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Status, role, primary groups, and secondary groups in social interactions between different racial and ethnic groups Report

Status is the ranking of groups or individual persons within a certain and specific perspective based on a given criteria. This perspective refers to the hierarchy of esteem and reputation that exists between certain groups. It therefore establishes which group or individual shall interact with which other group and how that shall be done in accordance to the respect disserved from by given group. Therefore, roles in a given status group can be stratified according to the given expectation of the group, for example, cooks and caregivers or can be got from experience. As a result, functions include the manner a certain group is patterned in order to perform its function for the sake of the other groups as a whole. The society is made up of various types of groups which have different racial and ethnic backgrounds and have a certain degree of cohesion due to common interests and values in life like race, religion and ethnicity. In the society there are various types of groups which are very different from each other. First we have the primary groups. This group is usually small in number and the group has members who are very personal and affectionate to each other. Members of this group have a relationship that is usually kinship- oriented for example families. The relation between this group lasts for so many years with a face-to-face communication. Secondly, we have the secondary groups; they are much larger than the primary groups and include formal and institution type of relations. This group can last as long as the members do not disband it, therefore they are not permanent as the primary group. Roles in this group can be interchanged between members and it is more tenuous and lacks the affection displayed in primary groups. There are times when the primary group may be represented in a secondary group setting for example attending college represents association to the secondary group while there are relationships that were developed in the primary groups that a person belonged to. On the other hand, there are other organizations in the secondary setting that care affectionately about the welfare of another while a family in a primary setting, individuals may be hostile towards another thus there can be variances in the groups. Hence from the above groupings of the society, different racial and ethnic groups have shown to see their own social status in a different way from the other. For example in a primary group, some ethnic groups like the Latinos and African Americans have shown to hold in high esteem the role that grandparents perform in the society and therefore they subscribe to that ideology than any other ethnic groupings like the white Americans. Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More On the other hand the status in a secondary setting, classmates in college have placed less emphasis on the role of ethnicity or race. In this group, the role of the members in the classroom can be interchanged to suit one’s own liking by merit and not based on the ethnicity of the individual. In addition, the members of this group display different characters that they acquired from their own ethnic and racial primary groups and they tend to believe and act according to the norms of that group. However, they are tolerant to each other which make it possible for secondary group members to in interchange their roles without conflicts. In a primary setting, an ethnic group like African Americans subscribe to the role that a father has to a family more than white Americans who though believe in the importance of a man to a family, do not subscribe to that norm as depicted by African American families. In conclusion, it can be held that the status role and groups that an individual or society belongs to influences the type of social interaction that will occur between them and the way they view each other’s culture and way of life.
Mission Statement A mission statement is an organization’s vision translated into written form. It makes concrete the leader’s view of the direction and purpose of the organization. For many corporate leaders it is a vital element in any attempt to motivate employees and to give them a sense of priorities. (1) A mission statement should be a short and concise statement of goals and priorities. In turn, goals are specific objectives that relate to specific time periods and are stated in terms of facts. The primary goal of any business is to increase stakeholder value. The most important stakeholders are shareholders who own the business, employees who work for the business, and clients or customers who purchase products and/or services from the business. A mission statement is a brief description of a company’s fundamental purpose. A mission statement answers the question, “Why do we exist?” (1) The mission statement articulates the company’s purpose both for those in the organization and for the public. For instance, the mission statement of Canadian Tire reads (in part): “Canadian Tire is a growing network of interrelated businesses… Canadian Tire continuously strives to meet the needs of its customers for total value by offering a unique package of location, price, service and assortment.” The mission statement of Rivercorp, business development consultants in Campbell River, B.C., is: “To provide one stop progressive economic development services through partnerships on behalf of shareholders and the community.” As you see from these two mission statement samples, mission statements are as varied as the companies they describe. However, all mission statements will “broadly describe an organization’s present capabilities, customer focus, activities, and business makeup” (5). The difference between a mission statement and a Strategic Intent is that a mission statement focuses on a company’s present state while a Strategic Intent focuses on a company’s future. Every business should have a mission statement, both as a way of ensuring that everyone in the organization is “on the same page” and to serve as a baseline for effective business planning Mission statements often contain the following Purpose and aim of the organization The organization’s primary stakeholders: clients, stockholders, congregation, etc. Responsibilities of the organization toward these stakeholders Products and services offered So, when you are preparing your Mission Statement remember to make it clear and succinct, incorporating socially meaningful and measurable criteria and consider approaching it from a grand scale. As you create your Mission Statement consider including some or all of the following concepts. The moral/ethical position of the enterprise The desired public image The key strategic influence for the business A description of the target market A description of the products/services The geographic domain Expectations of growth and profitability Strategic Intent A Strategic Intent is sometimes called a picture of your company in the future but it’s so much more than that. Your Strategic Intent is your inspiration, the framework for all your strategic planning. A Strategic Intent may apply to an entire company or to a single division of that company. Whether for all or part of an organization, the Strategic Intent answers the question, “Where do we want to go?” What you are doing when creating a Strategic Intent is articulating your dreams and hopes for your business. It reminds you of what you are trying to build. While a Strategic Intent doesn’t tell you how you’re going to get there, it does set the direction for your business planning. (For more on the role of your Strategic Intent in business planning, That’s why it’s important when crafting a Strategic Intent to let your imagination go and dare to dream – and why it’s important that a Strategic Intent captures your passion. Unlike the mission statement, a Strategic Intent is for you and the other members of your company, not for your customers or clients. Corporate vision is a short, succinct, and inspiring statement of what the organization intends to become and to achieve at some point in the future, often stated in competitive terms. Vision refers to the category of intentions that are broad, all-inclusive and forward-thinking. It is the image that a business must have of its goals before it sets out to reach them. It describes aspirations for the future, without specifying the means that will be used to achieve those desired ends. Warren Bennis, a noted writer on leadership, says: “To choose a direction, an executive must have developed a mental image of the possible and desirable future state of the organization. This image, which we call a vision, may be as vague as a dream or as precise as a goal or a mission statement.” A strategic intent is a company’s vision of what it wants to achieve in the long term. It must convey a significant stretch for your company, a sense of direction, discovery, and opportunity that can communicated as worthwhile to all employees. It should not focus so much on today’s problems, which are normally dealt with by company visions and missions, but rather on tomorrow’s opportunities. “To achieve great things, you need ambitious visions. And it does not matter that vision cannot be laid out in details. It is the direction that counts.” Mission Vision Goals Figure 1.0 Its significance on the Organization • Visions incorporate goals for the future: but whose goals? Make sure the goals set out by your organization are shared by the community you serve. • Visions are often value-laden statements. Values should be broad and inclusive to incorporate as many people and perspectives as possible. • Visions should be optimistic and inspiring: to you, organization staff, and the community you serve. “We believe in the equality of all people, regardless of race, class, nationality, gender, or sexual orientation.” (2) In short, the mission guides the organization in its daily work, and the vision inspires the organization and the community to never give up on its future goals. Vision Mission Values Strategic Goals Tactics Figure 2.0 (5) Strategic Business Management and Planning The Strategic Position Strategy in Action Strategic Choices Capability Environment Culture Purpose Corporate Level Business Level Innovation Evaluation International Processes Organising Resourcing Changing Practice Figure 3.0 – The Exploring Corporate Strategy model (4) Strategic Position: Understanding the strategic position is concerned with identifying the impact on strategy of the external environment, an organization’s strategic capability and the expectations and influence of stakeholders. The sort of questions this raises are central to future strategies. The Environment – Environment plays an important role in building up the strategies and how it affects the organisation strategies and goals looking out for the opportunities and threats from the outer world. Therefore it is very important to evaluate the environmental impacts on the organization. The capabilities – Capabilities depends upon the resources and competences within the organization. One way of thinking about the strategic capability of an organization is to consider its strengths and weaknesses. Look for the core competences and USP’s which the competitors will find difficult to imitate. Purpose – The major influences of stakeholder expectations is organizations purposes. Purpose is summarized in an organisation’s vision, mission and values. This is important since it clarifies who should the organization serve and how should it work. this reflects the corporate social responsibilities and ethics. Culture – These influences directly either on organizational, sectoral or national. Corporate Governance “Corporate Governance is concerned with the structures and systems of control by which managers are held accountable to those who have legitimate stake in an organization.” (4) There are many other reason which has made its presence an important issue for the organization. Out of which the three main reasons are as follows; The separation of ownership and management control which means that the organization works with hierarchy or within the chain of governance. This chain basically represents those groups that influence an organization through their involvement in either ownership or management of an organization. Scandals by the corporate have increased a lot of public debate about different parties in the governance chain should interact and influence each other. Most notable here is the relationship between shareholders and the boards of businesses as well as relationship between government or public funding bodies and public sector organizations. Increased accountability to wider Stakeholder interests has also come to be increasingly advocated; in particular the argument that corporations need to be more visibly accountable and responsive , not only to ‘owners’ and ‘managers’ in the governance chain but to wider social interest. Governance Structure Strategic Purpose Social responsibility and ethics Stakeholder expectations Figure 4.0 – Influences on strategic purpose (4) The governance chain explains completely the roles and relationships of different groups which are present in the governance of an organization. The chain is very simple to understand it is similar like a family tree. It has shareholders, family members, managers and a board. It is a large and publicly quoted organization with more investors layers as well. Hence good corporate governance can be achieved only if it is an embedded part of corporate life: part of the DNA of the organisation, its internal processes and the way it makes information available externally. In many countries most companies are run mostly for the benefit of the shareholders, the rightful owners. But there is another model, where companies are run for the benefit of other significant groupings as well – such as customers, the general public or employees. This is the stakeholder model. Choosing a board for each of these models – or something in between – requires people with different backgrounds and outlooks. The following table compares the shareholder and stakeholder models: Shareholders Stakeholders Maximize shareholder value and look after shareholder interests Look after all stakeholder interests, especially public Seek profitability and efficiency Look for survival, long term growth, and stability Hard-nosed and commercial Less concerned with profit than value for money A Stakeholders mapping can be used appropriately to understand the stakeholders influence. Stakeholder mapping can define his expectations and power and helps in understanding political priorities. It emphasizes the importance of two issues: Interest of the stakeholder group on organization’s purposes and choice of strategies Power of stakeholders to actually do it They are described in a quadrant of four different types based on level of interest and their power, as follows Figure 5.0 – Stakeholder Mapping Low High High A Minimal Effort C Keep satisfied B Keep Informed D Key Players Level of Interest Power (7) Non – Profit Organizations A non-profit organization is an organization which does not distribute its surplus funds to owners or shareholders, but instead uses them to help pursue its goals. Examples of NPOs include charities (i.e. charitable organizations), trade unions, and public arts organizations. Most governments and government agencies meet this definition, but in most countries they are considered a separate type of organization and not counted as NPOs. They are in most countries exempt from income and property taxation. Profit Organizations An organization is a social arrangement which pursues collective goals, controls its own performance, and has a boundary separating it from its environment. It is a business which has a primary goal of making profit and a proposed goal such as helping the environment. Differences between Profit and Non-profit Organization Ownership is the quantitative difference between for- and not-for-profit organizations. For-profit organizations can be privately owned and may re-distribute taxable wealth to employees and shareholders. By contrast, not-for-profit organizations do not have owners. They have controlling members or boards, but these people cannot sell their shares to others or personally benefit in any taxable way. While they are able to earn a profit, more accurately called a surplus, such earnings must be retained by the organization for its self-preservation, expansion and future plans. Earnings may not benefit individuals or stake-holders. While some non-profit organizations put substantial funds into hiring and rewarding their internal corporate leadership, middle-management personnel and workers, others employ unpaid volunteers and even executives may work for no compensation. However, since the late 1980s there has been a growing consensus that nonprofits can achieve their corporate targets more effectively by using some of the same methods developed in for-profit enterprises. These include effective internal management, ensuring accountability for results, and monitoring the performance of different divisions or projects in order to better benefit from their capital and workers. Those require satisfied management and that, in turn, begins with the organization’s mission There are a variety of perspectives, models and approaches used in strategic planning. The way that a strategic plan is developed depends on the nature of the organization’s leadership, culture of the organization, complexity of the organization’s environment, size of the organization, expertise of planners, etc. For example, there are a variety of strategic planning models, including goals-based, issues-based, organic, scenario (some would assert that scenario planning is more of a technique than model), etc. Goals-based planning is probably the most common and starts with focus on the organization’s mission (and vision and/or values), goals to work toward the mission, strategies to achieve the goals, and action planning (who will do what and by when). Issues-based strategic planning often starts by examining issues facing the organization, strategies to address those issues and action plans. Organic strategic planning might start by articulating the organization’s vision and values, and then action plans to achieve the vision while adhering to those values. Some planners prefer a particular approach to planning, eg, appreciative inquiry. Some plans are scoped to one year, many to three years, and some to five to ten years into the future. Some plans include only top-level information and no action plans. Some plans are five to eight pages long, while others can be considerably longer. For-profit and nonprofit business plans have many similarities. For that reason, nonprofit personnel would benefit from reading the links in the section above, “For-Profit Business Planning”. Some of the terms are different, but in most cases they can readily be translated into words more commonly used in the nonprofit sector. For example, “balance sheet” is what nonprofit call a “statement of financial position”, “profit and loss statement” (or income statement) is essentially the same as a “statement of financial activities”, and so on. One of the key difference between a for profit and a non profit plan is the marketing section. In a for profit business, the served customers are generally those who provide the revenues needed to cover expenses and continue operations. For a non profit, often the served constituents do not provide this sustaining funding, and it must be sought from a third party – donors. This means the marketing plan must describe both how the organization will communicate its services to its service target market and how it will communicate its need for funding to its funding target market. This means detailing these two separate marketing messages and two strategies for marketing. Another key difference is the “non profit” part of the business plan. Financial plans for a non profit do not have to show net profit, and, if they do, there must be some explanation of what those retained earnings will be used for. They cannot be distributed as dividends, as the organization is technically owned by the public and not by the directors or board. However, profits can be accumulated for the purposes of creating an endowment or capital fund for future expenditures. An accountant should be consulted for any decisions of this nature. International dimensions of strategic business management and planning Going global is one of the key visions of most of the organizations. Choosing globalization increases the option for the organization’s range of products or services and how to manage across the borders. Through international strategy framework it becomes achievable in a better way. International strategy as the core theme, depends upon two things, the external environment and organizational capabilities. If you see the figure 6.0 it focuses more on internationalisation drivers and on the capabilities side it emphasises on international and national sources of advantage. Figure 6.0 – International strategy framework Internationalisation drivers Market selection Sources of competitive advantage Mode of entry International Strategy (4) Market Drivers Similar customer needs Global customers Transferable marketingInternationalisation Drivers Figure 7.0 – Internalisation Drivers International Strategies Cost Drivers Scale economic Country-specific differences Favorable logistics Government Drivers Trade Policies Technical Standards Host Government Policies Competitive Drivers Interdependence between countries Competitors’ global strategies (4) Market globalization drivers There is a general belief that several markets are converging around the world. There are several reasons for this. First, the convergence of Gross National Product (GNP) per capita in the developed world is leading to a convergence in markets sensitive to wealth and level of income such as passenger cars, television sets, and computers. Second, there is evidence to suggest that in some industries, customers’ tastes, perceptions, and buying behaviours are converging, and that the world is moving towards a single global market that is basically Western and, more specifically, North American. In a landmark article titled ‘The globalization of markets’ Levitt (1983) predicted that globalization drivers such as new technology would lead to homogenization of consumer desires and needs across the world. He argued that this would happen because generally consumers would prefer standard products of high quality and low price to more customized but higher-priced products. Third, in the quest to build a global brand and company image, multinational firms are increasingly favouring a global standardization of marketing and advertising efforts. This does not mean identical marketing and advertising campaigns, but the use of similar themes that send the same message across the world. Recent developments in broadcast media, particularly direct-broadcast satellite and international media, are making this more possible. CNN, for example, broadcasts standard adverts around the world. Cost globalization drivers Several key cost drivers may come into play in determining an industry globalization level. One key factor is global scale economies. That is, the costs of producing a particular product or service are often subject to economies or dis-economies of scale. Generally, economies of scale arise when a product or a process can be performed more cheaply at greater volume than at lesser volume. This is often the case when the product or service is standardized; hence it becomes hard for multinational firms to differentiate themselves, and cost becomes key in achieving and sustaining a competitive advantage. Producing different products for different countries leads to higher cost per unit. This is because multinational firms serving countries with separate products may not be able to reach the most economic scale of production for each country’s unique product. Multinational firms could reduce the cost by using common parts and components produced in different countries. Another factor is sourcing efficiencies. Global sourcing efficiencies may push multinational firms towards a global strategy. The prices of key resources used in the production process have a strong impact on the cost of the product or service, the cost of inputs depends on the bargaining power of the firm with their suppliers. For example, large firms purchasing large volumes have more clout with their suppliers than their small rivals. Hewlett-Packard (HP) is a good example. In the past, country-level subsidiaries used to solicit bids for insurance coverage independently. Each subsidiary chose the local provider who bid less than the competition. However, HP now belongs to a global insurer-insured pool which provides rebates based on business volume. In addition, as noted earlier, some countries provide a cost advantage because of low cost of raw material, low cost of labour, or low cost of transport because of location. Thus multinational firms locate their activities in different countries to benefit from these advantages. Further, in sectors where transportation cost is low, closeness to customers is not important, and urgency to distribute the product is low, multinational firms tend to concentrate their production in large plants producing large-scale products. Finally, high cost of product development drives multinational firms to focus on core products that have universal appeal to control cost. Government globalization drivers Governments have different policies for different industries. While (as discussed above) the general trend is lower trade barriers and less regulation, for a few sectors trade barriers are prohibitive and highly regulated by governments. In addition to trade barriers and regulations, technical standards are becoming similar around the world. For example, several countries have accepted new international accounting norms and standards. In Europe, the International Accounting Standards (IAS) are quickly becoming the norm. This will allow direct cross-border comparison of financial statements, and facilitate communication between subsidiaries and the centre. Companies like Nokia, the Allianz group, and Novartis are working to bring about a convergence of US accounting standards with IAS. Competitive drivers Because of tight interlinks between key world markets, intense competition across countries, and the continuous increase in the number of global competitors, multinational firms are adopting a ‘globally centred’ rather than ‘nationally centred’ strategy. According to George Yip, the increase in interactions between competitors from different countries requires a globally integrated strategy to monitor moves by competitors in different countries. He notes that by pursuing a global strategy, competitors create competitive interdependence among countries. This interdependence forces multinational firms to engage in competitive battles and to subsidize attacks in different countries. Cross-subsidization is only possible if the multinational firm has a global strategy that monitors competitors centrally rather than on a country-by-country basis. Globalized competitors drive industries to adopt a global strategy. Yip noted that when major competitors, especially first movers, use a global strategy to introduce customers to global products, late movers adopt the same strategy so as to achieve economies of scale or scope and other benefits associated with adopting a global strategy. Last, the ability to transfer competitive advantage globally drives multinationals to adopt a global strategy. For example, IKEA succeeded in transferring its locally developed advantage to a global market. Conversely, sectors where the competitive advantage is ‘locally rooted’ and hard to transfer across countries, multinationals tend to adopt an international strategy rather than a global one. (8) Strategic Management Strategic Management is a term which underlines the importance of managers with regards to the company strategy. Strategy needs to be defined by the people especially the managers who also implement them. Strategic Management involves a greater scope than that of any one area of operational management. It is characterised in way it makes easy for the managers to make decision and judgement based on the conceptualisation of difficult issues. Corporate strategy is defined as the identification of the purpose of the organization and the plans and actions to achieve that purpose. Corporate strategy consist of two main elements: corporate level strategy and business level strategy .See figure 7.0 At Corporate Level: All the decisions need to be taken over what business the company is in or should be in. The culture and leadership of the organization are also important at this broad general level. ” Corporate strategy is the pattern of major objectives, purpose or goals and essential policies or plans for achieving those goals, stated in such a way as to define what business the company is in or be in and the kind of company it is or be.” (9) At Business Level: corporate strategy is more alarmed with the competing for customers, generating value from the resources and the underlying principle of the sustainable competitive advantages of those resources over rival companies. Figure 8.0 – The essence of corporate strategy At the individual business level: How do we complete successfully? What is our sustainable competitive advantage? How can we innovate? Who are our customers? What value do we add? At the general corporate level: What business are we in? What business we should be in? What business our basic directions for the future? What is our culture and leadership style? What is our attitude to strategic change? What should it be? ‘ What is the purpose of the organization? And what are our strategies to achieve this?’ (10) The three main areas of strategy At both the levels of corporate strategy every organization has to manage its strategies in three main areas: Organizations internal resources; External environment within the area of organization operates; Organizations ability to add value to its organizations process. Resources Strategy Resources of any organization includes human resource skills, investors and the capital. Organizations need to build a good strategies to optimise the use of the resources. In particular, it is essential to investigate the sustainable competitive advantage that will allow the organization to survive and prosper against competition. Environmental strategy Environment encompasses all the aspect external to the organization itself: not only the economic and political circumstances, which depends place to place but competitors, customers and suppliers, who may vary widely around the world, but also competitors, customers are particularly important here. Hence organizations therefore needs to develop corporate strategies that are best suited to their strengths and weakness in relation to the environment in which they operate. Adding Value Apart from environment and resources organizations still need to add value to the supplies brought into the organization. For long term survival, an organization take their supplies seriously and then deliver its output to its customers. The main purpose of corporate strategy is to make the organization create and add vital values to make sure the organization adapts the changes and continue to add value in future. Core areas of Corporate Strategy There are three core areas of corporate strategy are strategic analysis, strategy development and strategy implementation. Strategic analysis: The organization, its mission and objectives have to be examined and analysed. Corporate strategy provides value for the people involved in the organization, its stakeholders but it’s the managers who decide the objectives of the organization. They also analyse the resources and examine the objectives as well as the relationship with the environment. Strategy development: A strategy options has to be developed and then the right has to be selected. To be successful, the strategy is build upon a particular skills of the organization and the special relationship that it has or can develop with the other outside suppliers, customers, distributors and government. Strategy implementation: The selected options now has to be implemented and the organization will find many other difficulties in terms of motivation, power relationships, government negotiations, company acquisitions and many other matters. Hierarchical Characteristics of Strategy Strategy can be formulated on three different levels: Corporate level Business unit level Functional or Operational level, While strategy may be about competing and surviving as a rum, one can argue that products, not corporations compete, and products are developed by business units. The role or the corporation then is to manage its business units and products so that each is competitive and so that each continues to corporate purposes. While the corporation must manage its portfolio of businesses to grow and survive, the success of a diversified firm depends upon its ability to manage each of its product lines, While there is no single competition to Textron, we can talk about the competitors and strategy of each of its business units. In the finance business segment, for example, the chief rivals ate major banks providing commercial financing. Many matagers consider the business level to be the proper focus for strategic planning. Corporate Level Strategy Corporate level strategy fundamentally is concerned with the selection of businesses in which the company should compete and with the development and coordination of that portfolio of
Campaign Financing.

Can you make respond each posted below: Here is the instruction Campaign Financing According to federal finance laws, individual contributions to federal candidates are capped at predetermined amounts. An example: you can contribute $2,700 to a Congressional candidate for each primary, runoff, and general election. (www.fec.gov) In contrast, an individual (you) can contribute unlimited amounts of funds towards a Political Action Committee (PAC). According to the Federal Election Commission (FEC), “The term “political action committee” (PAC) refers to two distinct types of political committees registered with the FEC: separate segregated funds (SSFs) and non-connected committees. Basically, SSFs are political committees established and administered by corporations, labor unions, membership organizations or trade associations. These committees can only solicit contributions from individuals associated with connected or sponsoring organization. By contrast, non-connected committees, as their name suggests, are not sponsored by or connected to any of the aforementioned entities and are free to solicit contributions from the general public.” (FEC, 2015) Directions: Using at least one specific example, address the influence of political action committees on campaigns and elections. Provide a brief summary of the political action committee. Analyze the purpose of this political action committee. Analyze the finances of this political action committee. Overall, do political action committees help or hinder our democracy? Defend your answer with specific rationales. 1. From: Chelsi Hanna posted Mar 24, 2018 4:57 PM Good Afternoon Class, I researched a political action committee called the NRA-PVF which is the National Rifle Association Political Victory Fund. This committee endorses candidates for office who stand for the second Amendment, which is to obviously bear arms. In 2014, 90% of the candidates that were endorsed by this committee actually won their elections. This committees purpose is to basically make sure that the second amendment right is not being stripped away from citizens in the United States just because some people abuse this right. I think this specific committee actually helps our democracy because it ensures that the second amendment right is applied and it brings awareness to the people during candidates election campaigns. It gives the people a reason to vote for a candidate especially if they are endorsed by a well known committee. I think this committee educates the people of the United States as well, that with a second amendment right there is the ability to keep people safe and unharmed in situations that would require them to use a firearm. 2. From : Stevon Barnett posted Mar 24, 2018 6:54 PM The International Brotherhood of Electrical Workers is a labor union that represents nearly 750,000 workers and retirees in the electrical industry in the United States, Canada, Panama, Guam, and several Caribbean island nations; particularly electricians, or inside wiremen, in the construction industry and linemen and other employees of public utilities. The union also represents some workers in the computer, telecommunications, broadcasting, and other fields related to electrical work. The finances of this PAC are pretty good. So far, the PAC has given $1,259,675 to federal candidates. 96% of these candidates are democratic. I feel like PACs have the potential to help our democracy. I mean, it can cost a fortune to run for a position and to get your name out there for people to vote for you. At the same time, however, it can become a bad thing when certain groups give money to the people that will really push their agenda. All in all, I can see it as a needed evil, especially when campaigning costs so much that the average Joe cannot afford it. 3. From: Stephenie Welch posted Mar 24, 2018 12:47 PM There are many different p a c s that have effects in can put in effect in two different politics and elections. Due to the recent events I chose to pick the committee of the National Rifle Association or as recently being protested against as it’s abbreviated form the NRA. The NRA has a political Victory fund that endorses candidates four different offices that will stand for an individual’s right to the Second Amendment to possess firearms. The political Victory fun is a large part of the National Rifle Association that chooses to make different endorsements through readings that individuals are the general public can contribute to food donations or financially donate funds for proposed candidates to help with a National Rifle Association. This committee definitely helps the National Rifle Association and the political Victory fund when it comes to Bringing candidates into office they have a very well working system and have greased mini squeaky Wheels.
Campaign Financing

Some control systems allow for one push button to start and stop the main contactor. Design a ladder logic in which a NO pushbutton can start the contactor. Use the same push button now to stop the same contactor. 1. Draw the Ladder Logic. 2. Draw the wiring diagram. 3. Size the main contactor for a 300A 12 V load. 4. Use digikey.com or Autozone.com to find the control parts and the power parts. 5. Find the total cost of the project. 6. Your report should include step by step operation of the circuit you have designed both for energizing and for de-energizing the contactor. Your report should include the working design of the logic and a complete list of the components and their unit cost, and the overall cost of the project. You can use as many auxiliary contactors and relays as you want. But the user gets to press one button to start and stop. The best design gets the highest grade.

Critical Discourse Analysis Compare and Contrast Essay

Critical Discourse Analysis Compare and Contrast Essay. Introduction Language may be used in different contexts and texts to create different meanings. To understand the sign, vocal, or even written language, a form of analysis is crucial in establishing both the intended and implied meanings. This paper discusses discourse examination and critical discourse analysis (CDA) as two important approaches to analysing language use in vocal, sign, and written forms. Its main concern is to demonstrate the difference between the perspectives of language use in written and text forms. Defining Discourse Analysis Discourse analysis (DA) is a general term that is applied to various paradigms that are deployed in the study of the sign, vocal, written, and any other language semiotics. Objects that are used in the analysis under this approach are defined in terms of an individual’s consistency in the application of prepositions, use of sentences, tongue, and even turns-at-talk (RossCritical Discourse Analysis Compare and Contrast Essay

Chamberlain College Week 2 Certification Patient Outcomes and Leadership HW

custom essay Chamberlain College Week 2 Certification Patient Outcomes and Leadership HW.

PurposeThe purpose of this direct care project is for learners to apply the nursing process to assess if the nursing care provided by professionally certified nurses will result in improved patient outcomes. This is Part 1 of 4 in the Direct Care Project.Direct Care Project OverviewThere are four parts to the Direct Care Project.There will be graded Project Check-ins that correlate to each part.Review the table below for overview and due dates with each topic.Carefully review the instructions, tutorials, templates, and rubrics for each of the four parts as you begin this Course Project.Contact your instructor with questions.Directions for Part 1Review the Direct Care Project Overview above.View the Direct Care Project Part 1 Tutorial (Click here to view) (Links to an external site.).Download the Direct Care Part 1: Assessment and Diagnosis template under Templates below.Please address the following areas on the provided template:State the clinical certification and target population including setting that were approved by your instructor in the Week 2: Direct Care Part 1: Assessment and Diagnosis Check-In.Thorough discussion of why this certification was selected in relationship to the selected settingDescribe the criteria for selected clinical certificationProvide APA reference for one peer-reviewed scholarly professional nursing journal article connecting patient outcomes, certification, and leadership skills.Summarize findings of articleDiscuss how patient outcomes in the selected setting could be improved by certified nurses.Discuss how certification can impact leadership skills in the selected setting.Identify a problem (diagnosis) based on your assessmentImportant: The problem you identify will be utilized in Parts 2, 3, and 4 of the Direct Care Project.Write the problem diagnosis (See template)Submit template through the Submit Assignment button on this page.i.Process to obtain clinical certificationii.Cost of application and testingiii.Requirements prior to certificationiv.Examination descriptionv.Renewal time and processvi.Required items for renewali.From Chamberlain Library Finding Permalinksii.Full Text onlyiii.No more than 5 years oldiv.In Englishv.Peer-reviewedvi.Include the permalinkvii.Reference must be use APA format including author(s), year, article title, journal name, volume number, issue number, page numbers, italics, parentheses, punctuation, double line spacing, and hanging indent. Include DOI if available.i.Summarize the key points of the selected peer-reviewed scholarly professional nursing journal article in one or two paragraphs.ii.Be clear and concise.TemplatesDirect Care Part 1: Assessment and Diagnosis Template (Download here)
Chamberlain College Week 2 Certification Patient Outcomes and Leadership HW

Production And Consumption Inseparability

Inseparability of production and consumption refers to the concepts of interaction and service encounter. The process of simultaneous production and consumption involves the presence of customers, the customer’s role as a co-producer, customer-employee and customer-customer interactions that makes it unique from a product (Shostack 1977). Researchers often refer to the customers as ‘partial employees’ in a service setting. During co-production, customer involves himself in self-service (self check-in), using technology and machines offered by the service provider (airlines). 2.1 Service encounters During simultaneous production and consumption, it is the ‘service encounters’, that are the critical moments of truth in which customer often develops a perception/ attitude about the business (Bitner et al. 2000) and creates a differentiation from other competitors. In the airline industry, these service encounters are on which the organisation, either thrives or dies based on customer’s evaluation of their service. And the successful organisations take it a step further to enhance their core or essential features with extended or enhanced features. Service encounters can take place across a range from the traditional face-to-face (check-in, cabin crew), telephone (telephonic check in, booking tickets), and lastly through the internet (web check-in, booking tickets) and at every point the airline industry thrives to make it easier and comfortable (less time consuming) for the customer. A successful organisation is which that exceeds the customer’s expectations (enhancing features) and not just meeting their expectations (core features). But Harris et al. (2003) suggests that if the core features are not met by the airline industry, it is that leads to customer dissatisfaction. He also suggests that only 5% of the unhappy customers complain to the service providers, thus making it difficult for the service providers to address the issue. What intrigues even more is that the 95% of the customers, who do not complain, talk negatively about the service to their acquaintances. . However, when dissatisfied customers do complain and the problem is resolved to their satisfaction, they are very likely to return. The reasons for dissatisfaction may vary across long queues at check-in or booking counter, incompetent personnel, unsafe website and so on and so forth. Bitner et al. (2000) suggests that in the airline industry core factors vary from friendliness of the staff, knowledge about the service, efficiency, and quality service, sanitary and safe environment. But to create differentiation from their competitors these organisations, provide added or enhancing factors and those include concierge service, reservations, seating by host, lounge/ hotel facilities for delayed flights and so on and so forth. Today in the airline industry, companies do offer most of these features but it is noted that the cost increases for a more pleasurable experience. For example, an Air India flight provides cheaper flights just barely meeting the core features, but Emirates for the same route provides expensive flights with a varied extended factors. What companies like Air India could do to provide a better experience would be to remove/ reduce the unsatisfactory experience (upgrading a customer, complimentary meal in case of delayed flights, trained personnel to deal with unhappy customers). 2.2 Shostack’s Models Based on Shostack’s Continuum, the package tours (Flights Hotels) offered by most airlines, form the intangible end, even though there are tangible ends to be considered. Shostack (1977) suggested that there is no element known as a pure service and that there is always a continuum between the tangible dominant goods and intangible dominant services. The airline industry, the tangible elements include the interiors of the flight, food, seat and also the overall graphic continuity from buying tickets to the attendant’s uniforms (Shostack 1977). Even though the airline industry is intangible dominant, different market segments require different elements to make it an experience for them. Say for example in the case of Virgin airlines they have three tailored traveling experience for three different markets. In the case of students/ backpackers or during bad economic conditions, it is elements such that ‘reaching from one destination to the other’ or a ‘no frills’ flight would be of emphasis on the nuclear core (cheap flights hostels, bed and breakfast) In the case of business travelers, it would be schedule frequency along with comfort would be most important (a comfortable travel hotel with internet, office facilities). Lastly for tourists (with families), it would be unison of in-flight and post-flight services (hotels) that would be of paramount importance (Comfortable flight-but not too expensive hotel near a tourist destination) But in the case of tangible elements the various markets demand differently. For example, for flights like Air Asia, which offers low cost air travel, the travelers are not provided certain tangible elements such as food and drink in-flight. But these airlines just cater to travelers who wish to travel on a limited budget. So the challenge for other firms is to create an experience for each market, so that it would form an experience for each of them as each of their needs differ from another. The challenge is to understand how consumers perceive a certain service and what as a firm they should do to manage and meet the expectations (Lovelock and Gummesson, 2004). Shostack (1977) defined a model that was termed as ‘total market entity’ where she argues that a change in one element may change the entity on a whole or partial basis. Say for example in an air travel there, it is a unison of both tangible as well as intangible factors. And some tangible factors just act as service elements/evidence. 1. Peripheral evidence: this refers to a tangible factor, which no or little value if it exists on its own. It is part of the service or is required to experience a service. For example a flight ticket, does not mean anything on its own, but is essential for completion of a service. 2. Essential evidence: Consumers do not own these and can exist on its own as its highly dominant in its impact on a service purchase. An example of an essential element provided by Shostack is the DC-10 aircraft, which was involved in a few crashes in the 1970s. But even though all the issues were resolved, US refused to fly in a DC-10 aircraft that eventually led to scrapping them off completely. This model however does not show how a service functions and this is explained using another model by Shostack-Service Blueprinting. It has been developed to deal with processed, acts and flows and in (fig 4), a blueprint for airline travel has been presented under how airlines try to reduce variability 2.3 Service experience Every time a customer is interacting or having a service encounter, a service experience is taking place and because simultaneous production and consumption takes place, the customer mostly experiences the service in the firm’s physical surroundings (Groove and Risk, 2001). In some cases the level of involvements between the customer and the employees of the organisation is high and in some cases very low and some with no involvement at all. And the nature of physical environment depends on the nature of service as well as service experience. What the firms aim to do is make profit while creating a satisfactory or unique service experience. What determines an experience is also the nature of the physical space. For a high involvement case, (for example, self check-in, lounge services, website) customer satisfaction can be enhanced, by creative use of physical design (Bitner 1992). In the second case, where the employees play a major role, and where customers have less or no contact (cock-pit, cargo personnel) with the service personnel, the physical environment should be to motivate, satisfy the employees, as no or few customers will experience that. In the last case, where there both customers and employees interact in the same environment at the same level (counter check-in), the servicescape is the most complex as it needs to appeal to the customers but at the same time be efficiently motivating the employees (for example, at a check-in the counter needs to look clean and efficient to the customers, but also comfortable for the employee-nice seats, environment). Thus the environment should be neutral to appeal to both customers and employees. Other than the physical environment, it is the customer to whom the service is delivered is what is important. Like mentioned earlier, different customer have different needs and it varies based on their gender, age, social status and so on and so forth. For example, a customer’s needs travelling on business class will vary from that from one travelling in economy class and the service provider needs to meet each of their needs. What normally happens in the airline industry is that the customer travelling on business class is more ‘looked after’ than the economy class traveller. This would mean that it creates a negative service experience for the traveller. 2.4 Service Quality Service experience is defined by the quality of service provided by the airlines. Based on this service quality, a conceptual model by (Parasuraman et.al 1988), defines the gap between what the customers expect and what is provided. From this model, it can suggested that to create a better service encounter for the customers: Gap1 This represents the void between the perceptions and expectations between the marketer and the consumer. The key is to understand what the customer expects rather than forming a perception of what they might want. Parasuraman et al. (1988) suggests that this void can be filled if sufficient market research is done prior to offering the service. For example, if an airline firm is to find out what a particular target market is looking for, before offering enhanced factors. Gap 2 This refers to the void between what the company perceives and the service quality specifications. For example, low-budget flights like Air Asia advertise that they provide in-flight entertainment, but the quality is limited (all passengers view the same programme on a single television set) Gap 3 This is the void between quality specification and service delivery. For example in the case of few Asian airline companies, the quality of service provided would be accepted by the home nation. But outside the home nation, the quality specification may not be on par with what the customers expect. For example, in India, Kingfisher airlines claims to provide world class travel experience to its customers. Even though the service provided is perceived to be on par with top airlines in India, the quality of service offered is nowhere close to airlines such as Singapore Airlines, Thai Airways etc. Gap 4 This relates to the void between the standard of quality promised and the service delivered. Thai airways has positioned itself has an airline that brings together quality as well as hospitability (‘Travel with the Thai touch, Smooth as Silk’). But what raised issues and led to negative publicity was when their personnel were found to be rude to passengers. This led to a completely contradicting image of what they claim to be to what is delivered. 2.5 Differentiation To create a differentiation from their competitors, airline firms use the Porter’s Generic Strategy Model (1980): Cost Differentiation Cost Leadership (No Frills) Rynair, EasyJet, AirAsia Differentiation (Premium price for superior quality) Singapore Airlines, Emirates Cost Focus (Differentiation only for a particular target group) Kingfisher Red-low cost Business travel Differentiation Focus (Premium price for superior quality for a small target group) Concorde flights used by BA, Air France A380 flights-Singapore airlines, Qantas, Air France Scope Narrow Broad Fig 1: Porter’s Generic Model for the airline industry Airlines Pursuing cost leadership strategy Airlines pursuing an integrated strategy (some stuck in between) Airlines unable to achieve either a cost leadership or differentiation strategy Airlines pursuing a differentiation strategy High Fares Low Fares Low Service Level High Service Level Fig 2: Airlines Realized Business strategies (adapted from Dostaler, Flouris 2004) Using Fig 1 and fig 2, Porter’s Generic strategy can be explained as: Cost Leadership Cost leadership refers to gaining competitive advantage and giving your company an edge over the others. This can be attained in two ways: Firstly increasing profits by reducing costs. Secondly increasing market share by charging low prices. Airlines such as Air Asian, Rynair have chose to cut costs to a minimum, thus enabling to charge the customers low prices. This tactic helped them gain market share, and also have all their flights fully booked, which leads to further reduction in cost. But where they did compromise in on the in-flight and other services. For example, these airlines do not even provide water in the flight; one is expected to buy them, free seating etc helps them price their tickets low. Smaller airlines even provide just few routes at cheaper prices than their international rivals. But the risk if when competitors follow suit and hence firms should look for means to continuously reduce costs. Differentiation Strategy This involves making ones service different and more unique. This could be achieved by airlines in terms of their airplane types, costs, brand image etc. Singapore Airlines, Emirates have portrayed this image of making travel an experience with their superior quality. But as Porter (1980) argues that for a company using differentiation strategy, they would incur additional costs for research, development, innovation as well as advertising, which are normally recovered from the customers. Focus Strategy Airlines using focus strategy focus on a niche market and this could be a unique low cost airline for a target group or high-end price for another target group. For example, the A380 airplanes used by Singapore Airlines and Emirates charge a premium price of £3600 for Business Class travel on Emirates from Heathrow to Dubai. So this is for the target group who like to travel with a lap of luxury with pool tables, spas, Internet, lounge area etc during their flight of less than 7 hours. There is very less competition in markets where focus strategies are used. But the risk is when the niche will disappear and when the business and customer preferences change over time. 2.6 VARIABILITY OF SERVICES One other feature of services marketing is its heterogynous nature and organisations strive to reduce the variability that would lead to building a strong brand. The aim is to communicate a persistent image and message to its customers at different places and different times. Service Variability can take place in different ways. Variations in external Conditions -weather, crowding and differences in service locations Variations in service delivery- customer interactions with employees Variations in customer perception-customers’ perception of a service may differ from place to place and with time too The figure below shows the causes and consequences of service variability in any organisation. High Level of perceived risk for buyers Difficulty in presenting an image of consistent quality Difficulty in developing strong brands Services are produced ‘live’ Often leads to no chance to correct mistakes before consumption Often reliant on imperfect human inputs May be difficult to blueprint the service Variability of Service Fig 3 : Cause and Consequences of Service Variability The issue of variability leads to difficulty in attaining a uniform output especially in services that require a lot of human interaction. Say for example, we still have not developed technology to eliminate the need of humans completely. Airlines do not use robots to replace the human cabin crews as one human interaction is essential and secondly some technologies are too expensive to adopt suggest that behavior varies not only amongst different employees but also amongst the same employee on different days and with different customers (Lovelock 1983). And even though scripting and blueprinting is used to reduce variability, it still has its demerits. To provide a good service as well create an experience for the customer and to ensure reduced service variability, the airlines use the following techniques: 1. Employee Training As employees are part of any service provided, most airline firms have a rigorous selection and training process. For example, Singapore Airlines hires staff who fit in with the ‘Singapore Girl’ image and portray the same values as the firm does. Firms who invest a lot in selection and training process mostly offer higher quality service than others. Air India does not provide constant training to its staff and hence issues arise when the staffs do not communicate a coherent message. Staff hired should be able to empathise with the customers as well as trained to deal with different types of unsatisfied customers. Also it is taken care to see that the staff matches the cultural differences of the country they are based in. 2. Scripting Most airlines have pre-determined scripts for each type of service encounter, which consists of either verbal responses or series of actions. The usage of verbal scripts is common while booking a ticket or enquiring about a service. Like for example, when a customer calls a call centre for a query, they normally have a script, which goes by: “Good morning, Thank you for calling Malaysian Airlines. My name is Ben and how may I help you?” Similarly a scripted message is used after a call or as an apology. In the case of scripted actions, it would how all cabin crews, follow the same actions once passengers are in the flight. All messages and actions are scripted so as to ensure a coherent image, message as well to ensure that the information is communicated at all times. But this has its limitations in terms of how at times personnel feel restricted from offering superior service based on their judgement. 3. Blueprinting Shostack (1982) suggested that blueprinting allows quantitative description of critical service elements, such as logical sequences of actions and processes, time that happen at a place of service delivery. It also defines actions for the place of interaction (front-line) as well for events taking place beyond the line of visibility. (Zeithaml, Bitner et al. 2006) define service blueprinting as a tool for simultaneously depicting the service process, the points of customer contact, and the evidence of the service from the customer’s point of view. With this description, the authors emphasise the different systemic layers overlapping in a service, from the layer of customer interaction and physical evidence to the layer of internal interaction within the service production process. The figure 4 below shows a service blueprinting for an air travel. Fig 4: Blueprinting for Air Travel Airport exterior Parking Baggage claim Seats Gift shops. Toilets Terminal Food/beverage Magazines Airplane Seats Gift shops. Toilets Terminal X-ray machine Metal detector Conveyor belt Computer/ credit card Desk Ticket Terminal Airport exterior Parking Online/ website Mechanic Check plane Metal detector Conveyor belt Conveyor belt Remove bags Pilot Serve customer Greet customer Send off customer Load bags on plane Check Passenger Greet

Career Goals Global Manager in The Hotel Industry Reflective Essay

Career Goals Global Manager in The Hotel Industry Reflective Essay.

I’m working on a management discussion question and need an explanation to help me study.

you will briefly outline your career goals for the next ten years and discuss what you can do to develop yourself both personally and professionally to be a more effective global manager in the hotel industry.When developing your plan, please consider:What are your career goals over the next ten years? Please include a timeline, what you would like to do, how you would like to see your career progress and where you would like to work.How can you develop yourself in order to better manage your diverse groups of employees you will encounter in your various positions?How can you develop yourself in order to better serve the global hotel customers you will meet along the way?Would you consider an international assignment? Why or why not? If yes, what additional skills do you believe you should acquire in order to be more successful in this role?
Career Goals Global Manager in The Hotel Industry Reflective Essay