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Statistics for the Behavioral and Social Sciences, psychology homework help

Statistics for the Behavioral and Social Sciences, psychology homework help.

Focus of the Final ExamThe purpose of the Final Exam is to assess your understanding of
the main statistical concepts covered in this course and to evaluate
your ability to critically review a quantitative research article. The
exam will consist of two parts: Part I includes three essay questions
and Part II includes a research critique. All of your responses should
be included in a single Word document for submission. Please include the following general headings for each section of the written exam within your Word document:
Part I: Essay QuestionsEssay 1Essay 2Essay 3Part II: Research Study Critique Introduction Methods Results DiscussionYour complete Word document must include a title page with the following:Student’s nameCourse name and numberInstructor’s nameDate submittedPart I: Essay Questions
There are three essay questions in this section. You must answer
all three questions. The length of each essay should be one to two
double-spaced pages (excluding title and reference pages). Use 12-point
font and format your paper with regular 1-inch margins. Do not include
the essay prompt in your document. It will not count toward the length
requirement for your essays.Essay 1
A group of researchers conducted an experiment to determine which
vaccine is more effective for preventing getting the flu. They tested
two different types of vaccines: a shot and a nasal spray. To test the
effectiveness, 1000 participants were randomly selected with 500 people
getting the shot and 500 the nasal spray. Of the 500 people were treated
with the shot, 80 developed the flu and 420 did not. Of the people who
were treated with the nasal spray, 120 people developed the flu and 380
did not. The level of significance was set at .05. The proportion of
people who were treated with the shot who developed the flu = .16, and
the proportion of the people who were treated with the nasal spray was
.24. The calculated p value = .0008.

For this essay, describe the statistical approaches (e.g., identify
the hypotheses and research methods) used in this excerpt from a
research study. Interpret the statistical results and examine the
limitations of the statistical methods. Finally, evaluate the research
study as a whole and apply what you have learned about hypothesis
testing and inferential statistics by discussing how you might conduct a
follow-up study.Your essay must address the following points:Describe the research question for this experiment.
What were the null and alternative hypotheses?Were the results of this test statistically significant?If so, why were they significant?
Would the researchers reject or fail to reject the null hypothesis?Do the results provide sufficient evidence to support the alternative hypothesis?Was the sample appropriate for this study? Explain your answer.What are some possible limitations to this study?Discuss how you would conduct a follow up study to this one. Explain your answer.Describe the difference between practical and statistical significance.Essay 2
A researcher has investigated the relationship between IQ and grade point average (GPA) and found the correlation to be .75.For this essay, critique the results and interpretation of a correlational study.Evaluate the correlational result and identify the strength of the correlation. Examine the assumptions and limitations of the possible connection between the researcher’s chosen variables. Identify and describe other statistical tests that could be used to study this relationship.
Your essay response must address the following questions:How strong is this correlation?
Is this a positive or negative correlation?What does this correlation mean?
Does this correlation imply that individuals with high Intelligence Quotients (IQ) have high Grade Point Averages (GPA)?Does this correlation provide evidence that high IQ causes GPA to go higher?
What other variables might be influencing this relationship?
What is the connection between correlation and causation?What are some of the factors that affect the size of this correlation?Is correlation a good test for predicting GPA?
If not, what statistical tests should a researcher use, and why?
Essay 3
A researcher has recorded the reaction times of 20 individuals on a
memory assessment. The following table indicates the individual times:

2.2
4.7
7.3
4.1

9.5
15.2
4.3
9.5

2.7
3.1
9.2
2.9

8.2
7.6
3.5
2.5

9.3
4.8
8.5
8.1

In this essay, demonstrate your ability to organize data into
meaningful sets, calculate basic descriptive statistics, interpret the
results, and evaluate the effects of outliers and changes in the
variables. You may use Excel, one of the many free online descriptive
statistics calculators, or calculate the values by hand and/or with a
calculator. Next, separate the data into two groups of 10; one group will be
the lower reaction times, and the second group will be the higher
reaction times. Then, address the following points in your essay
response:Calculate the sum, mean, mode, median, standard deviation, range, skew, and kurtosis for each group.How do the two groups differ?Are there any outliers in either data group?What effect does an outlier have on a sample?Lastly, double each sample by repeating the same 10 data points in
each group. You will have a total of 20 data points for each group.
After completing this, address the following in your essay response:Calculate the following for the new data groups: sum, mean, mode, median, standard deviation, range, skew, and kurtosis.Did any of the values change?How does sample size affect those values?Part B: Research Study Critique
In this second portion of the Final Exam, you will identify and
critically evaluate a quantitative research article based on a social
science topic. Your selected article must include a research
question(s) and/or hypothesis(es) and utilize statistical analyses
covered in the course. The article must be peer-reviewed and published
within the last 10 years.In the body of your critique, describe the statistical approaches
used, the variables included, the hypothesis(es) proposed, and the
interpretation of the results. In your conclusion, suggest other
statistical approaches that could have been used and, if appropriate,
suggest alternative interpretations of the results. This process will
allow you to apply the concepts learned throughout the course in the
interpretation of actual scientific research. Your critique must include
the following sections:Introduction: This section will include a general introduction of the quantitative study from a peer-reviewed source published within the last 10 years. The research questions and/or hypothesis(es) as well as the purpose of the study should be clearly defined.Methods: Describe and evaluate the procedures and methods of data collection, measures/instruments used, the participants and how they were selected, and the statistical techniques used.Results: In this section describe and critique the results presented in the study.Discussion: Discuss and evaluate the efficacy of the results presented in the study. Address, the strengths, weaknesses, and limitations of the study, and suggest future research directions. Include additional forms of statistical analyses as part of the suggestions for future research.
Statistics for the Behavioral and Social Sciences, psychology homework help

Criminal justice capstone project topic proposal. I’m working on a Law exercise and need support.

Use section headings in the APA paper. Please hit “distinguished” in all areas of the scoring guide. No plagiarism, it will be checked. Topic proposal was brainstormed by a tutor.
“How about a federal rehabilitation program, as opposed to jail, for arrested drug addicts who are also highly likely to commit other offences?
This is a proposal to address the problem of mass incarceration which is partly due to punishment rather than rehabilitation of addicts.”
Please see the attached overview document for the week 2 assignment.
Competencies Addressed in This Assignment

Competency 1: Apply an ethics-centered, evidence-based analysis to complex situations encountered by criminal justice practitioners.
Competency 2: Explain the antecedents and consequences of crime in the broader context of interdisciplinary knowledge.
Competency 3: Integrate theoretical, scientific, and practical methods in application to solve problems relevant to criminal justice.
Competency 4: Describe effective conflict resolution techniques for culturally diverse group interactions.
Competency 5: Assess the ethical, community-focused leadership skills required for successful criminal justice practitioners in a wide range of interactions.
Competency 6: Employ the professional communication skills expected of a criminal justice practitioner.

Assignment Description
Your project for this capstone course will require you to demonstrate your mastery of the program outcomes by analyzing and writing about an issue that will provide a foundation for the development of either a program or a policy proposal within your chosen specialization. To demonstrate proficiency of the program learning outcomes, you will develop your selected topic specific to each outcome. In the Criminal Justice Capstone Project, you will identify and define a problem you feel needs to be addressed within your discipline (emergency management, criminal justice, or homeland security), describe the significance of to serve as the basis for the development of a program, implementation of a new policy or change to an existing policy, and design an appropriate solution that is specific and measurable for purposes of effectiveness based on the delineated goals and objectives.
Instructions
In this unit you will choose a topic for your Criminal Justice Capstone Project. You will also provide one paragraph per program learning outcome section (as listed in the Criminal Justice Capstone Project Overview and Outline document), specifically connected to your topic. Use the Criminal Justice Capstone Project Overview and Outline document to guide your paper.
Your topic selection should be specific, with clear parameters that will enable you to fully address each program learning outcome. You will identify direction that will enable you to make those connections by sharing preliminary approaches specific to each program learning outcome, connected to your proposed topic. Note: Use a library tool, such as RefWorks, to track your sources for the duration of your Criminal Justice Capstone Project.
Requirements

Written communication: Written communication is free of errors that detract from the overall message.
APA formatting: Resources and citations are formatted according to current APA style and formatting.
Length of paper: 1.5–2 typed double-spaced pages.
Font and font size: Times New Roman, 12 point.

Soring Guide

Criteria
Non-performance
Basic
Proficient
Distinguished

Develop initial direction to apply an ethics-centered, evidence-based analysis to complex situations encountered by criminal justice practitioners in the context of initial connections based on Criminal Justice Capstone Project topic selection. 18%
Does not develop initial direction to apply an ethics-centered, evidence-based analysis to complex situations encountered by criminal justice practitioners in the context of initial connections based on Criminal Justice Capstone Project topic selection.
Partially develops initial direction to apply an ethics-centered, evidence-based analysis to complex situations encountered by criminal justice practitioners in the context of initial connections based on Criminal Justice Capstone Project topic selection.
Develops initial direction to apply an ethics-centered, evidence-based analysis to complex situations encountered by criminal justice practitioners in the context of initial connections based on Criminal Justice Capstone Project topic selection.
Comprehensively develops initial direction to apply an ethics-centered, evidence-based analysis to complex situations encountered by criminal justice practitioners in the context of initial connections based on Criminal Justice Capstone Project topic selection.

Develop initial direction to explain the antecedents and consequences of crime in the broader context of interdisciplinary knowledge in the context of initial connections based on Criminal Justice Capstone Project topic selection. 18%
Does not develop initial direction to explain the antecedents and consequences of crime in the broader context of interdisciplinary knowledge in the context of initial connections based on Criminal Justice Capstone Project topic selection.
Partially develops initial direction to explain the antecedents and consequences of crime in the broader context of interdisciplinary knowledge in the context of initial connections based on Criminal Justice Capstone Project topic selection.
Develops initial direction to explain the antecedents and consequences of crime in the broader context of interdisciplinary knowledge in the context of initial connections based on Criminal Justice Capstone Project topic selection.
Thoroughly develops initial direction to explain the antecedents and consequences of crime in the broader context of interdisciplinary knowledge in the context of initial connections based on Criminal Justice Capstone Project topic selection.

Develop initial direction to integrate theoretical, scientific, and practical methods in application to solve problems relevant to criminal justice in the context of initial connections based on Criminal Justice Capstone Project topic selection. 18%
Does not develop initial direction to integrate theoretical, scientific, and practical methods in application to solve problems relevant to criminal justice in the context of initial connections based on Criminal Justice Capstone Project topic selection.
Partially develops initial direction to integrate theoretical, scientific, and practical methods in application to solve problems relevant to criminal justice in the context of initial connections based on Criminal Justice Capstone Project topic selection.
Develops initial direction to integrate theoretical, scientific, and practical methods in application to solve problems relevant to criminal justice in the context of initial connections based on Criminal Justice Capstone Project topic selection.
Thoroughly develops initial direction to integrate theoretical, scientific, and practical methods in application to solve problems relevant to criminal justice in the context of initial connections based on Criminal Justice Capstone Project topic selection.

Develop initial direction to describe effective conflict resolution techniques for culturally diverse group interactions in the context of initial connections based on Criminal Justice Capstone Project topic selection. 18%
Does not develop initial direction to describe effective conflict resolution techniques for culturally diverse group interactions in the context of initial connections based on Criminal Justice Capstone Project topic selection.
Partially develops initial direction to describe effective conflict resolution techniques for culturally diverse group interactions in the context of initial connections based on Criminal Justice Capstone Project topic selection.
Develops initial direction to describe effective conflict resolution techniques for culturally diverse group interactions in the context of initial connections based on Criminal Justice Capstone Project topic selection.
Thoroughly develops initial direction to describe effective conflict resolution techniques for culturally diverse group interactions in the context of initial connections based on Criminal Justice Capstone Project topic selection.

Develop initial direction to assess the ethical, community-focused leadership skills required for successful criminal justice practitioners in a wide range of interactions in the context of initial connections based on Criminal Justice Capstone Project topic selection. 18%
Does not develop initial direction to assess the ethical, community-focused leadership skills required for successful criminal justice practitioners in a wide range of interactions in the context of initial connections based on Criminal Justice Capstone Project topic selection.
Partially develops initial direction to assess the ethical, community-focused leadership skills required for successful criminal justice practitioners in a wide range of interactions in the context of initial connections based on Criminal Justice Capstone Project topic selection.
Develops initial direction to assess the ethical, community-focused leadership skills required for successful criminal justice practitioners in a wide range of interactions in the context of initial connections based on Criminal Justice Capstone Project topic selection.
Comprehensively develops initial direction to assess the ethical, community-focused leadership skills required for successful criminal justice practitioners in a wide range of interactions in the context of initial connections based on Criminal Justice Capstone Project topic selection.

Employ the professional communication skills expected of a criminal justice practitioner in the context of initial connections based on Criminal Justice Capstone Project topic selection. 10%
Does not employ the professional communication skills expected of a criminal justice practitioner in the context of initial connections based on Criminal Justice Capstone Project topic selection.
Partially employs the professional communication skills expected of a criminal justice practitioner in the context of initial connections based on Criminal Justice Capstone Project topic selection.
Employs the professional communication skills expected of a criminal justice practitioner in the context of initial connections based on Criminal Justice Capstone Project topic selection.
Thoroughly employs the professional communication skills expected of a criminal justice practitioner in the context of initial connections based on Criminal Justice Capstone Project topic selection.

Criminal justice capstone project topic proposal

Submitted by:- Prof. K G SahadevanRishi Singh Tuhin Kanti Mondal Sunita Seetharam Contents Disclaimer Contents Table of Figures Executive Summary Introduction Market Analysis Market characteristics and major players Market characteristics and major players Market analysis Consumer Behaviour Porter’s Five Forces Conclusion Reference Table of Figures Figure 1………………………………………………………………………………………..2 Figure 2………………………………………………………………………………………..2 Figure 3………………………………………………………………………………………..4 Figure 4………………………………………………………………………………………..4 Figure 5………………………………………………………………………………………..5 Figure 6………………………………………………………………………………………..5 Figure 7………………………………………………………………………………………..6 Figure 8………………………………………………………………………………………..6 Figure 9………………………………………………………………………………………..7 Figure 10..……………………………………………………………………………..……….8 Figure 11..……………………………………………………………………………………10 Figure 12..……………………………………………………………………………………10 Executive Summary The soft drinks industry includes carbonated as well as the non-carbonated drinks. The industry leaders are Coca-Cola and Pepsi. This industry is unique in the sense that the product is bought primarily for the brand image of the company rather that the utility of the product. The purpose of a carbonated drink can well be served by a glass of water or lemonade. The companies strive to capture market share through extensive advertising and branding. The carbonated drinks were perceived as a health concern so the companies introduced non carbonated drinks like juices. The firms in this industry exercise tight control over the suppliers and compete on price to get customers. The industry is very competitive and makes it very difficult for a small player to exist. The bigger firms have an advantage due to economies of scale. Introduction Soft drink industry has been a successful growth for a long time. In recent years, the sales of basic soft drinks have been depreciated highly due to increment of health awareness, change in consumer behaviour towards other varieties of soft drinks etc. But all over the changes have been directed net positive increment in sales due affinity of consumers towards juice and bottled drinking and mineral water. The big players of original soft drinks like Coke, Pepsico etc. are acquiring or diversifying their products toward juice and mineral water industry. They are doing product extension as well (ex. Diet Pepsi, Coke Zero etc.) to remain competitive in the market. The definition of classic soft drink can be expressed as follows: Sometimes soft drink may contain alcohol but the within the limit of 0.5%. The carbonated water is made in two ways. It is either using soda siphon or by home carbonation system. The latter one is made by putting dry ice on water. In modern industry, carbondioxide is used instead of dry ice. The carbondioxide is pressured and mixed with water with high pressure. The type of soft drinks decide the addition of colour and customised flavours which distinggishes one from another. The soft drinks can be categories in the following way: Figure 3 Classification of Soft Drinks Market Analysis The market volume of soft drink industry in India in 2013 was 11,755 liters, showing a growth of 170% compared to 4369 liters in 2008. As far as predicted growth rate is concerned, market is showing around 19% growth annually. For product wise analysis, it shows that 20% annual growth rate for next year five in bottled water while the carbonated drink shows. The same figure for juice is 21%. Interestingly, the annual growth rate of carbonated drink is only 10%. This increment will come from mostly due to penetration in rural market while there is considerable decrement in sales in urban area. But if we put the percentage growth, then juice shows more than 100% growth. Market characteristics and major players The soft drink industry market can be analysed using three economic factors. These are market size, growth rate and overall profitability. As compared to hard drink, soft drink contains a share of around 48% in no-alcoholic industry. But the as discussed earlier, the market of carbonated soft drink is shrinking due to the awareness of people for their health. Figure 6 Change in consumer behaviour toward non-alcoholic drinks The above graph is an example that how the consumer’s mindset has been changed from taste to health. It is to observe that sport drinks and bottled water have seen around 40% of growth whereas packet juice along with carbonated soft drink have faced a sharp decline even upto 20%. For example, if the sales of the largest leader is considered then a tentative area-wise sales’ trend is as follows: Figure 7 year-wise change in sales of Coke in different areas From the chart it is evident the increment in sales in year 2010 and 2011 were a world-wide event. But in a growing world like Europe and North America, the sales of Coke is decreasing for last two years. In other side, Pacific and Latin America are showing positive % change of sales over previous year. This discrepancy between growing world and grown world is mostly due to difference in level of education, crave of foreign money by growing world, socio-political difference. Evidently, the soft drink companies are depending mostly on third world market for increment of sales of their original products. Market characteristics and major players The driver for most downstream operations in the soft drink industry is the syrup production. Thus, the CSD industry is largely dependent on the syrup producer. The product life cycle for soft drinks moves as follows: Figure 8 Soft Drinks Industry Supply Chain Market analysis The top three brands in the soft drink industry had a 35 percent share of the market in 2011, According to the latest report from IBIS World. This industry is fiercely competitive. Small companies must conduct soft drink market research competitor analysis to know their current positions in the marketplace. These types of data help small organizations know which strategies are best for their products. Soft drink producers or distributors are not just competing with other soft drink manufacturers. They also must consider competitors in the functional soft drink sector, which includes sports drinks and health-oriented drinks. Figure 9 Soft Drinks industry market share Despite being the world’s two weakest performing regions in 2008, Western Europe and North America continue to hold the maximum revenue for soft drinks industry in the world. Together, they account for over half the total sales of the industry. This shows one of the major strategic problems faced by soft drinks companies globally – while second and third tier markets are showing a steeper growth curve in terms of revenue, their total market share remains small relative to developed markets. Figure 10 Soft Drinks by region Critically, the industry needs to continue investments in high-yield regions of the developed nations and at the same time strengthen their foothold in the emerging market economies. This poses a huge challenge at the time of adverse macroeconomic conditions. Consumer Behaviour Global consumption of soft drinks is said to be rising by around 7% a year, much faster than the growth rate of many other industries. Consumer behaviour for soft drinks is largely volatile and there is very little brand loyalty to be found among consumers. But despite the choices given, a section of consumers tend to stick to one particular choice of CSD. The reason for this has less to do with taste, and more to do with subtle and careful marketing on the part of soft drink makers. The choice of a soda is as much about who you are as what you want to drink. Soda makers calibrate every aspect of their marketing- from their packaging, to their slogans, to the music that plays over their commercials- to create an identity around their products. Porter’s Five Forces Figure 11 Performance of Coke and Pepsi USD $ in millions The above chart shows the quarterly performance of the two biggest companies in this industry. It is evident from this chart that the revenue of Coca-Cola is much lesser than Pepsi, however the former has higher net income. The scale of the revenue generated by these companies gives a glimpse of the huge market. However a new entrant would find it very difficult to enter the market due to the high market share captured by these two companies. The large difference between the revenues and the net income shows the magnitude of the costs involved. Figure 12 Financial Analysis The increasing debt to equity ratio indicates that the biggest players are changing their funding profiles. This would be very difficult for a new firm to replicate. Conclusion From the above analysis, we found that the there was a huge change in the trend of sales of product in Soft Drink industry. We have seen that there were huge sales of traditional soft drinks earlier. But eventually the sales decreased due to rise in consciousness of people about health and increment in number of people suffering from different diseases and obesity which was partially caused by those drink. Big manufacturing companies are doing product extension in energy drink, juice etc or doing product diversification like Chips, snacks etc. The industry has strong entry barriers and the suppliers do not hold much control. The buyers however are very price sensitive and are brand loyal till other factors like taste, content etc. remain constant. References Seth, P. (02.10.2008.). slideshare. In Soft Drink Industry. Retrieved Feb 10, 2015, from http://www.slideshare.net/sethaphat/soft-drink-industry-presentation. Anonymous. (n.d.). sbtdc. In How to conduct an Industry Analysis. Retrieved Feb 10, 2015, from http://www.sbtdc.org/pdf/industry_analysis.pdf. Anonymous. (n.d.). changeabsolutions. In A Guide To Soft Drink Industry. Retrieved Feb 10, 2015, from http://changelabsolutions.org/sites/default/files/ChangeLab-Beverage_Industry_Report-FINAL_(CLS-20120530)_201109.pdf. Karimi, S. (n.d.). ehow. In How To Write An Industry Analysis. Retrieved Feb 10, 2015, from http://www.ehow.com/how_4811458_write-industry-analysis.html. Abraham, S. (n.d.). writing.uscb. In How To Do An Industry And Competitive Analysis. Retrieved Feb 10, 2015, from http://www.writing.ucsb.edu/faculty/holms/109EC__industry.pdf. 1 | Page

Reflect on the case studies reviewed from the course. Write a 3-5 page paper including the following requirements:

Reflect on the case studies reviewed from the course. Write a 3-5 page paper including the following requirements:. Need help with my Computer Science question – I’m studying for my class.

Describe the importance of ERM usage in organizations. Did you learn something new or was your thinking challenged based on articles and the textbook ?
What are critical factors to consider in organizations prior to implementing an ERM?
How often should ERM strategies and processes be modified after implementation?
What was your favorite case study reviewed on ERM? Which one was your least favorite and why?
Do you plan to go into a career involving ERM? If so what is your ideal job role. If not what would you like to do in the future over the next 5 years?

In your paper include:

Title Page
Content
Reference Page with 2-4 references

Reflect on the case studies reviewed from the course. Write a 3-5 page paper including the following requirements:

Healthcare Policy

professional essay writers Healthcare Policy. Paper details 1. Develop two (2) questions. 2. One (1) question should focus on Parson’s concept of the Sick Role and 1) whether it applies to individuals with chronic conditions; 2) or terms of policies related to individuals with disabilities (ADA or the Pandemic Preparedness in the Workplace and the Americans with Disabilities Act); or 3) any other idea or concept related to the Sick Role. Pick one. 3. One (1) question related ethical considerations in the pharmaceutical industry. 4. Focus on developing questions that for the reader to wrestle with concepts or theoretical frameworks. The reader should be forced to critically analyze ideas/concepts and potentially come to conclusions they did not think they could have. 5. Frame the question for the reader. 6. Do NOT submit two (2) questions without context and outside sources. 7. Submission should be no more than 2 pages, 12-point font, double spaced. Healthcare Policy

Wenger, Zimmerman, Engestrom’ Views on Human Resource Development Essay

Table of Contents Contrasting Views about Learning Comparative Views about Learning Implications of Above Perspectives in Human Resource Development More Useful Perspectives at Work References Contrasting Views about Learning In essence, there are various differences on learning methodologies as discussed by the three authors. After analysing the three articles written by the different scholars, it is evident that they emphasize different methodologies of learning. This emphasis is an indication that the three authors consider the respective methodologies with a certain weight. As such, a learning methodology is one of the outstanding differences when it comes to their perspectives on learning. First, Zimmerman (2000) gave a special attention to the concept of self-efficacy and the motivation it availed to learners. In his work, Zimmerman indicated that self-efficacy had evoked crucial and vast concern over the last ten years. In this case, he termed self-efficacy as the most proficient predictor of academic success and a source of inspiration. In addition, the author differentiated this concept evidently as the superior tool of measurement over other evaluators such as self-concept as well as the locus of control. From a critical point of view, it is evident that the researcher considers the concept as the most proficient evaluation mechanism. In addition, it implies that the author considers motivation as an essential ingredient of academic success. In fact, he stated that the students’ attitude towards their capability affects their actual academic outcome. In that regard, therefore, it cannot be disputed that Zimmerman paid more attention to motivation and self-efficacy than other methodologies of learning and evaluation. This focus is very different from the considerations and exemplification of Wenger (2000) and Engestrom (2001) as illustrated in their works. In particular, Wenger (2000) viewed learning from an organizational and a pretty collective perspective. Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Unlike Zimmerman (2000), the author did not discuss or consider learning as an individual venture but a group-based undertaking. In the same light, he did not share the idea that individual motivation was the key determinant of successful skill acquisition. Instead, he indicated that the capability of people to learn and acquire new skills as well as increase their body of knowledge was determined by their ability to conceive social learning system. From a critical point of view, he believed that learning could not be separated from the socialization and interactional characteristic of human beings. In fact, the study provided a social-based definition of learning in order to portray the idea of a systematic approach. In that regard, it became evident that learning occured only when the people were willing to take part in the group’s activities. Importantly, unlike Zimmerman and Engestrom, Wenger indicated that learning occurred within the limits of the social circles. While expounding on this aspect, the author revealed that learning was obtained from communities of practice which were defined by boundary processes in the social context. In turn, the communities of practice shaped the identity of each participant in accordance to the role they played when interacting with each other. As such, it could be implied that Wenger viewed learning as part of a common life process. He did not treat life as something less than its course. Unlike Zimmerman and Engerstrom, he focused on the bigger picture as far as learning was concerned. This aspect was based on the fact that the skills were acquired mostly from other people. As such, we must interact first before learning from them and acquiring new skills as well as bodies of knowledge. In contrast to the approach used by Zimmerman and Wenger, Engerstrom approached the methodology of learning from a theoretical perspective. Although he shared a similar focus with Wenger due to the organizational approach to learning, he did not share the idea of learning as part of the broad social systems. We will write a custom Essay on Wenger, Zimmerman, Engestrom’ Views on Human Resource Development specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Instead, the author focused on how cultural-historical activity theory was applied in organizational learning. As such, it was evident that he combined the idea of organizational learning with the challenges incurred during the application of cultural-historical theory. In a nutshell, the cross-cultural theory is concerned with the manner in which people’s thoughts are connected with their actions. In this regard, it states that every learning venture must answer the following questions. Who is learning? What are they learning? How do they learn? Why are they learning? This attribute implies that the author views education from multifaceted perspectives which is achieved in the presence of the subject, lesson, rationale, and means of acquiring skills in regard to either organizational or individual perspectives. From this perspective, therefore, the author differs with the two authors profoundly even though he seems to agree with Wenger that learning is part of the interactional day-to-day life where people learn from each other. Comparative Views about Learning Although all the perspectives presented by the authors are essentially different, it is evident that there are some similarities existing from the manner in which they view learning. Importantly, it is clear that all the authors accept the importance of the learner in the process of acquiring skills. All of them attach some importance on the involvement of the subject in unique and diverse ways. Zimmerman indicated that learning depended on self-efficacy. In this case, he expounded that the level of an individual’s motivation affected their output on performance and skills’ acquisition. As such, it is evident that this author appreciates and attaches the importance of the learner’s attitudes in the process of acquiring skills. Wenger, on the other hand, focused on the use of social systems in the process of learning. In that regard, the interactional and cross-sharing of information becomes a critical aspect in his perspective of learning. Although such groups are the pertinent factor of learning in his view, it is clear that the social learning systems are made of individual people. The author argued that the interaction among individuals gave them identity according to their roles in the groups. Not sure if you can write a paper on Wenger, Zimmerman, Engestrom’ Views on Human Resource Development by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More This factor implies that the learner or the learning groups play a fundamentally vital role in the entire process. In addition, it means that the author values this important aspect of learning and recognizes its high significance. Lastly, Engestrom (2001) also indicated and appreciated the importance of the learner in the process of skills acquisition but in a hidden and unique way. However, a close look at the exemplifications that were provided showed that he had considered this factor extensively. In particular, he indicated that every learning theory must answer several questions. Among those questions, the first inquiry investigated the subject of learning and answered the issue of who was learning. Implications of Above Perspectives in Human Resource Development The three perspectives can be used to facilitate effective learning in organizations. In fact, the combination of the three methodologies can provide organizations with the opportunity to make critical progress on acquisition of skills. First, the social learning systems make critical implications on the organizational management and administration. In essence, the organizations can use social learning for the sake of acquiring more skills. This cross-sharing makes the teams acquire the capability of innovations and development of new ideas. In addition, self-efficacy and individual motivation can be applied to provide an inspirational environment in the organization. In essence, motivation is an important aspect since it determines the output of an individual. In turn, the output of the individual employees encourages them to learn and acquire skills to facilitate better performance. As a result, the organization should first cultivate individual motivation before proceeding to nurture the acquisition of collective skills. Having nurtured the motivation and self-efficacy of the organizational members, the administrators can implement the idea of Wenger (2000). In order to recall, Wenger stated that learning takes place in the form of social systems where people interact and enlighten each other. With this in mind, the organizations can apply this principle to help in the acquisition of skills. As such, if the author believes that learning can take place through well-organized social systems, companies can adopt a team-based learning system. In fact, this can translate to the use of inter-professional learning model. In this model, different professionals interact and share their skills. This attribute is fulfilled by the cross-sharing of information in order to solve specific problem. As such, they use multidimensional knowledge and skills in order to solve the same problem. More Useful Perspectives at Work Although the three authors present valid arguments to explain their perspectives about learning, there are some views that resonate with the organization’s setup more than others. In the working environment, the social system aspect is very important on the acquisition of skills. In this case, the perspectives argue that learning occurs when human beings interact and share information to increase the knowledge base. In essence, this is more relevant perspective when it comes to organization. This relevance is occasioned by the fact that organizations are dependant to the process by which its employees interact and share knowledge. Importantly, the innovation capability of an organization is based on the intensity of cross-sharing. If an organization is able to make departments and individuals work together in the spirit of harmony, there is a very high chance of making the necessary progress in learning. In essence, the community of practice and community boundaries also play a fundamental role in the process of learning in organizations. The motivational perspective is also very important to the organization’s performance bearing in mind the importance of personal commitment to work. In this case, it is important to understand that although organizations operate in terms of teams and groups, the unit components include individuals. In addition, the performance of the individuals determines the entire output of the organizations (Lamberson 2010). As such, this aspect of self-efficacy plays a fundamental role in the coordination of the organizational teams to achieve their goals as per the time and terms stipulated. Therefore, the combination of social learning systems and concept of self-efficacy becomes one of the most crucial pairs of learning strategies. In this regard, the overall effect is the conception of well-coordinated teams that can collaborate easily and make the necessary outcomes. References Engeström, Y 2001, “Expansive Learning at Work: Toward an activity theoretical reconceptualization”, Journal of Education and Work, vol. 14, no. 1, pp.133-156. Lamberson, P 2010, “Social Learning in Social Networks”, The B.E. Journal of Theoretical Economics, vol. 5, no. 3, pp. 132. Wenger, E 2000, “Communities of Practice and Social Learning Systems”, Organization, vol. 7, no. 2, pp. 225-246. Zimmerman, B 2000, “Self-Efficacy: An Essential Motive To Learn”, Contemporary Educational Psychology, vol. 25, no. 5, pp. 82-91.

Quantitative and Qualitative Models Report

Table of Contents Understanding Quantitative and Qualitative models Similarities between Quantitative and Qualitative models Summary of the differences between the two types of models Reference Lists In the context of educational research, both qualitative and quantitative research designs have different, experimental approaches (Smeyers, 2005). A qualitative research model provides for an unrestrictive structure that supports an extensive, exploratory research using philosophical theories (Creswell, 2011). In order to dig out applicable themes and patterns, this report includes a modified model of heuristic analysis. To understand the rationale of this report, an understanding must be established regarding the similarities and differences between quantitative and qualitative models. Understanding Quantitative and Qualitative models Creswell (2011) described the ending of the 20th century as having two models to educational research: quantitative and qualitative models. Although quantitative research is a more conventional process in research methodology, qualitative research developed as a valid research design. While these two research designs in some aspects matches one another, the designs remain different. Creswell (2011) proposed, “The theoretical roots of qualitative and quantitative research are in the realistic and the positivistic approaches to science, respectively” (p.202). Besides, they argued that qualitative model is the theory-building and theory-ending, behind a researcher’s synthetical perception; while, quantitative research begins with a theory that is tested, hence more supportive of an analytical perception. In the areas of critical practicality, remaining practical and ethical will continue to exist regarding the collecting and analyzing of data concerning the social world because of the difficulty of providing philosophical concerns regarding “data accuracy or the reliability of statements that researcher makes” (Creswell, 2011). In qualitative research, for example, the emphasis is on collecting information concerning the lived experiences of the research participants. The qualitative researcher, according to Creswell, remains an anxiety regarding the authenticity of the participants’ statement and their consequences on the projected epistemic framework derived from the collected information. Similarities between Quantitative and Qualitative models Neuman (2003) described four similarities between qualitative and quantitative research frameworks: Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Both models involve the inferencing of data as the root of examination; Both models involve a public system or process in which the discovery of data are open to other researchers; Both models encourage researchers to recognize multiple process, causes, properties, or mechanisms within the data; and Both models encourage researchers to avoid mistakes in investigation to include fake conclusions and confusing suppositions. (p. 439). Summary of the differences between the two types of models In quantitative model, data collected passes through the method of statistical analysis (Creswell, 2011; Neuman, 2003). Furthermore, Neuman observed that quantitative researchers are not capable of beginning data analysis until all information is gathered and changed into numbers; as a result, quantitative research is more homogeneous than qualitative research designs. Consequently, the measurement of social life in quantitative research, according to Neuman, is in the form of statistics, hypotheses, and variables. Whereas quantitative research builds upon applied mathematics with a standardized set of data analysis techniques, qualitative research is less standardized and more synthetic (Neuman, 2003). The fact that qualitative researchers rarely use statistical analysis does not mean that the qualitative data analysis is exploratory (Neuman, 2003). The process to extract and clarify qualitative data is precise and logical (Creswell, 2011; Neuman, 2003). Information derived from qualitative research studies is in the form of textual descriptions, expressions, or symbols defining people, actions, and events within a shared context (Creswell, 2011; Neuman, 2003). Because of the inductive element linked with qualitative model, the researcher becomes the primary instrument for gathering data while looking for up-and-coming patterns and themes from textual descriptions (Creswell, 2011; Neuman, 2003). Qualitative researchers, according to Neuman, merge empirical data to create new and reasonable theories in order to explain phenomena in social life. Reference Lists Creswell, J. W. (2011). Educational Research: Planning, Conducting, and Evaluating Quantitative and Qualitative Research. New York, NY: Addison Wesley. We will write a custom Report on Quantitative and Qualitative Models specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Neuman, D. J. (2003). Building Type Basics for College and University Facilities. New Jersey, NJ: John Wiley

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