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Statistics Probability And Repeated Measures Questions Help

Statistics Probability And Repeated Measures Questions Help.

1) A coin is tossed. Find the probability that the result is heads.2) A single six-sided die is rolled. Find the probability of rolling a seven.3) Determine the number of outcomes in the event. Then decide whether the event is a simple event ornot. Explain your reasoning: A computer is used to randomly select a number between 1 and 1000.Event A is selecting a number greater than 600.4) A shirt company has 4 designs each of which can be made with short or long sleeves. There are 7 colorpatterns available. How many different shirts are available from this company? Use the fundamentalcounting principle to solve the problem.5) You are dealt two cards successively without replacement from a standard deck of 52 playing cards.Find the probability that the first card is a two and the second card is a ten. Round your answer to threedecimal places. Use the Multiplication Rule.6) The access code to a houseʹs security system consists of eight digits. How many different codes areavailable if each digit can be repeated?7) A tourist in Ireland wants to visit four different cities. If the route is randomly selected, what is theprobability that the tourist will visit the cities in alphabetical order? Round your answer to three decimalplaces.8) How many ways can five people, A, B, C, D, and E, sit in a row at a movie theater if A and B must sittogether?9) How many ways can five people, A, B, C, D, and E, sit in a row at a movie theater if D and E will not sitnext to each other?10) A delivery route must include stops at four cities. How many different routes are possible?11) The Environmental Protection Agency must visit nine factories for complaints of air pollution. In howmany different ways can a representative visit five of these to investigate this week?12) One hundred people were asked, ʺDo you favor the death penalty?ʺ Of the 33 that answered ʺyesʺto the question, 14 were male. Of the 67 that answered ʺnoʺ to the question, six were male. If oneperson is selected at random, what is the probability that this person answered ʺyesʺ or was a male?1) A coin is tossed. Find the probability that the result is heads.
Statistics Probability And Repeated Measures Questions Help

201 Personal Mission Statement Essay.

Using the characteristics of a successful mission statement as outlined by Michael Kaiser (clear, concise, complete, and coherent), write a personal mission statement for yourself as an arts entrepreneur. Discuss your dream for the future (vision), the actions you will take to achieve your dream (mission), and the roadmap you will use to get there (values). Discuss how you will measure your success and what metrics you will use to identify personal growth. Provide insight into your personal mission statement and explain why your mission statement is important to you. 2 pages, single-spaced.!!!!Please try to write this essay with some simple and uncomplicated words and sentences!!!!!Michael Kaiser’ successful mission statement:RubricMission Statement EssayMission Statement EssayCriteriaRatingsPtsThis criterion is linked to a Learning OutcomeContentThe essay demonstrates knowledge and understanding of how mission statements guide the overall direction of not-for-profit organizations, artists, and arts leaders.35.0 ptsThis criterion is linked to a Learning OutcomeEvidence of Critical ThinkingThe essay draws from multiple sources to support your findings and subsequent opinions/recommendations. Your sources should include our text book, online resources, and in-class discussion.25.0 ptsThis criterion is linked to a Learning OutcomeReadabilityThe writer correctly uses MLA Style for the citations throughout and for the references. Spelling, punctuation, capitalization, and vocabulary usage are correct and appropriate. Sentences are varied and grammatically correct. Writing is error free. Word choice and vocabulary show an exceptional understanding of course content. Word choice is well matched to the subject and audience.15.0 ptsTotal Points: 75.0
201 Personal Mission Statement Essay

A company is ROA is much lower than RNOA, what cause this difference?. I’m studying for my Accounting class and need an explanation.

1. A company in 2019 Return on Assets (ROA) is 17.82% and its Return on Net Operating Assets (RNOA) is 50.9%. Briefly discuss what could be driving the difference in these two ratios?
please be logical

2.Which of the following is not a correct statement about the reformulation of the financial statements?
a. All of the financial statements will still balance and articulate after the reformulation.
b. The focus of the reformulation is on the common shareholders; thus, activities with non-controlling interests and/or preferred shareholders need to be re-classified.
c. Activities in the line items “other assets” and “other liabilities” could be operating, financing, or a combination of both.d. The classification between short-term and long-term determines whether the item is an operating or financing activity.
3.what is the purpose of reformulating the financial statements? (just several sentences enough)
4.Which category would the line item “Net Interest Expense (Income)” be included in as part of the reformulated financial statements?
a. Net Financing Expense (NFE)
b. Net Operating Profit After Tax (NOPAT)
c. Transactions with Shareholders
d. Net Financial Assets – NFA or (Net Financial Liabilities – NFL

Which of the following would not be a driver (part of) the calculation for RNOA (Return on Net Operating Assets?
a. Common Shareholders’ Equity
b. Current and prior year Property, Plant and Equipment.
c. Net Sales
d. Cost of Goods Sold

Which of the following would not be a driver (part of) the calculation for ROCE (Return on Common Shareholders’ Equity)?
a. Net Income
b. Net Interest Expense (Income)
c. Current and prior year common stock balances
d. Comprehensive Income

A company is ROA is much lower than RNOA, what cause this difference?

Introduction The holy Quran is the basis of Islam. The divine revelation contained in the Quran helps Muslims to understand Islamic teachings. As a result, Islam cannot be understood without first having understood the basics of the Holy Quran. For one to fully understand the Quran and its teaching, he or she has to go beyond the five pillars and realize the divine intellect contained in the Quran. The objective of the essay is to explore the five major themes contained in the Quran. This will be achieved through an exploration of different Quran Suras and verses. The five themes have been derived from the Sura of Mary, the Sura of the Prophets and the Sura of Counsel. The significant issues of the Holy Quran are God, prophets, man, divine scriptures, and sin. The first major theme of the Quran is God, also referred to as Allah (Madigan 82). According to the teachings of The Quran, there is no other God other than Allah, the mighty and the highest (Madigan 80). God in the Quran has been regarded as compassionate and merciful to humankind. God is merciful to man, and as such, man has the obligation of serving God. As noted in The Quran, God is “the mighty, the wise, inspire thee and those before thee “(42:1). The implication is that God is wise, mighty and inspires man through His creation. Also, He is the highest in addition to being above what is found on the earth and in heaven. Moreover, God watches over those who stand beside Him. He is kind and compassionate. He forgives man from his sins. This observation is supported by the Sura of Counsel as contained in The Quran which states that “God is kind to His servants; He provides whom He will, and He is the mighty, the glorious” (The Quran 42:18). God created both heaven and others, and as a result, he is above all his creations. God also created day and night and gave man the power and will to differentiate good from evil (The Quran 21: 34). The second theme of the pillar is God has given that man free will and choice. The presence of God in man’s life gives it meaning, both personally and collectively. A man was created by God, who has endowed him with free choice. According to The Quran, God watches over man and forgives man from his sins (The Quran 42:3). The Quran teachings go ahead to explain that God “answers the prayer of those who believe and do right, and gives them increase of His grace; but the misbelievers, – for them is keen torment” (The Quran 42: 25). This implies that the man who believes in God does the right thing and prays to God. In turn, God answers the prayers of such a man. Also, God shares his blessings with such a man. However, a nonbeliever faces the wrath of God for his sins. This is because man has been given the free will, choice, and the ability to differentiate good from evil. Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Furthermore, God’s mercy on man is shown through Zachariah who was given a child at old age and with his barren wife (The Koran 19:1). Therefore, whereas God remembers man all the time, on the other hand, a man remembers God only when he is in need. A man who believes in God and lives by his teaching and remains a loyal servant like Zachariah is endowed with God’s grace. The third theme of the Quran is the prophets. Based on the teachings of the Holy Quran, God speaks to the man through the Holy Scriptures as envisioned by early prophets like Muhammad. The prophets reside besides God, and they are found on earth and in heaven (The Quran 21:22). An excellent example of the prophets is Muhammad. Another proclaimed prophet was Abraham (The Quran 19:42), the father of all nations and humankind. Others include Moses, Ismail, Idris, and Aaron, among others. According to the Holy Quran, Mary was able to conceive by receiving a breath from the prophets, “And she (Mary) who guarded her private parts, and we breathed into her of our Spirit, and we made her and her son a sign unto the worlds” (The Quran 21:19). This means that Mary was able to give birth to a son through the power of the prophets who breathed their holy spirit on her. Prophets have lifted so many people, according to the Holy Quran. At the end of times, prophets will drag men and devils around hell, and they shall be answerable to God on judgment day (The Quran 19:70). The presence of prophets is shown through a messenger to Mary. The divine scriptures state that “I am only a messenger of thy Lord to bestow on thee a pure boy” (The Koran 19:19). This implies Mary bore a child through the will of God and this was communicated through a prophet. The fourth pillar of the Quran is sin or evil. God gave man free will and the choice to differentiate evil from good. Because of their sin, men will be dragged in hell and brought on their knees (19:70). The Holy Quran speaks of the theme of evil (sin) which is personified by Iblis or Satan (Madigan 82). Satan disobeyed God, and since then he has remained the most significant rival to man. Besides, Satan is always encouraging man to disobey God. Wickedness is drawn from Satan’s strength which compels a man to sin. However, because God is merciful, he forgives and pardons the sins committed by man (The Quran 42:24). According to the teaching from the Holy Quran, God pardons those who have sinned against him and rewards those who do well. The Quran warns the man to be on guard of the Iblis since he is always on the trail of the man. The prophets reside on earth to protect man and save the believers from the evil and evildoers (21:87-88). As a result, man is kept away from sin. We will write a custom Essay on Five Major Themes of the Qur’an specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The fifth and last theme of the Quran is divine scriptures. The Quran contains sacred scriptures which were revealed to Prophet Muhammad through God (Allah). The religious scriptures assist man in keeping close to God and preventing him from sinning. The divine scriptures act as a guide to man, thereby aiding him to operate following the will of God. God’s mercy and the work of the prophets are proclaimed through divine scriptures. The Quran state that, “God it is who has sent down the Book with truth and the balance” (The Quran 42:16). In this context, the “Book” is used to refer to the Holy Quran which contains the divine scriptures as revealed to Muhammad by Allah. The sacred scriptures act as a guide to man through God’s power. The word “Book” which contains the divine scriptures is mentioned severally. For instance, it appears in Sura 19, verse 16, 42, 52, and 57. Therefore, the holy scriptures as depicted in the Quran, talk about God, Man, His relations with man, and the relationship that man has with nature. It is through the divine scripture that man is kept away from sin. Conclusion To sum it up, the Holy Quran acts as the basis of Islam, and its teachings are pivotal in understanding Islam. Based on the essay, it can be concluded that the major themes of the Holy Quran are God, prophets, man, divine scriptures, and sin. God is merciful, forgiving and is above all what is on earth and in heaven. Man is guided by the sacred scriptures which were a revelation of Prophet Muhammad. Through divine scriptures, God can protect man from sin. Evil originates from Iblis (Satan) who is always trying to deceive man to disobey God. God pardons the man who believes in Him and does according to His will. Prophets, as depicted in the Quran, reside with God both in heaven and on earth, and they will gather all men and bring them before hell. Man will have to kneel before hell as God passes judgment. Rewards shall be accorded to men who walk in the path of God. Works Cited Madigan, Daniel. The Cambridge Companion to the Quran. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press The Koran. Sura 42: Counsel. n.d. Web. The Quran. Oxford World’s Classics. Trans. M. A. S. Abdel Haleem. Oxford, Mass: Oxford University Press, 2008. Print. Not sure if you can write a paper on Five Major Themes of the Qur’an by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More

LATTC Technology Companies and News Media Essay

LATTC Technology Companies and News Media Essay.

– To what extent should technology companies and news media outlets be responsible for monitoring and preventing the spread of fake news? To what extent is the consumer responsible? Use information drawn from reading and discussing the core texts to support your argument. Be specific about what should be done and by whom.- Your culminating writing task should follow the conventions of a written argument to be published as an Op-Ed for an online or print news source. An Op-Ed is an opinion editorial in which you take a position and support your position with evidence drawn from the texts we have read. – Parenthetical citations are required-… (another source)
LATTC Technology Companies and News Media Essay

Multiple Sclerosis and Autism Spectrum Disorder Causes

essay writer free Multiple Sclerosis and Autism Spectrum Disorder Causes. Multiple sclerosis and Autism spectrum disorder are two neurophysiological diseases that are found to develop in the genetically susceptible population. The exact causes of these diseases and the exact interplay between the genetic factors and environmental factors in the development of the disease are serving to be a billion dollar question. MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS: Symptoms and Progression: MS is a chronic neurological condition which affects the central nervous system (CNS).1 The CNS consists of the brain, optic nerves and the spinal cord. As the CNS controls various motor and behavioural functions in the body, an array of symptoms develops. The symptoms as well as the progression of the disease varies significantly from individual to individual. The symptoms in most individuals though, start at the age of 20 to 40, but the symptoms are really slight that they usually go unnoticed till the disease progresses. In few individuals, the symptoms are noticeable right at the onset of the disease itself.2 SYMPTOMS: VISUAL IMPAIRMENT: As the disease attacks the optic nerves, visual problems arise in the patients. The inflammation of the optic nerves lead to severe pain behind the eyes. Double vision is a really common symptom in MS patients. In certain patients, even vision loss is reported. BLADDER AND BOWEL PROBLEMS: 50% of the patients have constipation which sometimes lead to faecal impaction. Bladder problems arise which makes the patient to urinate more frequently. COGNITIVE SYMPTOMS: Hearing impairment, loss of memory or short term memory loss, slurred speech, attention troubles. Dizziness and depression are reported as well. MOTOR SYMPTOMS: Numbness, tremor, gait, muscle spasms and seizures, fatigue and vertigo. SEXUAL DYSFUNCTIONS: Males affected by MS have difficulty in getting / maintaining an erection. Females affected by MS have difficulty in getting orgasms.2 PROGRESSION OF DISEASE: The progression of disease, just like the symptoms, vary from one individual to another. There are five types of progression seen in MS patients. Relapsing-remitting MS: Majority of patients show this kind of progression. As the name suggests, there are episodes of mild/severe symptoms followed by episodes of very mild or no symptoms at all. The episode of attacks usually lasts between few hours to a few months! Primary progressive MS: About 10-15% of the patients have primary progressive MS. The severity of the symptoms worsen progressively. No relapse and remission cycle is seen in these patients. Secondary progressive MS: The initial stages of the disease show relapse and remission cycles. But after a certain point, the symptoms worsen gradually, just like in the primary progressive MS. Progressive relaxing MS: In these patients, the symptoms are followed by recovery, but the severity of the symptoms increase gradually. Benign MS: The individuals undergoes episodes of mild symptoms but gets recovered completely ergo no permanent disability.3 GENETIC FACTORS: The researchers have identified certain genes and environmental factors which most likely cause and progress the disease. One striking observation is that genetic linkage studies have shown the variation in the genes associated with the Major Histocompatibility complex (MHC) promotes the risk for developing MS in individuals.4 The group of genes called the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) genes encodes for Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) in our body.5 The HLA genes are present in the short arm of chromosome no 6. The MHC consists of two classes. The genes HLA-A, HLA-B and HLA-C form the MHC class I. The genes HLA-DP, HLA-DQ and HLA-DR make up the MHC class II. The MHC proteins bind to the T-cells to recognize antigens.6So, the MHC basically helps the immune system to differentiate between self and non-self cells (a property called as MHC restriction).6 It has been identified that the HLA-DRB1 mutant alleles and HLA-A alleles increases the risk of developing the disease.7,8 Though these are the most commonly reported variant gene present in MS, variants in genes present in the HLA system such as HLA-DR15, HLA- DQ6,etc have been linked to the disease as well.7 Also, variants in IL7R have been linked to MS. Presence of C risk allele of the IL7R gene decreases the expression of IL7R.9 IL7 signalling pathway is essential for the T cell differentiation of CD4-CD8- thymocytes.10It also plays a major role in maintaining the T-cell homeostasis. Variant of the IL7R results in the decrease in the expression of IL7R which affects the interlukin pathway, thereby disrupting the T cell development and T cell homeostasis.10 But with the help of genome wide association studies (GWAS), a set of 12 susceptible genes which promotes the risk for developing MS have been identified recently.11,12,13 Although the effect of variations in these genes are not as profound as the variations in the HLA gene system.11 Demyelination: The neuron/nerve cells comprises of a cell body and an extension from the cell body called axon. The axons play a central role in carrying the message from one neuron to another. The axons in the body usually have a coating rich in lipids, called the myelin. Myelin insulates the axon and protects it (just like an insulating coating over an electrical wire).14This helps in the efficient nerve transmission. Myelin present in the central nervous system are produced by a special set of cells called the oligodendrocytes.15 It is believe that in MS patients, a wayward immune system is unable to differentiate between the self and non-self cells and cause an inflammatory response, most likely because of the variations present in the HLA gene system and IL7. This triggers the T-cells to attack and destroy the myelin sheath of the axon or the oligodendrocytes (cells that produce the myelin sheath), keeping the nerve fibres unprotected and uninsulated. This is called as demyelination.14This consequently causes destruction to the nerve fibre (as the protective sheath is degenerated). This produces many scar tissues or lesions (hence the name multiple sclerosis) along the nerve cells, thereby limiting or blocking the transmission of impulses through the nerve cells. Consequently, the brain cannot communicate properly with the other parts of the CNS and eventually causes the various symptoms that are seen in the MS patients. In a nut shell, the disease is believed to be caused by the interplay between inflammation and neurodegeneration.1 After the episode of attack, the inflammation reaction may get halted and the neurons that are not demyelinated resume their normal function and even some recovery is possible (as seen in the relapsing-remitting type of progression). It has also been shown that the demyelinated axons tend to produce more sodium channels and this helps in the remission.16 So, sodium channels are rightfully targeted for the MS therapy now.17 Also, even though the oligodendrocytes are not present around to remylinate immediately, myelin does grow back, but it may take a real long time.15 Picture Source: [eMedicineHealth, (2014).Myelin and the Central Nervous System Causes, Symptoms, Treatment – What is myelin? – eMedicineHealth. [online] Available at:] AUTISM SPECTRUM DISORDER: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder that causes social, cognitive and language impairment and the tendency to show repetitive behaviour, interests and activities in the individuals.18 ASD is a collection of neurodevelopmental disorder.19The main types of ASD are: Autism, Asperger’s syndrome, Pervasive developmental disorder- not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS). The rare disorders in the class are Rett syndrome and Childhood disintegrative disorder.18 Symptoms and Progression: Symptoms include impairment of social relationships, lack of communication and lack of imagination skills and signs of repetitive behaviour. Symptoms vary from one individual to another significantly. 18Asperger’s syndrome patients did not have significant cognitive impairment/delays like autism patients. PDD-NOS is considered as the milder form of autistic behaviour and usually show symptoms in one area, for instance, just lack of social communication.19 The progression of the disease is also different in different patients. Symptoms in childhood may include constant crying, sleeping problems, absence of speech, repetitive movements like handshake or clapping, lack of eye contact, etc. Symptoms in the adolescence and adulthood may be mood imbalance, presence of disability becomes more obvious and prominent, increased anxiety levels, epilepsy and seizures in rare cases.19 Genetic factors: ADS is more of a syndrome than a disease, caused by a variety of genetic and environmental factors.19 Whole genome screens, next generation sequencing (NGS) and cytogenetic studies have been carried out to figure out the genes involved in the cause of the syndrome.20 ADS is a really complex neurological condition which is linked to about 100 genes as of now. 21The genes generally fall into: genes regulating synapsis genes regulating transcription Mutation of genes that are involved in the synaptic functions are commonly observed in ASD. A few important genes are discussed below: Neurexin (NLGN3, NLGN4) and Neuroligin (NRXN1): The genes involved in the production of Neurexin and neuregulin are commonly found mutated genes in ASD. Neurexin and Neuregulin act as neuronal cell surface receptors and organize the interaction between the pre-synaptic and post-synaptic neurons. Neurexin interacts with CASK in the pre-synaptic neuron. Neuroligin interact with PSD95 in the post- synaptic neuron. The two proteins interacts with intracellular factors as well as scaffolding protein, forming a trans-synaptic interaction necessary for a synapsis to exist. Mutations in the genes encoding for these proteins have been reported in ASD patients. Also, the targeted knock out of these genes in the mouse model have caused deregulation of synaptic function. Mutation of neurexin in mice have shown to disrupt the voltage-gated calcium channel, thereby hindering pre-synaptic release of vesicles. Mutations in neuroligin in ASD patients reduced the expression of neroligin, thereby causing less interaction with neurexin thereby causing synaptic transmission defects.22 SHANK: SHANK consists of three genes: SHANK1, SHANK2, SHANK3. SHANK is involved in the post-synaptic neuron. It interacts with PSD95 and SAPAP and form a protein complex which regulates the formation of dendritic spine. Overexpression of SHANK3 results in the increase in the dendritic spine and the knockdown results in the decrease of dendritic spine formation. Reduced dendritic spine formation leads to defective postsynaptic structure thereby inhibiting synaptic transmission.22 Also, mutations in cadherin9, cadherin10 and cadherin15 are observed in ADS patients. Mutations in these genes destabilize the pre-synaptic and post-synaptic interactions, thereby inhibiting synapsis, leading to autistic symptoms.22 Contactin associated protein-like 2 (CNTNAP2): CNTNAP2 is a member of the neurexin family that encodes for a neuronal membrane protein that helps in the trans-synaptic interaction. Mutations in this gene have been reported in autistic patients.20 MECP2 gene: Methyl –cytosine binding protein (MECP2), a transcriptional regulator, is mutated in Rett syndrome. The gene is present in the X chromosome. This mutation occurs exclusively in females as the mutation of this gene in males is lethal. Mutation of this gene results in leads to reduced release of vesicles in inhibitory synapsis and affecting the excitation to inhibition ration. 23Another rare mutation in the form of the transcriptional regulator, ARX, is seen in autistic patients.23 Picutre Source: [Walsh, C., Morrow, E. and Rubenstein, J. (2008). Autism and Brain Development.Cell, 135(3), pp.396-400.] Role of demyelination in the disease: Mutations in HLA region (like MS) and increased level of IL12 are reported in autism.24 This causes the T cells to attack the myelin sheath. The damage of myelin sheath ergo nerve cells (mechanism explained above) have been a factor of brain damage in autistic individuals. Neuropathological findings suggest a role for demyelination in the damage of amygdala, hippocampus and cerebellum of autistic patients.24 Environmental factors: Along with the genetic factors, the environmental factors also seem to play a role in the development and progression of these two diseases. Lack of Vitamin D supposedly plays a role in increasing the risk of developing MS.2 Mercury vaccines have been suspected to increase the risk of developing ASD.25 Mercury vaccine results in the deficiency of zinc and that in turn impacts the level of vitamin B12.25 Vitamin B12 in turn is essential for myelin sheath formation.25 In sum, these two neurological diseases are really complex and not yet fully understood yet. Tonnes of research are being performed in order to understand the cause and the exact interplay of genetic factors in the development of disease. Fully understanding the diseases would also provide better ways to treat individuals affected by these devastating complex neurological diseases. REFERENCES: McDonald WI, Ron MA. Multiple sclerosis: the disease and its manifestations.Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences1999;354(1390):1615-1622., (2014).Multiple sclerosis – [online] Available at: [Accessed 15 Dec. 2014]., (2014).Multiple sclerosis – [online] Available at: [Accessed 15 Dec. 2014]. Rubio JP, Speed TP, Bahlo M, Kilpatrick TJ, Foote SJ. The current state of multiple sclerosis genetic research. Annals of the Academy of Medicine, Singapore. 2000;29(3):322-30. Baranzini SE. Revealing the genetic basis of multiple sclerosis: are we there yet? Current Opinion in GeneticsMultiple Sclerosis and Autism Spectrum Disorder Causes

CO 101 Lincoln University of Pennsylvania Metaphors and Video Response Essay

CO 101 Lincoln University of Pennsylvania Metaphors and Video Response Essay.

For this assignment you will explore how analogies (a comparison of two dissimilar things) in speeches can create visual pictures in the minds of your listeners.To get started, you will watch the video entitled “The Art of the Metaphor” to help orient you to certain types of language that can help create these mental images. As you watch the video, listen for examples of analogies, specifically similes and metaphors.Click Play below to start the video(TEDEducation. YouTube. TED, 24 Sept. 2012. Web. 21 July 2017)After watching the video, in a new Word document, respond to the following in roughly 600 words:Describe some examples of metaphors and similes from the video. Which did you find most compelling and why?Does the use of these forms of expression help in both visualizing and remembering the main points of the speech? Why or why not?What guidelines would you suggest in using metaphor and simile in your speeches to make them more memorable to your listeners? Would it ever be inappropriate to use these in a speech? If so, when?
CO 101 Lincoln University of Pennsylvania Metaphors and Video Response Essay

What Contributions Have Huguenot People Made to the East End?

What Contributions Have Huguenot People Made to the East End The history of the East End is inextricably tied to London as a whole. The East End berthed ships bringing in trade and wealth. Cultural and diverse East London has consistently been known for its abundance of cultures and has served as a ‘microcosm’ of this polyglot society[1], welcoming and housing successive influxes of immigrants enabling London to grow. It has been the source of entertainment venues for both the privileged societies and the local neighbourhood and was where business and commerce came together. Some immigrants came seeking land and riches, some against their will, as oppressed people or servants. Others sought life-changing opportunities and chose to seek asylum as economic migrants or refugees fleeing hardship, destitution, and religious or political persecution. This paper examines the circumstances of one of those migrant communities, Huguenots’, and will analyse how they came to be in East London, their integration into the community, and the contributions they immediately made to the economic success of East London. Additionally, it will acknowledge some of the Huguenots lasting legacies. The Huguenots were Calvinists, a part of Protestantism that follows the forms of Christian practice set by John Calvin. The Protestants circumstances in France, a Catholic nation were continually perilous throughout the sixteenth and seventeenth century. Despite the fact they were tolerated, in 1685, King Louis IX revoked the Edict of Nantes,[2] which had allowed Protestants the freedom to worship in specified areas. Huguenot researcher Henri Justel spoke of the intolerance of Louis XIV as ‘Our extirpation is decreed’.[3] Oppressed and confronting severe persecution, many fled France, however, In 1681, Charles II of England offered asylum to them, and between 1670 and 1710, some 40,000-50,000 Huguenots originating from varying backgrounds sought refuge in England. Historians have assessed that over half came to London and, considerably more settled in the East End as the cost of living was more desirable, and as it was outside the city they had freedom from the economic controls of the guilds.[4] After the Great Fire, London was encountering rapid change and transformation. People chose to live in rural areas which were more affordable. However, it was the French Calvinist Huguenots who assumed a significant role in developing the area from one of semi-rural to a densely built and highly populated merchants’ quarter.[5] Huguenots received charitable assistance from churches, the government, and philanthropy drives, one of which assessed that by December 1687 13,050 Huguenots had settled in the capital, the greater part of which were in Spitalfields.[6] The Huguenots hugely affected Spitalfields, especially its economy. They were proficient in fine metalwork and engraving, and some also brought with them significant knowledge and experience from France’s main clock and watchmaking centres. Moreover, many set up businesses as silk weavers, creating an industry surviving until the early 1900s. There had consistently been a silk industry of sorts in the area, but with the skills and aptitude of the Huguenots this industry flourished, and Spitalfields became known as ‘weaver town’.[7] The increase in the accessibility of silk influenced British upper-class fashions, as new styles became popular incorporating more of the readily available material, however, during this era Huguenots knew the English had an insatiable appetite, for top notch silks, at the same time, there was no ready supply as the English based Industry could not manufacture more complex fabrics required for those sought after dresses, waistcoats and coats[8] Moreover, while there was demand, the supply was made prohibitively expensive through import taxes, so Huguenots were undeniably best placed to give the English what they wanted and at costs which undercut the French, and with deliveries unaffected by weather civil unrest or military intervention.[9] Huguenots constructed tall terraced houses which still survive in the area, and which housed the looms that delivered flawless, inventive designed silks for the stylish inhabitants of London. Although the vast majority worked from home there are records of weaving factories being established in Spitalfields in from the mid 18th century by affluent masters such as John Sabatier who had a warehouse at the end of Fournier Street and which contained 50 looms and later expanded to 100.[10] The master weavers had extraordinary financial power affecting the economy greatly. One Huguenot silk weaver was James Leman, a second-generation Huguenot émigré who curiously combined his skills as a designer with his role as a master weaver.[11] Leman was born in 1688 into a weaving family of Huguenot descent. He was apprentice to his father in 1702, and lived with his family in Spitalfields. He became a renowned figure in the textile community rising to second in command of the Weavers’ Company, the ancient guild that controlled the craft in the City of London. Huguenots believed wealth earned, with a good heart and honest toil was Godly, and that reasonable wealth earned through honest labour was not ostentatious.[12] Enterprising and unassuming, the Huguenots were generally welcomed, particularly considering their numbers. Compassion was extended to them as sufferers for the Protestant cause, although there was hostility on occasion, often motivated by fears that the French were denying Londoners of work. One priest, Dr Welton, called them the ‘offal of the earth’.[13] Furthermore, the English silversmiths and goldsmiths additionally felt compromised and tested by the arrival of Huguenots who were profoundly gifted in this field. They feared they would undermine their English adversaries by charging less and accepting lower wages. A pamphlet poem, published in 1681 underlined this by saying ‘weavers all may curse their fates /Because the French work under rates’.[14] Huguenots treasured their own cultural and religious heritage preserving their French traditions and language and protecting their religious congregations. Their churches were a binding quality in the community, providing a connecting point for the immigrants, and a supportive network for new arrivals. By 1700 there were at least nine Huguenot churches or ‘temples’ including one in Black Eagle Street and Spitalfields market.[15] Further temples were built including “L’Eglise Protestant” in Threadneedle Street in the City of London, which dealt with the first wave of refugees by building an annexe, “L’Eglise Neuve,” in Brick Lane on the corner of Fournier St. This opened in 1743, sixty years after a temporary wooden shack was first built there. There were at least nine other Huguenot Chapels in Spitalfields by then, whereas in 1685 there had been none. Yet they needed this huge church, it was an indicator of how large the French community was. The church was run by elders ensured the religious and the secular sides tied up so if you arrived at the church in Threadneedle St, they would send you over to Spitalfields and find you work. L’Eglise Neuve which still survives today, is architecturally significant, as the sundial within the Fournier street pediment is dated 1743 and inscribed with the adage ‘Umbra Sumas’ meaning ‘We are but Shadow’ a reminder that everything in the material world is transitory.[16] You could argue however, that Huguenots always knew they would only temporarily live there. Eventually, Huguenots integrated into English society and drifted towards the Anglican Church. Among some of the most celebrated Huguenots was Philip Cazenove who went into partnership with his son and nephew which immediately rose to prominence because of its involvement in the financial side of the rail industry. Some of his success was also accredited to his association with the Rothschild banking family. The company acted as a broker for the development of numerous organisations and was directly involved with the creation of the Metropolitan District Railway Company, which built the London Underground.[17] Pierre Harache, best known for his candlestick making was the first Huguenot goldsmith to be admitted to the Goldsmiths’ company in 1682. No foreign craftsmen had ever been invited and in 1574 the freedom of the Goldsmiths’ company was denied to all foreigners. Harache must have been significantly thought of as he was granted the Livery in 1687 and the freedom of the city which was only ever granted in special circumstances. His work was of such high calibre that it is alluded to today as having heralded a new era.[18] Finally, Sir Robert Ladbroke was a prominent member of the Huguenot community in East London. He was a merchant banker in the City, Lord Mayor of London in 1747 and, from 1754, a Member of Parliament. Ladbroke was married to the daughter of John Peck, an influential dyer in the Spitalfields silk industry. A monument to Ladbroke, sculpted by John Flaxman RA and erected in 1794, sits on the north side of Christ Church in Spitalfields. He is displayed in his Lord Mayor’s robes.[19] As Indian and Chinese silks became more readily available, Spitalfields silk weaving went into decline, which affected the community and although they struggled on, workers were reduced to starvation wages. The ebbing prosperity along with introduction of new machinery led to violent clashes. By 1801 the Spitalfields acts were passed in an attempt to improve wages and working conditions and to protect the domestic market,[20]however, the Huguenots eventually moved away from Spitalfields, settling in the suburbs, a route which later other immigrant groups were also to follow. Today the Huguenots legacy lives on and hints of their stay are still obvious in East London, regardless of succeeding waves of immigration. There are French-sounding street names, some of which were named after eminent master-weavers; Fournier Street; Leman Street; Fleur de Lis Street. To some degree misleadingly, Fashion Street which has nothing to do with the silk trade, but is a corruption of Fasson, the name of the area’s original developers.[21] The exquisite Huguenot houses are well preserved. Additionally, there are a further two physical examples both in the medical field and optometry. Among the Huguenots that fled to London were the Chamberlens. William Chamberlen a surgeon had four sons two of which mirrored his career and became surgeons who specialised in midwifery; however, it was the eldest Son whose invention of the forceps is almost identical to the Chamberlen forceps used today. Secondly, John Dollond, a son of a Huguenot refugee who at first followed in his father’s footsteps of Silk weaving and in his spare time among other interests studied anatomy. He inevitably abandoned silk-weaving to join his older son who had started a business as a maker of optical instruments, the business proceeded to become Dollond