Discuss the following questions: Why do you think incidents of corruption (like the one outline in the articles and others) occur in JAILS AND PRISONS specifically?Who REALLY controls the prison, the inmates or the officers? Why is this the case? Explain and support your answer.Instructions:REMEMBER: You are not sending out a text message or tweet, so when writing your post, use proper English, grammar and writing mechanics. Make sure you include what you think about the respective section you are discussing.Use the “Reply” icon to start your discussion. Once you type and spell-check your thread, use the “Post Reply” icon to submit your thoughts. Use can also review the)on posting discussions.Participants must create a thread in order to view other threads in this forum.Initial Post – First, you will post to the forum by providing some background information followed up by your thoughts and opinions on the respective topic. It must be substantive and thoughtful dialogue. Use outside sources such as the news, Internet, popular media, your textbook, journal articles, etc…to assist you here. Make sure to cite your work if applicableThis section must be at least 300 words minimum. Include a word count in parenthesis at the end.Make sure to use proper APA formatting to cite your work if applicable.
AOJ APA formatting work
Ebola: Causes, Symptoms and Treatment
Share this: Facebook Twitter Reddit LinkedIn WhatsApp Shenaz Banu Sridhar “Ebola virus outbreak: The deathly and incurable hemorrhagic fever” Table of Contents 1.1 Introduction on Ebola virus. 1.2 History of Ebola. 1.3 Characteristics of Ebola virus. 1.4 Symptoms of Ebola. 1.5 Diagnosing Ebola. 1.6 Treatment methods for Ebola. 1.7 Conclusion. 1.1 Introduction on Ebola virus. Ebola is an emerging virus even though it is not new-as it has been emerged before and can be classified as one of the most ancient viruses found and it is once again appearing (Draper, 2002). Ebola was first identified in the Democratic republic of Congo or which was previously known as Zaire, since it appeared in the town of Yambuku-central Africa in the year 1976 (Draper, 2002).The largest and the most complex Ebola outbreak since the first outbreak was in 1976, which was experienced by the people of west Africa in march 2014 (World Health Organization, 2014). This particular outbreak has gone through many cases which have lead to death more than all the previous outbreaks combined (WHO, 2014). Ebola can be classified according to its genetic antigenic characterization (Porrut, 2005). 1.2 History of Ebola. Ebola virus was first discovered and experienced in the form of two simultaneous outbreaks, first due to the E.Sudan and the other due to E.Zaire, both these outbreaks happened in places close by, in Sudan near the border with the Democratic republic of Congo (Smith, 2005).This virus further affected the towns of Nzara and Maridi between June and November 1976 which gave mortality rate as 53%: 150 of 284 victims which is the characteristic of the Sudan subtype (Smith, 2005). The second outbreak was due to the E.Zaire which occurred in the border of the democratic republic of Congo which is close to Sudan and the Central African Republic between August and November in the same year 1976 (Johnson, 2005). The virus is named after the Ebola River where the virus was first discovered in 1976 (CNN, 2014). The third outbreak occurred between July and October 1979 in the same place attacked by the Sudan virus, but didn’t cause great extensive outbreaks like the first two, this virus affected 34 people and killing 22- mortality 65% (Porrut, 2005). 1.3 Characteristics of Ebola virus. Among the Filoviridae virus, the two commonly found deadly viruses are the Ebola and the Marburg viruses- This viral family contains viruses with non segmented negative-sense RNA genomes (Geisbert and Jahrling, 2005,). Ebola virus is not harmful unless it fuses its glycoprotein viral with the host cell membrane (Wood-Lewis et al., 2005). There are mainly five types of Ebola viruses identified, which are: Ebola Zaire, Ebola Ivory Coast, Ebola Sudan, Ebola Bundibugyo, Ebola Reston and the one which is producing the outbreaks in 2014 was due to the Zaire species (WHO, 2014) Filovirus cell entry is supported by its class I fusion protein or the spike protein GP1, 2 (Volchkov, et al., 2011). There are seven genes in the order 3’ leader, nucleoprotein, virion-protein 35, VP40, glycoprotein, VP30, VP24, RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (L)-5’ trailer found in the genome (Sanchez et al., 2011). Ebola virus is transmitted to a human via having direct contact with another Ebola victim-here the direct contact includes: blood, secretions, organs or other body fluids of the victim and also the surfaces and materials which are contaminated with these fluids (WHO, 2011). Usually the victims of Ebola are infectious as long as their blood and body fluid-which includes semen and breast milk is contaminated with the virus (WHO, 2011). Ebola releases number of countless chemicals like cytokines, chemokines and histamines when it infects different types of cells (Smith, 2009).this causes the number of symptoms we can observe to conclude whether the person is a victim of Ebola or not( Smith, 2009).this virus’s genome is particularly small and appears as a long worm l where it resembles a length of thread but it can also be in a U-shaped or in a shape of “6” or even at times circular.( Smith, 2009). 1.4 Symptoms of Ebola. Ebola viruses are pathogenic for humans, as they cause specific febrile hemorrhagic disease and these symptoms will be directly shown after nearly a week (Baron, 2005) usually the symptom of Ebola includes fever, headache, and abdominal pain. Nausea, fatigue and mostly an ill feeling, but this is what makes diagnosing Ebola difficult, as these symptoms are common for many diseases (Smith, 2009). But to elaborate more, first symptoms of Ebola are sudden fever, muscle pain followed by headache and sore throat along with this the rest of the symptoms are shown which are: vomiting, diarrhea, rash and even at times internal and external bleeding is shown (WHO, 2014). 1.5 Diagnosing Ebola. It is usually difficult to categorize the Ebola virus and Marburg virus as they both have got similar clinical symptoms; here the most common symptoms are severe, febrile and acute fever (Feldman et al, 2005). Recently there have been many outbreaks on Ebola in several countries of central Africa and due to these outbreaks there have been different types of field diagnostics as medical sophisticated support was required. (Feldman et al., 2003,). For an instance, the two outbreaks of Ebola hemorrhagic fever which took place in Gabon, 1996 resulted in mortality of 66% and 75% respectively in laboratory confirmed patients. (Courbet et al., 1999). Several diagnostic assays for Ebola infection are currently used and have been recently evaluated in patients in the field. (Ksiazek et al., 1999). The different species of Ebola virus seem to cause somewhat different clinical syndromes, but it’s slightly difficult to observe them under perfect conditions, and it’s very rare that observations like this are done. (Feldman, Geisbert and kawaoka, 2007, p.129) Using the symptoms Ebola can be identified, but before doing so it is investigated using so many procedures like: Antigen-capture detection tests, Serum neutralization tests, Reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay, Electron microscopy, Virus isolation by cell culture and Antibody-capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Handling these can be highly dangerous and can be risky as these can be transmitted through direct contact (WHO, 2014). 1.6 Treatment methods for Ebola. Due to its specific morphology, still the drugs and the therapies are not fully evaluated, however it is currently evaluating (WHO, 2014).At the same time Ebola can be prevented to its maximum if we follow necessary preventive techniques like raising the awareness of Ebola infection, safe burials and social mobilization (WHO, 2014).Different species of Ebola virus causes different symptoms but the opportunities for a good observation of the virus under good condition is very rare (Feldman et al., 2011). The virulence of Ebola virus differs according to the species or strain which attacked the humans as well as non-human primates (Sanchez et al., 2011).among the Ebola’s genus infection rate of the Zaire Ebola virus and the Sudan Ebola virus rate differs, among these the Zaire Ebola virus has the highest case-fatality rates which is 60-90% (Guenno et al., 2011).lately due to some investigations done which included the observation of some attenuated vesicular stomatitis virus expressing the Ebola virus surface glycoprotein which previously has demonstrated efficiency as a vaccine against Ebola infections in rodents and monkeys (Feldman et al., 2007). It should be highly realized that workers such as doctors, nurses, scientists’ who work with direct contact with the victim too should be under consecutive care as Ebola is a directly spreading virus (Casillas, 2003). 1.7 Conclusion. Moreover to summarize all what is said above we can say that Ebola is not a virus to be put down as it is highly dangerous and very harmful as it can easily spread which causes it to be deadly and also as it can keep rising leading to tragedy deaths. And to recall the past, it is said that Ebola was found in Africa and the name itself implies on the first outbreak which happened near the Ebola River and also there are five main types of Ebola viruses but among them the E.Zaire and the E.Sudan are the commonly found ones. Ebola is a class 4 pathogen belonging to the family Filoviridae as it causes severe hemorrhagic fever and various symptoms and this is currently incurable as there are no specific treatments or drugs available. Isolating the infected person, handling the preventive techniques carefully might reduce the spreading of Ebola, and finally to conclude it is in the future’s hand to find proper vaccine and drugs to stop Ebola. Reference list Baron, C. R., Smith, D.I.H. and McCormick, B.J. (2005) ‘The natural history of Ebola’, microbes and infection, 7, pp.1005-1006, [Online] DOI: 10.1016/j.micinf.2005.04.006 .(Accessed: 18 October 2014) Cable news network, S(2014), Ebola fast facts. Available at: http://edition.cnn.com/2014/04/11/health/ebola-fast-facts/ (Accessed:3 November 2014) Casillas, A. M., Nyamathi, A. M., Sosa, A., Wilder, C, L. and Sands, H (2003) ‘A current review of virus: Pathogenesis, clinical presentation and diagnostic assessment’, Sage journals, 4, pp. 268-275 [Online] DOI: 10.1177/1099800403252603 (Accessed: 04 November 2014) Draper, A.S. (2002) Ebola. Google Books [Online] Available at: http://books.google.lk/books?id=FohdK6o-8WIC
Orgnzation design & development
nursing essay writing service Orgnzation design & development. I’m studying for my Management class and need an explanation.
Assignment Questions.Marks- 05
Understand the basic concepts of systems theory for organizational design. (Lo 1.5)
Define the human, structural and strategic dimensions of the organizational development (Lo 1.5 & 3.1)
Analyze the strategic role of change in the organization and its impact on organizational performance (Lo 2.9)
Be sure to use at least three scholarly, peer-reviewed references in support of each answer and also incorporate the key concepts from the course.
Critical Thinking Questions:
1. Describe OD Consultants role in organization design? (300-400 words) (2 mark).
2. What are the attributes that measure the Organizational effectiveness? (200-300 words) (1 mark).
3. Explain the importance of developing structures in the Organizations? (300-400 words) (2 mark).
Orgnzation design & development
Impact of the BP Oil Spill on Oysters and Clams in Gulf Coast USA Research Paper
Description of Oysters and Clams Oyster is a type of seafood with high nutritional value both to marine life and human beings. Experts note that the plant is normally high in fat, protein, Iron and Vitamin D (Judy, 2010). However, oysters are not only part of marine and human nutritional delicacies; they are also an integral part of the sea environment. In the US Gulf coast, oysters are located near the shores (Freeman, 2010). Due to the close proximity to dry land, oysters and clams play a vital role in the prevention of shoreline and wetland erosion because they act as a natural barrier to slow down tidal waves (which cause wetland erosion). Due to this reason (and several subsequent factors), oysters and clams contribute significantly to the environment because besides purifying seawater, Oysters and Clams are aquatic plants that provide shelter to other marine life (Freeman, 2010, p. 1). In the purification of seawater, oysters prevent the occurrence of algal bloom. This is the major reason why oysters and clams are usually perceived to be the backbone of marine life since they are at the centre of the food chain, providing food to other aquatic life. Despite the integral role oysters and clams play in the sea ecosystem, sea pollution (like the recent BP oil disaster) significantly affects sea eco-balance and subsequently, the sustainability of seafood for humans. This study analyses the impact of the BP oil disaster on the Gulf Coast of Mexico. Immediate Impact of the Oil Spill on Oysters and Clams Though it is scientifically proved that adult oysters can potentially reduce the harmful impact of toxic petrochemicals, it is also a well-known fact that these petrochemicals can significantly kill oyster larvae (Freeman, 2010, p. 1). This effect is only felt in the short-term because in the long-term, it is feared that the chemical dispersants which were used to break the oil cover may have a long-lasting impact on the oysters. The method used to eliminate the oil spill (through fresh water release) was also disastrous to the beds of oysters and clams because it killed all growing oysters in the region (Freeman, 2010, p. 1). Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Freeman (2010) affirms that “…..importantly, this freshwater release killed the oysters growing on the interior of the estuaries, an area protected from the oil and chemicals that were washing up on the intertidal oyster beds along the coast” (p. 1). There were more concerns registered from environmental officials analyzing the impact of the oil spill because it was feared that the chemicals used were killing the oysters and clams too. It was also reported that the oil spill also negatively affected the reproduction of oysters because they normally produce sperms and eggs in the water to fuse and grow into oysters, but the oil spill caused them to close their shells and eventually suffocate the oyster larvae (Weise, 2010). Current Impact of the Oil Spill’s on Oysters and Clams The real impact of the BP oil disaster on the oysters and clams cannot be easily quantified because it is feared that small sea animals may have consumed the petrochemicals from the oil spill (plus the chemicals used to curb the oil spill). These small sea animals will consequently be eaten by larger fish and finally by humans, to affect comprehensively the general eco-balance of sea life. Already, oyster growth and numbers have been severely affected by the oil spill and it is still difficult to quantify the damage caused by their death on sea life. Moreover, scientists have observed that it is sometimes difficult to quantify the real impact of the oil spill because the effect of the oil impact is interlinked with other disasters waiting to happen (Judy, 2010, p. 3). However, it is assumed that some adult oysters may not have been severely affected by the oil spill because they have the capability of reducing the negative effect of the toxins. However, the small oyster larvae may have died in large numbers. The reason, why it is said that mature oysters may potentially survive the oil spill is because when mature oysters taste oil, they close as a result. Though they may not increase in number (because of the curtailing effect of the oil spill), it is assumed that the plants will generally survive (Judy, 2010, p. 3). We will write a custom Research Paper on Impact of the BP Oil Spill on Oysters and Clams in Gulf Coast USA specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Long-term Impact of the Oil Spill on Oysters and Clams The long- term impact of the oil spill on the oysters and clams is not easy to determine because the larvae are said to die from the effects of the oil spill but the mature oysters are said to survive the oil spill (Freeman, 2010, p. 2). However, it should be noted that the oil spill significantly affected the oyster beds and this may have a long-term impact on the number of oysters in the sea. Consequently, this means that the number of oysters and clams will potentially reduce, but the situation will normalize once the reproduction process of the oysters start again. Nonetheless, as a result of the reduction in oyster numbers, the marine ecosystem maybe affected because the eco-balance will be destabilized. The situation is expected to normalize after a year because the oil disaster struck at the reproduction period and it may take another year for the situation to normalize again. Impact of the Oil Spill on the Louisiana Economy Impact on Economy during the Spill Effect on Fishing Industry The BP oil disaster was identified to have significantly affected the operation of the Louisiana economy because Louisiana is known to supply about 40% of America’s seafood (Weise, 2010). Because of health reasons, some of the oyster beds along the Louisiana coastline were closed. This closure was bound to affect the supply of seafood in America and consequently the economy of Louisiana because for example, about 23% of all red-snapper fish caught in the US came from the state of Louisiana. Moreover, since fish can swim away from the zone of oil spillage, it is feared that subsequent harvests are bound to be affected by the fish migration. Consequently, Louisiana fishers are bound to be significantly affected, in terms of low fish production. Effect on Oil Industry The oil spill had a significant impact on the economy of Louisiana and the surrounding marine life, but in the same manner, there was also a significant impact on the oil industry. Not to mention the volumes of oil lost in the spillage, one significant impact of the oil disaster was the financial damages brought about by law suits and cost directed towards clearing the oil spill. In total, BP lost millions of dollars in financial damages and costs that went into restoring the company’s image and reputation in the eyes of the public. Not sure if you can write a paper on Impact of the BP Oil Spill on Oysters and Clams in Gulf Coast USA by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Effect on Restaurants and Tourism The hospitality industry also suffered great losses as a result of the oil spill because restaurants suffered insufficient supply of seafood because of the death of sea animals and the ensuing health risks posed by the oil spill on seafood. Tourism was equally affected because the sea was polluted with petrochemicals from the oil spill and in the same manner; the sea was also polluted by chemicals meant to clear the oil spill. Hotels and resorts were therefore significantly affected because leisure activities at the shores were prohibited, consequently leading to a low turnout of visitors. Current Impact on the Louisiana Economy Fishing Industry Currently, the fishing industry is slowly recovering from the impact of the oil spill after it was cleared. However, the industry is still wiling under the long-term effects of the oil spill because the population of oysters reduced as a result of the oil spill and consequently, fishers have to deal with competition from other seafood suppliers who have invaded its primary market to supplement its shortfall. Oil industry After the oil spill, the oil industry is still suffering from the effects of negative publicity as a result of the extensive damage the oil spill did on the environment and people’s livelihoods. It may probably take a long time before public confidence is restored. Restaurants and Tourism Restaurants and the tourism sectors also have to contend with waning public confidence about the impact of the oil spill on their services. For instance, many customers are now shunning seafoods in restaurants because of the fear that it may be unsafe to consume seafood because of the negative impact of the oil spill on aquatic life. Tourism is also suffering in the same regard because many visitors are still not confident to use the sea. Cleaning After the Spill After the oil spill cleanup, the sea situation has not come back to normal because scientists are still grappling with the problem of transferring oyster larvae from healthy sources into the affected areas. After this process is completed, it may take a long time before the situation goes back to normal. In concurrence to these efforts, environmental bodies have also sued BP for the environmental damages it has caused. Most of these cases are yet to be finalized (Mcgill, 2011). Conclusion The BP oil spill has caused extensive damages not only to the environment but people’s livelihoods as well. It is difficult to undo such a disaster in a couple of weeks or months and therefore the impact of the oil spill is yet to be completely eliminated. More so, its impact on the growth of oysters and clams may have a long-term impact on the marine ecosystem and therefore the comprehensive damage of the oil spill cannot be accurately determined. Nonetheless, it is no doubt that the effect of the oil spill is very extensive. References Freeman, M. (2010). The Oil Spill’s Impact on Gulf Coast Oysters. Web. Judy, J. (2010). Oil Spill Threatens Gulf Oysters, May Impact Seafood Worldwide. Web. Mcgill, K. (2011). Lingering Effects of BP Oil Spill Topic for Oyster Industry Leaders. Web. Weise, E. (2010). Spill’s Effects Unlikely To Make Way to Grocery Aisles. Web.
Congress and Its Members explains the processes of both the House and the Senate , political science homework help
Congress and Its Members explains the processes of both the House and the Senate , political science homework help.
Attached is an example of citation style and one of the sources wil attached short chapters from the books, no other sources allowed assignment is ( min 8 pages max 12 pages) Students will answer all four of the following essays. This is an “open book” test and, in fact, references should be made to your course readings. (And remember: no sources outside of our course materials and absolutely no consultation or collaboration with anyone on your answers.) Essays should be well-written and free of typos and compositional errors. Students should show sophistication in their understanding and thoughtfulness in their answers. Students should expect to write about 2-3 typed (double-spaced) pages PER essay (so 8-12 pages total).1. The House and Senate have similar, and yet different, rules for debating, amending, and passing legislation. Chapter 8 in Congress and Its Members explains the processes of both the House and the Senate (and chapters 20 and 21 in the Reader give examples of rules for each institution). Discuss each chamber’s process separately, highlighting at least five key rules in each case. (Do NOT, though, spend a lot of time discussing filibuster, as you will be addressing that subject in Question 2.) Which rules are most critical in each chamber? How do the rules allow each institution to fulfill its constitutional obligations?2. Two articles on Blackboard (under “Readings”) address the filibuster from differing perspectives. (You may want to lean somewhat on chapter 8 Congress and Its Members for some parts of the question too.) First, explain the history of the filibuster—its beginnings and its development over time. Next, explain its current status: how is it most likely to be employed today? Third, what are the key arguments against the filibuster and what are those for it? (For this part of the question, consult the articles under “Readings.”) Finally, what is your own view of the filibuster? Should it be retained or reformed, and why?3. Presidents can influence domestic policy in a number of different ways. In chapter 10 in Congress and Its Members (as well as chapters 28-30 in the Reader), a president’s veto options are discussed. Explain the veto (or “negative”) power. What is it, how has it has changed over time, and how do presidents employ the power today? Be sure to distinguish between a “regular” and “pocket” veto. How does the veto relate to the “signing statement”? (Remember, this is somewhat complicated; make sure to be subtle in your answer.) Why might a signing statement be employed instead of a veto? Finally, do you think presidents should use the veto more or less today? Why?4. In chapter 15 in Congress and Its Members (especially 462-470) as well as the two articles on Blackboard (under “Readings”), the war making roles of Congress and the president are addressed. Explain the early history of the war power and who the Founders expected to have a larger role in the process. Also, how have the roles of Congress and the president evolved, especially since the early 20th century? Focusing on recent events, what light does the Iraq War—especially the lead up to the war—shed on the issue of the modern use of the war power? Who holds the balance of power and who should hold the balance? Explain.
Congress and Its Members explains the processes of both the House and the Senate , political science homework help