take the most out of the X-ray taken. Once published, X-ray are seen by medical staff to verify placement of any newly inserted central venous line or endotracheal tube, and the progression of the condition is also assessed. Electrocardiogram (ECG) Technicians ECG Technicians are indispensable in cardiac related admissions in ITU, this usually would be a post-MI patient with recurrent arrests. Their main responsibilities are into attaching leads at specific sites on the patient’s body to the ECG machine, which in turn prints the signal it receives onto an ECG strip. Although patient in an ITU setting are generally attached to a continuous ECG monitor, this type of ECG gives a better picture of any arrhythmias and axis deviations of the pulse. The technician then analyses the result, identifies any emergencies and liaises with nursing staff and medical staff. Most often this involves cardiology staff as well, since decisions regarding treatment are usually deducted from these types of ECGs. Section C – DOCUMENTATION Why is documentation important in a critical care area? Documentation in critical care, as in the all nursing field, is an essential role which enables a better continuation of care and assessment of progression or regression of the patient’s condition. That said, the importance of precise information in the critical area is exponential to the fragility of the critically-ill patient, therefore this gives a valid reason for the necessity of hourly vital signs, urine output, continuous IV pump rate and more. Along the various types of documentation, comes in the rationale for certain actions taken leaving a pattern to be followed and leave good ground for recommendations to be given during handover. For instance, low oxygen saturation is monitored and the nurse decides to perform suctioning and an improvement is visible in the forthcoming readings, therefore one can suggest the following nurse to try this method as it has shown good results. Moreover, importance of documentation increases as the risks for the patient increase leading to a more responsible practice. This helps to improve quality of care provided and safeguard the patient from malpractice. Documentation is critical not only for nurses in this setting, but plays quite an enormous part in any of the doctor’s actions, as strong and consistent rationale is needed to back up certain decisions taken in critical life-threatening moments to improve care given and obtain healthier outcomes. List all forms of documentation which nurses perform in each of these units: Intensive Therapy Unit (ITU) Neonatal and Paediatric Intensive Care Unit (NPICU) Burns and Plastic Surgery Unit Renal Unit Intensive Therapy Unit Chart (incl. Hourly Parameters, Investigation Results, I.V./Oral Intake, Ventilation (via type of Mask or Ventilator Mode (SIMV, CPaP, BiPaP)
Keiser University North American Free Trade Agreement Essay
assignment helper Keiser University North American Free Trade Agreement Essay.
Read Chapter 1 INTERNATIONAL BUSINESSWeek 1 – Free Trade Agreements! What are the effects of the NAFTA (North American Free Trade Agreement) on the United States employment? Explain and define also on the agreement with Canada and Mexico.Submit 3 minimum full pages of text plus 3 references and cover page! Policy: Use peer-reviewed articles from 2009 – present to support your research in APA format. No Wikipedia, BLOGS with ads from yahoo.com or Google.com, UKEssay.com; www.buzzle.com, study.com or site that challenge as they present a biased opinion.Please submit your assignment and it will also check originality.rEFERENCESGlobalization Pros and ConsWatch VideoYouTube URL: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yfsNUrgHIpUWatch VideoYouTube URL: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ovFjvcd6q1wGlobalization ExplainedWatch VideoYouTube URL: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JJ0nFD19eT8Globalization Good & Bad (crash course)Watch VideoYouTube URL: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=s_iwrt7D5OAReferencesMadeo, K. (2017, July 7). Do NAFTA’s 6 Pros Outweigh Its 6 Cons? Retrieved January 14, 2018, from The Balance: https://www.thebalance.com/nafta-pros-and-cons-397…Amadeo, K. (2017, November 24). Would Trump Dump NAFTA? Retrieved January 14, 2018, from The Balance: https://www.thebalance.com/donald-trump-nafta-4111…Bivens, J. (2015, April 16). The Trans-Pacific Partnership Is Unlikely to Be a Good Deal for American Workers. Retrieved January 14, 2018, from Economic Policy Institute: http://www.epi.org/publication/tpp-unlikely-to-be-…Campbell, A. F. (2017, September 5). The US, Canada, and Mexico are renegotiating NAFTA. Retrieved January 14, 2018, from Vox: https://www.vox.com/policy-and-politics/2017/9/5/1…Faux, J. (2013, December 9). NAFTA’s Impact on U.S. Workers. Retrieved January 14, 2018, from Economic Policy Institute: http://www.epi.org/blog/naftas-impact-workers/Long, T. (2014, December). Echoes of 1992: The NAFTA Negotiations and North America Now. Retrieved January 14, 2018, from Wilson Center: https://www.wilsoncenter.org/sites/default/files/L…Villarreal, M. A., & Fergusson, I. F. (2017, May 24). The North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA). Retrieved January 14, 2018, from Congressional Research Service: https://fas.org/sgp/crs/row/R42965.pdfWharton. (2016, September 6). NAFTA’s Impact on the U.S. Economy: What Are the Facts? Retrieved January 14, 2018, from University of Pennsylvania.: http://knowledge.wharton.upenn.edu/article/naftas-…Holodny, E. (2017). Did manufacturing employment start falling only after NAFTA? Retrieved from: http://www.businessinsider.com/what-is-nafta-is-it…Teslik, L., H.(2009). NAFTA’s Economic Impact: Council of Foreign Relations. Retrieved from: http://www.cfr.org/economics/naftas-economic-impac…The NAFTA’s Impact (n.d.). Foreign Affairs and International Trade Canada. Retrieved from: http://www.international.gc.ca/trade-agreements-ac… Trilling, David. (2017). NAFTA: Reviewing the research. Journalist’s Resource. Retrieved from: https://journalistsresource.org/studies/international/globalization/nafta-jobs-wages-reviewing-research
Keiser University North American Free Trade Agreement Essay
SLOW FOOD ESSAY
SLOW FOOD ESSAY. Paper details Students will write an informative essay to describe the impact human activity has on natural resources when ecosystems are disrupted, and soil degradation has reached exhaustion. Chapter three includes additional support to craft a well-organized informative essay based on the three videos viewed in class: Dr. John D. Liu’s Hope in a Changing Climate. Chef Alice Water, Chef-owner operator of Cheze Panisse Restaurant in Berkeley, California, and her views regarding wholesome food as a right and not a privilege. And lastly, Carlo Petrini and his opposition when McDonald’s open a restaurant in the Spanish Steps, Rome in 1986; a manifestation that led to the International Slow Food Nation Movement formation. Students are encouraged to pick one of the topics for their final essay. And, if a student wishes to take the opportunity to address other issues affecting underserved communities with obesity, diabetes, and other diseases, please take ownership. The research paper must follow these criteria: MLA format Double spaced Times New Roman 12-point font 4-page final document Works cited https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bLdNhZ6kAzo https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0tPSmMR4ZUg https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=AEmUoTEgVV8 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XuI81vEfUiw https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4poziKWS0boSLOW FOOD ESSAY
Chinua Achebe: Things Fall Apart Essay
Table of Contents Introduction Culture and Traditions of Igbo Conclusion Works Cited Introduction ‘Things Fall Apart’, is story written by Chinua Achebe in 1958. It talks of the social and cultural aspects of pre-colonial Africa and the effects of western civilizations (Ogbaa xv). The author criticizes imperialism and British colonization. It is a tragic story where the protagonist is Okonkwo. It talks of a man named Okonkwo, who was a wrestler and an influential leader in an African village called Umofia, inhabited by the Igbo ethnic group. He initially amasses fame, and honor in Umofia through victorious wrestling but finally comes to a tragic downfall. Okonkwo was polygamous with three wives and several children. The novel emphasize on the encounters of the pre-colonial Africa and the effect of British colonialism during the 19th century (Bloom 51). This paper shall discuss culture and tradition as a social issue involved in the Chinua Achebe’s Things fall Apart. Culture and Traditions of Igbo The author emphasize on cultural and social aspects on the brink of change thorough different characters, creating tension on if to embrace change or to remain for status quo. Okonkwo disregard the new system religiously and politically, may be because he would lose his social status. The Igbo however, have been oppressed by these traditions and therefore find refuge in the new system, where once outcasts, are now be recognized. There exists a dilemma on the new dawn that scares them since it could interfere with their social life such as farming and trade. Okonkwo is a rich and respectable African warrior in Umofia. However his late father, Unoka was a lazy man, a coward, disreputable and died with several debts since he concentrated on taking palm-wine, leaving his family to go hungry. Unoka became the laughingstock of Umofia being referred to as Agbala to mean, ‘womanly weaknesses’ Unlike him, Okonkwo is resentful to his father and evades being like him by becoming ‘manly’ as a clansman, a wealthy farmer, and a respectable warrior not to mention him being a controlling family man. This parent-child relationship affects him to become violent, over-ambitious and disrespectful, associating masculinity with aggression and acts irrationally (Bloom 141). Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Okonkwo‘s son, Nwoye is lazy and it disturbs Okonkwo that his son might take after his grandfather, Unoka. This indicates that the villagers believed in passing inheritable aspects to future generations. Moreover, they engage in adoption, for instance the village adopts a young boy called Ikemefuna whom Okonkwo takes guardianship as a surrogate son, for peace offering from the village, Mbaino to maintain peace after the boy’s father murdered an Umofian woman. He has to live with the boy until further instructions are given to elders from the oracle. The two becomes so close to each other, as the boy regard Okonkwo as a father and Nwoye becomes friends with the boy. Ikemefuna coexist happily with the family for three years, becoming part of them. In another instance, Okonkwo’s kinsmen particularly, Uchendu his uncle, welcomes him and his family in his maternal village called Mbanta after they are sent into exile. He seeks refuge in his motherland as Uchendu states that; It is true that a child belongs to his father. But when the father beats his child, it seeks sympathy in its mother’s hut. A man belongs to his fatherland when things are good and life is sweet. But when there is sorrow and bitterness, he finds refuge in his motherland. Your mother is there to protect you. She is buried there. And that is why we say that mother is supreme (Achebe 134). The quote not only emphasizes the position of women in the village but also the importance of having good family relationships. He is built his huts and given yam seed to plant in his motherland although he is still depressed, blaming chief his spirit for disappointing his greatness in the village. After exile, he had gone back to Umofia after organizing a farewell ceremony to thank his kinsmen for the stay. This emphasizes on the significance of maintaining close family bonds to the Igbo (Bloom 39). Wife beating and carrying out sacrifices are other practices in the village. Okonkwo proves volatile and easily provoked as he beats his youngest wife called Ojiugo during an important period referred to as Week of Peace, accusing her of neglect of the family. We will write a custom Essay on Chinua Achebe: Things Fall Apart specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This interrupts with the peace meant to prevail the whole week but Okonkwo has to sacrifice to pay up for his sins and to show repentance. Okonkwo also shoots Ekwefi, his second wife due to a small issue of wrapping food with Okonkwo’s banana leaves during Feast of the New Yam. From this practice, the reader is enlightened of the significance of ceremonies and farming in Umofia. It is clear that the Igbo practice farming and trade as depicted where Okonkwo receives cowries from selling yams from Oberika who promise to sell them until he would go back to Umofia. Clansmen preside over public trials in Umofia, where nine clansmen have met to signify the ancestor’s spirits. The nine clansmen also referred to as Egwugwu, signify the nine Umofian clans. Okonkwo is separated from the rest of the clansmen to settle a domestic case where Mgbafo, a woman has suffered assaults from his husband, taken back to her motherland, but the husband needed her to go back. The Egwugwu, advices the man to offer palm wine to his in-laws to appease the wife to return home. This case is too trivial to be presented to the Egwugwu as some elders perceive it (Heiser 26). The villagers believe in unnatural phenomenon, which have to be prevented through human sacrifice to appease the gods. When locusts invade the village, the elder informs Okonkwo the Oracle’s guideline, which require killing of Ikemefuna to avenge for Umofian woman murdered in the previous year in Mbaino. He is warned of killing Ikemefuna as it would despise the earth goddess who could show his vengeance to the village. Okonkwo kills Ikemefuna irrespective of being warned by a village elder, Ogbuefu Ezeudu. Following this event, he lie to the boy that he is to be returned to his home village as the entire family mourns his departure. However, the boy is excited to reunite with his family but he is unfortunately attacked by Okonkwo’s clansmen. On seeking help from Okonkwo, he kills the boy to showoff his might to the clansmen irrespective of the Oracle’s caution. Consequently, things start to fall apart. This emphasize on the need to adhere to elders and more so, the religious directives. As Okonkwo becomes greatly saddened, he loses his appetite and spends sleepless nights and decides to visit Obierika who is disappointed with Okonkwo’s act. He is however consoled and is able to find sleep. Bad omens follow consequently, as his daughter becomes ill. As a result, the use of herbal medicine among the Igbo is manifested as Okonkwo prepares some for his daughter, and she recovers after taking the medicine. The Igbo are religious as seen through various rituals. Besides, there are priestess e.g. Chielo, who advice the second wife of Okonkwo, Ekwefi that Agbala required the sight of Ezinma, which makes Okonkwo to argue. Chielo present Ezinma to the nine clans and moves inside the cave of the Oracle. Not sure if you can write a paper on Chinua Achebe: Things Fall Apart by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Ekwefi has been following in secret despite being warned by Chielo and stands beside the entrance to be surprised by appearance of Okonkwo as they wait together. The following morning Ekwefi is offered Ezinma by Chielo and they sleeps together. Moreover, the Igbo conduct funeral ceremonies where clansmen take the lead. When the elder, Ogbuefu Ezeudu dies his death is announced using ekwe. This depresses Okonkwo more since he failed to adhere to the elder’s advice. During his funeral ceremony, Okonkwo’s gun fatefully shoots at teenage boy, who is Ogbuefu Ezeudu’s son unexpectedly. Since causing death of a village elder is a despicable act for the earth goddess, he is taken hostage in exile for a period of 7 years for atonement. Moreover, his properties are burnt in order to cleanse. Additionally, Enoch, a Christian convert reveals Egwugwu on an occasion meant to adore earth god. This act is so despicable and is compared to putting to death ancestral spirits (Whittaker
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