Get help from the best in academic writing.

Stevenson University LGBT Adoption and Parenting Policy Paper

Stevenson University LGBT Adoption and Parenting Policy Paper.

Topic: Gay Parenting and adoptionThe policy issue I want to address is the LGBT population and adoption rights.add a specific federal, state or local law to your outline that you plan to examine that attempts to address your social problem. Include background on the policy, pros and cons, and a critique of it. How might you change the policy to better address your issue and social problem? Identifying a relevant policy is key to this. You identify the social issue, your question of interest, but no policy or law. make sure include discussion on each item/question I ask you to focus on in the instruction– key terms and definitions, background,This assignment is broken down into 3 sections on the instructions. Assignment I and II is due by November 29. Assignment III is the entire paper which is Due Dec 12.
Stevenson University LGBT Adoption and Parenting Policy Paper

First World consumerism plays a role in the persistence of Third World sweatshops, yet there are conflicting thoughts on how the issue of sweatshops should be addressed. This paper examines sweatshops and perspectives surrounding the potential rectification of the issue, on what end this correction should be addressed, the consumerism aspect or in the sweatshops themselves. The Clean Clothes Campaign’s (CCC, a movement to improve sweatshop conditions) processes and outcomes, private monitoring, and the roles and structures within sweatshops will support my argument proving that for sweatshops to be improved or removed, action must be taken within the Third World countries themselves. My topic of Third World sweatshops and First World consumerism is relative to globalization and “just in time” production because they create a large demand for the inexpensive and fast labour that sweatshops offer. There has been a recent “clean clothes” movement in which consumers have begun to boycott stores that sell apparel produced in sweatshops. This method of protesting sweatshops is not beneficial and the alleviation of sweatshops in Third World countries requires the cooperation of the workers and an intervening power. Jill Esbenshade’s Monitoring Sweatshops addresses the roles of both workers and consumers within the global apparel industry. Esbenshade covers a broad range of aspects which influence sweatshops such as private monitoring of sweat shops, and interests of manufacturers, contractors, and workers. Private monitoring as a system is not successful in its attempts to improve sweatshop conditions because it does not prioritize the needs of workers, instead it prioritizes the needs of the manufacturers (Esbenshade 2004:89). Cheap and fast labour benefits manufacturers because it is an inexpensive way of supplying the “just in time” production system, putting fair treatment of workers in the back of their minds. Within sweatshops the interests of manufacturers and workers conflict, and those of the manufacturers prevail. Monitors have little training and are not trustworthy investigators as they have a history of being swayed by manufacturers to postpone assessments as it becomes close to crunch time. They clean up sweatshops but only to the extent that prices do not have to be raised. Monitors do not institute changes or upgrades that will cost high prices or that will set back the factory in production time. The cooperation of monitoring firms is beneficial to the manufacturers because they pay the monitor’s wages (Esbenshade 2004: 97-98). As explained in Esbenshade’s Monitoring Sweatshops, the monitoring system is one with many holes, “Who is paying the [monitoring firm’s] wages? The manufacturer is, and they ask them to turn their head when it is crunch time and they need to get production out” (Esbenshade 2004:98). There are global movements to end sweatshops existing currently such as trade unions and NGOs, informal economy, the CCC’s method of urgent appeals, and consumers roles in fair trade products and clean clothes. The CCC’s use of urgent appeals and it’s manner of intervention is only beneficial for a handful of the sweatshops it enters, more often than not it results in factory closures, leaving people unemployed (Sluiter 2009: 185). Urgent appeals do have benefits, they “are a good way to start a dialogue with companies, because they are about specific cases; companies cannot hide behind general answers” but they are seldom cost-effective and also often end in factory closures (Sluiter 2009: 185). Many Third World populations are reliant on sweatshops because they provide mass employment and keep the economy afloat. As hard as First World populations may fight for the removal of sweatshops in the Third World, they are greatly needed because the jobs that they provide prevent laborers from starving, working as prostitutes, and begging on the streets (Rothstein 2005: 41). The informal economy that has developed has made the intervention of an outside force necessary. Steady jobs have been replaced by informal means of employment, giving workers the short end of the stick and no leg to stand on if their employment is being terminated (Sluiter 2009: 187). In the globalized sweatshop industry the workers are at the mercy of the manufacturers which proves that the CCC’s methods are not useful because whether the sweatshop exists or not, manufactures will develop a new industry that is inexpensive and still exploits workers. The laws relating to working conditions and employment security must be altered and more strongly enforced rather than removing factory employment in the Third World all together. When an apparel company requires production, it offers a price to the manufacturers and then prices are cut and conditions are altered until the product is able to be produced for the price offered. Seeing as the main cost being paid by the manufacturers is wages, the goal can be reached by cutting labour costs (Esbenshade 2008:456). Working in an informal economy is usually the only option for workers in sweatshops. No employment contracts are composed so workers can earn below the legal minimum wage, are not paid on time, are expected to work beyond regular hours, and do not receive benefits of any kind (Sluiter 2009: 188). If a contract is written, it often exploits the worker and do not make exception for pregnancy or illness, and if a worker were to get sick their employment would be threatened as it would be seen as a violation of the contract. Gender based discrimination often occurs because a female employee is seen as a risky hire for several reasons. “Gender-based discrimination is a tool for labour-market flexibility” Sluiter explains, the long hours and low pay make it difficult for women to keep their family fed (Sluiter 2009:191). If any action should be taken to correct the use of sweatshops and the treatment of workers it should be to remove sweatshops from Third World countries and instate new businesses and a new way of involvement in the global market. Merely improving sweatshop conditions could be extremely detrimental to the over all economy of the country, but removing the businesses entirely without instituting a solution, could be as equally destructive. First World activists fight for wage increases in sweatshops, through the CCC for example, but victories on the Western front “may turn into defeats when wage raises have been won in factories that subsequently shut down” (Sluiter 2009: 184). Rothstein argues that First World intervention in sweatshops is not as beneficial as it is though to be, by stating, “If Western activists succeed in forcing firms to raise wages, limit hours, or reject children as laborers production would cease and be replaced in the global marketplace by those not bound by Western standards” (Rothstein 2005:41). Although I do not agree that these sweatshops are a necessity in Third World countries, implementing improvements is the wrong way to go about correcting the abuses. Through corrections production will be reduced, yet if sweatshops are removed and a new system is brought about, a less corrupt means of production could grow and there could be a possibility of self sustainability. While mass boycotting of corporate giants that supply sweatshop produced apparel may be a powerful means of motivating manufacturers to pull production out of Third World countries, the outcome would be harmful because little would be left for them to participate in the global economy. It is a known fact that if the price of a commodity rises, the demand for it will fall. Therefore, if wages in sweatshops were increased, product prices would rise, consumption would diminish, and manufacturers would move elsewhere in search of cheap labour. Thus leaving a population unemployed and unable to participate in the growing globalization of the economic market. A large problem to do with instituting improvements to sweatshop conditions is that every change in the industry could have ripple effects on important aspects of the global trade economy as well as the economy and well being that effects workers in the Third World. For example, if children were to be banned from working in sweatshops families would not have enough money would become impoverished (Rothestein 2005:41). The seemingly improved conditions would spark many contradictions. Richard Rothstein argues in his piece “Defending Sweatshops: Too Much Logic, Too Little Evidence” that First World activists are ignorant of the perspectives and needs of Third World habitants. Sweatshop employment ensures the highest wage earnings in many underdeveloped and developing countries. Rothstein recalls a story of an Indonesian woman, Tratiwoon, who sells items found in the garbage for a dollar a day with her three year old son (Rothstein 2005: 41). Tratiwoon dreams of the day that her son is older and can get a job at the nearest sweatshop, because to these people “a sweatshop represents a leap in living standards” (Rothstein 2005: 41). Rothstein also argues that “Americans … get on their high horses about child labour” but do not understand the context in which it is used and needed in the Third World (Rothstein 2005: 41). Child Labour Hawks remove children from sweatshop employment without comprehending the repercussions. “Saving” a young person from child labour may result in impoverishing an entire family or subjecting them to homelessness or starvation. Perhaps First World activism aiming to end sweatshops its fueled by guilt, “woman and children are working at slave wages for our benefit- and this makes us feel unclean'” (Rothestein 2005: 42). In reality, while First World consumers do experience benefit from sweatshop production, Third World laborers are dependent on sweatshop employment to maintain their quality of life. Sweatshops in underdeveloped countries are not looked upon negatively, jobs in these factories are admired and desired. The Neoliberal theories of privatization and deregulation have enforced the proliferation of the sweatshop and garment industry in the Third World. This occurs through a combination of weakening enforcement of labour laws and creating a dependency on export oriented employment as privatization limits job availability (Esbenshade 2008: 457). Workers needs are being overlooked in order for countries to do business, “countries are literally competing for apparel contracts based on who has the more docile and lower paid workforce” (Esbenshade 2008: 457). Employers minimize workers needs because manufacturers locate with non-unionized businesses and unorganized plans. In the time of globalization labour has been divided among class, gender, race, and nations, the growing diversity makes it difficult for workers to feel comfortable and identify with their co-workers (Esbenshade 2008: 458). Keeping workers isolated increases production and attachment, Workers are not brought together in ever-larger worksites where their common experience unites them. Instead they are separated into thousands of small shops isolated from one another by distance and anonymity, and often by borders and language as well (Esbenshade 2008: 458). It is unclear to sweatshop labourers who their enemy is, there are many exploiters both large and small and workers cannot rely on their bosses to protect them from this exploitation, as their bosses are at the mercy of far away corporations (Esbenshade 2008: 458). Esbenshade’s “Going Up Against the Global Economy: New Developments in the Anti-Sweatshops Movement” discusses “United Students Against Sweatshops” (USAS), a student run anti-sweatshop campaign that directs schools to do businesses with corporations that treat their employees with respect. USAS went through several phases of initiating their cause in universities, firstly forcing schools to begin only using businesses that disclose their name and location, secondly activists requested that universities adopt “independent monitoring codes by joining the WRC” (Workers Rights Consortium) (Esbenshade 2008: 459). The third phase is currently underway, students are pressuring universities to join the Designated Supplier Program which requires that manufacturers have special licenses to use factory facilities (Esbenshade 2008: 459). The aim of the USAS is to hold the manufacturers responsible for the conditions of their workers, and factories where worker’s rights are not being respected may be revealed (Esbenshade 2008: 459). The USAS is better than other anti-sweatshop organizations, rather than fighting for higher wages and better working conditions it selects only the better manufacturers to do business with. This may motivate manufactures of low standard factories to correct their ways in order to be hired by universities. Neoliberal policies have destabilized government protection of workers in developing countries, mainly introduced by the mandates put forward by the Inernational Monitary Fund and the World Bank (Esbenshade 2008:457). Governments that have become in debt have increased amounts of sweatshops and have weakened labour laws in order to expand their export commodities (Esbenshade 2008: 457). The work environment in sweatshops has become unstructured by means of enforcing labour laws, and while monitoring is taking place it is privatized, creating a relaxed relationship between the manufacturers (who pay the monitors wages) and the monitors. Monitoring is untrustworthy because working conditions are in the hands of the private sector who police themselves (Frank 2008: 35). T. A. Frank expresses his experiences as a private monitor in “Confessions of a Sweatshop Inspector” proving that inspections were not thorough or trustworthy “the auditors who followed me found pregnant employees hiding on the roof and Burmese import workers earning criminally low wages. Whoops.” (Frank 2008: 35). If a monitor can miss things such as these, it can be believed that the privatized monitoring sector is untrustworthy and not accomplishing what it claims to be its goal. Winston describes how the well-being of sweatshop employees is in the back of the manufacturer’s minds. After finding all sorts of violations in a Chinese sweatshop, the owner went on to explain that the exploitation of workers is necessary to fulfill consumer and economic demand. She stated, “But really, it’s all about profit. If I paid my workers more money, I’d have to raise the price to my buyers, the people who are sending you here to inspect my factory. Do you think they would accept that?” (Winston 2005: 1124-1128). The current system of private monitoring is corrupted, and the CCC’s use of urgent appeals are less than productive. It is clear that merely aiming to improve conditions have ripple effects on many other aspects of the globalized economy, and that raising wages or banning child labour in sweatshops would be detrimental to the country at stake. Currently, an organization that is moving in the right direction with it’s aim toward correcting sweatshops is the USAS, who only uses licensed manufacturers who recognize worker’s rights. The USAS’s methods may motivate manufacturers to clean up their factories to receive business deals from First World universities. Undoubtably the use of sweatshops needs to be corrected, and the method of going about this is to alleviate countries of sweatshops and introduce a new means of economic involvement and a new enforcement plan.

Political Science homework help

Political Science homework help. Please answer question as a personalÿviewpoint upon the following issues:1. Your boss is asking each engineer from all departments to come up with the one or two sources of network threats and attacks you consider the most critical and why. He wants you to be able to fit your thoughts on an index card. He does not care if the same problem is addressed from several points of view or if you address a very specific “threat of the day” or one from the past that could come back. You are also asked to have an opinion about the potential risks of such threats and attacks.2. With limited time and resources your manager wants everyone to suggest the structure of a network defense system to protect the computers and the network. Since this is an open discussion if your favorite idea has been discussed “to death” pick the next. These are pro-active steps. Consider at least two solutions and why one ranks high on your mind.Security attacks on information systems occur all the time and pertain to every aspect of the attacked system. In other words the attacks are directed against all components of a system. The attackers look for the weakest links in each component and using various tools exploit the potential vulnerabilities. The first step in establishing a secure information system is to consider the potential threats and the corresponding attacks. Next, the risk or the probability of a threat to cause damage to an asset should be evaluated. Once the threat definition and risk analysis are performed, the appropriate solution of defense can be devised.The purpose of this conference topic is to understand the prerequisite steps that should be taken for a successful implementation of security solutions. Read throughÿSession 4 Lecture Notes, and become familiar with the issues ofÿvulnerabilities. attacks and countermeasures at different layers.ÿ We will focus on typical attacks in theÿInternet affecting confidentiality, integrity and availability mainly on the lower four layers: Layer 1, Physical; Layer 2, Data Link; Layer 3, Network; and Layer 4, Transport.Political Science homework help

Chapter 9 Physical Injuries and Fatalities Resulting from The Oklahoma City Bombing Discussion

nursing essay writing service Chapter 9 Physical Injuries and Fatalities Resulting from The Oklahoma City Bombing Discussion.

I’m working on a english writing question and need support to help me study.

Background: You have been hired to supervise a group of employees who are moving to new offices.The offices will be located in downtown Oklahoma City. However, your new employer was housed inthe Alfred P Murrah Federal building on April 19, 1995. Since that day, they have been housed at alocation far from downtown OKC. The company has decided that it’s time to move back into downtownso that they can be near the courthouse and other buildings that they frequent often in the course oftheir jobs. Some of your new supervisees where inside the building when it was destroyed and othersknew people that were in the building. Several employees are angry, anxious and are suffering healthproblems due to the stress of the upcoming move.*******Assignment: In a 2-3 page paper, tell me how you would handle this situation. Define the supervisorychallenges (chapter 2); Use the decision making process from chapter 7; Explain your motivation(chapter 8), How would you lead the employees (chapter 9), and what methods of communication youwould use (chapter 10). Don’t forget to include safety and health issues as well as conflict andnegotiation issues. (Chapters 13 & 14). What are some programs you could institute? What type ofleadership theory are you going to implement? Make sure you include information from each of thesection listed.************our paper must be at least 2 FULL pages, double spaced with a 14 pt. times new roman font.
Chapter 9 Physical Injuries and Fatalities Resulting from The Oklahoma City Bombing Discussion

Florida Atlantic Patient Isolation in Private Care Rooms Article Summary

Florida Atlantic Patient Isolation in Private Care Rooms Article Summary.

I’m working on a writing discussion question and need support to help me understand better.

Access to books: and

LoBiondo-Wood, G. & Haber, J.

Chapters 5, 6, 7, 8, & 18

Summary Articles – do not need an abstract, just a title page, one-page summary, and a reference page.
Your summary article must be based on research. I am looking for you to explain the research project to me. Therefore, it would be best if you answered the following questions:

What is the research question?
What research method is being used?
How are the subjects chosen (explain the parameters & how many, etc.)
What are the results of the study?
What are the recommendations?
What are your opinions?

Find and read a nursing scholarly article that relates to your clinical practice and is found in a peer-reviewed journal. Follow the instructions for the format and write a 1-page summary.
Florida Atlantic Patient Isolation in Private Care Rooms Article Summary

Organizations in the Engineering and Technology Environment Report (Assessment)

Introduction In order to better explore the overall conception of organization theory, the author of this essay uses the Asia Pacific Breweries Ltd (APB), a company that has seen continued growth since its formation despite varying environmental influences across the years. This company stands out as one of the leading beer manufacturers in the industry. APB is jointly formed by Heineken, and other groups of companies; that is, the Fraser and Neave companies (APB, 2011). Furthermore, APB had begun as Malayan Breweries Ltd during the year 1931. Since then, the company has transformed itself from its sole Tiger manufacturing business to the current involvement in the manufacturing of other beer brands. Consequently, due to increased globalization and other changes, the company changed its brand name in 1990, from the Malayan Breweries Limited to Asia Pacific Breweries Limited (APB, 2011). As a result of this change in brand name, the APB has seen continued success through its global network located across 60 countries in which it enjoys support from 37 breweries located in Cambodia, Singapore, China, Indonesia, Malaysia, LAOS, Mongolia, New Zealand, New Caledonia, Papua New Guinea, Thailand, Sri Lanka, and Vietnam (APB, 2011). The APB Ltd in its management structure is governed by various personnel who act in their varying capacities in order to promote the attainment of organizational goals and objectives. At the topmost is the Chief Executive Officer Mr. Roland Pirmez, who is being assisted by different directors charged with specific roles in the company. Some of the strategic managers include the Human Resource director, the Legal director, Commercial director, Corporate Communications director, among others. They all act in a synergism in order to promote organizational vision, mission, and objectives. The Organization Theory and its Application to APB From the aforementioned introductory information regarding the Asia Pacific Breweries Limited, a number of vital concepts must be born in mind in order to better understand the organizational dynamics that spearhead the attainment of objectives. And this is in line with the Mintzberg’s Model regarding organizational structures. Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In Henri Mintzberg’s theory, as seen in the Structuring of Organizations and Structure, there exists five major parts upon which organizations are formed. These include the strategic apex, the techno structure, the support staff, the middle line, and the operating core. All these parts perform their duties in lieu of attaining the organizational goals. For instance, it is the duty of the operating core to ensure that basic work directly related with production and services is performed. On the other hand, the strategic managers are endowed with the responsibility of ensuring that the organization sticks to the mission and the demands of its shareholders. This structure is witnessed in the APB Limited; in which case we would cite the Chief Executive Officer as one of the strategic managers of the group. Other strategic managers include the Group Finance director, the Business Development director, the Human Resource director, the Supply Chain Regional Asia Pacific senior director, and the various Regional directors. These individual personnel ensure that the organization sticks to its objectives through the formulation and implementation of policies that are responsive to the organizational dynamics. Middle-line managers on the other hand act as links between the operating core and the strategic managers. In this case the kind of authority that they exhibit is the delegated one. The authority is also formal in nature. This is because they are not the ones who formulate policies; they are rather involved in the execution of policies that are formulated by the strategic managers. In this regard, middle-line managers include the various managers who work for APB limited. They include the Corporate Communications manager and the various managers responsible for the different groups across the world such as the General Manager, PT Multi Bintang Indonesia Tbk, the General Manager Tiger Export Pte Ltd Singapore, to name but a few. Their duties involve ensuring that the various policies formulated by the strategic managers up the hierarchy are implemented in order to maintain the organizational culture and focus on objectives. We will write a custom Assessment on Organizations in the Engineering and Technology Environment specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Organization theory also points out the existence of the technostructure which comprises of analysts involved in the process of designing, planning, or training others in order for them to take part in the daily operations of the organization. These kinds of managers are never engaged in the actual organizational operations. This explains the reason as to why APB Limited consistently makes use of Heineken technical experts in the beer production process due to their excellent experience over the years. These experts are further called upon to carry out numerous tests in order to ensure that the production process remains flawless. The existence of the support staff is one of the most significant and necessary component within the organization structure. This is because, without them, there will never be support outside the organization’s work flow. This group of people comprise of specialized units (Sherwin, 2009). APB Limited obtains support from across the globe especially through the managerial staff situated in the various regions to which the organization is affiliated. The Rationale behind the Present Organization Structure The organization structure of APB Limited would rather be referred to as professional bureaucracy as opposed to machine bureaucracy. This is because the skills exhibited by the various professionals are basically standardized through indoctrination and training. In this case professionals are meant to begin from the operating core before they are given considerable control in their line of duty. This form of structure is opposed to machine bureaucracy which tends to feature a lot of formalized communication, too much emphasis on rules and regulations, as well as centralization of power especially in as far as decision-making process is concerned. Therefore, this limits the various professionals in terms of their contribution to the overall growth of the organization. Furthermore, in APB Limited, professionals are connected in a very intricate and sophisticated manner due to its environmental complexity in terms of its activities. Therefore, the organization has attained its current professional bureaucratic state through many years of service and also through its large scale production. How its Organization Structure Facilitates Goal Attainment Every organization is structured in a manner that it exhibits ends focus. This conception arises from the fact that ends are the ones that give meaning to the existence of organization. Without them, organizations would never exist. As we go through the current organization structure it is important that we also embrace the rationale behind its choice especially as regards the attainment of organizational objective. Not sure if you can write a paper on Organizations in the Engineering and Technology Environment by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Of course the major objective that the organization strongly upholds is the maximization of profits and minimization of costs. This is done through the use of specialization, especially, in the acquisition of the required personnel. Furthermore, the organization in order to facilitate accelerated profitability, has diversified itself and established regional groups in order to take advantage of the economies of scale that result from large scale production as well as sales. Furthermore, in order to maximize returns, organizations must also minimize exposure to risk. This is achieved through a coordinated system through which various regional managers ensure that they carry out market analysis in their respective markets in order to understand the changes in consumer behavior and preferences. Similarly, the regional managers are also endowed with the capacity to observe the competitor trends in order to ensure that the APB Limited remains strong in the market. The Merits of the Approaches to Organizational Effectiveness Organizational effectiveness would be understood under the several pillars: the internal dimension, the external dimension, the structural flexibility, and finally the control dimension. It is these four pillars that give rise to the four approaches to organizational effectiveness. To start with, the first approach is human relations model, which basically deals with the flexible structure and the internal focus aspects. This approach ensures that the human resources necessary for the attainment of the organizational objectives are in place. Additionally, this approach ensures that opportunities are made available for employees to exercise their freedom and growth through the availability of training opportunities. Therefore, this approach gives employees more emphasis as opposed to other factors within the organization. Furthermore, employees are managed through the use of the balanced scorecard which ensures that both the external and internal communications are aligned towards strategic goals through the monitoring of various organizational performances. This is actually achieved though learning and growth aimed at promoting the organization’s vision. Since the end focus is financial stability and profit maximization, organizations under this approach are able to improve tremendously the internal business processes as a means of satisfying their shareholders. The second model relates to the Open Systems which makes use of both the external focus as well as the flexible structure aspects. Under this approach, the organization is better blessed to basically incline towards the acquisition of resources as well as growth. Consequently, through this approach strategic managers are able to offer flexibility, external environment’s positive evaluation opportunities, as well as readiness to obtain external resources. In so doing the organization is able to maintain a good relationship with the outside environment from which it is expected to acquire resources. This approach has been termed as being synonymous with the Systems Resource approach. Another approach towards organizational effectiveness is the Internal Process approach. This model lays more emphasis on structural control and internal focus. With regard to this approach, organizations that adopt it must ensure that it maintains order in its organizational setting. Additionally, in order to facilitate this model within an organization setting, managers must set out policies aimed at enhancing communication, decision making, and information management within its operations. The Final approach to organizational effectiveness is the Rational Goal approach. This goal basically emphasizes the need for maximized efficiency, productivity, as well as profitability. Moreover, under this approach organizations are encouraged to set out towards the attainment of optimal output in a rational way. This approach, therefore, requires that organizations should focus extensively on goal-setting and internal planning; these are the major rational management means. Consequently, as a result of its constituent, the rational goal approach is rather strategic because it emphasizes the strategic mode of decision-making featuring short-term policies that relate to the changes in the organization’s environment. However, the implementation of the four approaches within an organization is bound to yield opposing value-sets. In case they exist simultaneously, then the management team is charged with a very tough duty to create a balance in as far as the implementation of the four approaches is concerned. However, even if the approaches are implemented in organizations there is bound to be one approach to which organizations lay more emphasis on. For instance in the case of APB Limited, there is a stronger inclination towards the rational goal approach which goes in line with the horizontal differentiation as outlined by Stephen Robbins and Neil Barnwell. According to the aforementioned authors, this form of differentiation refers to “the degree of differentiation among units based on the orientation of members, the nature of the tasks they perform and their education and training (Barnwell and Robbins, 2006, p.105).” This approach comes as a result of the availability of diverse skills among different personnel in the company. And these personnel due to their skills and specializations in various disciplines are provided with what they can do best in the organization. Sufficient Structural Problem in the Asia Pacific Breweries Limited APB Limited Company operates in different regions across the globe. Whereas this has seen steady growth over the years, it is bound to lead the company to a structural problem due to increased number of players and investors, both bearing different investment objectives. Moreover, due to the increased scope in as far as strategic management is concerned; it creates a big challenge when making decisions. A problem like this arises because of the existence of many individuals endowed with the capacity to influence the organizational trend especially in line with technological advancement, globalization, as well as in line with the changes in consumer tests and preferences. It is therefore important that APB Limited cautions against this problem in order to ensure that it does not suffer setbacks in the near feature. Similarly, the company should also ensure that the span of control (Barnwell and Robbins, 2006, p.107) is manageable so that communication between the various managers and subordinates remains efficient. Conclusion The theory of organizations is so diverse that covering it holistically requires a lot of research and focus. This essay has embraced this theory in a very comprehensive manner right from the start to the end. Consequently, in order to better analyze this theory, the author of this essay has explained the organization structure of Asia Pacific Breweries Limited, a company that stands out as one of companies in the world that has seen tremendous growth. In the due course of the research, it has been made clear that Asia Pacific Breweries Limited operates in 60 countries with 37 breweries located in a number of countries. This growth has seen increased economies of scale and risk diversification but it has also made possible the growth of a very sophisticated organization structure that bears more of professional bureaucracy. In the due course of this analysis, the author has clearly shown that organizations exist for a purpose, and in this case the APB limited exists to generate revenue to its shareholders. It has been shown to achieve this through profit maximization and cost minimization. It has also ensured optimal growth through risk diversification and vigorous marketing strategies. Other factors to be considered seriously include division of labor and job specialization (Barnwell and Robbins, 2006) which would see optimal production and optimal returns in the company. References APB, (2011), Asia Pacific Breweries Limited: Corporate Profile [online]. Asia Pacific Breweries Limited. Retrieved from web Barnwell, N