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Population diversification’s statistical practice Is based on focused problem deflection. In sampling, this Includes defining the population from which our sample is drawn. A population can be defined as including all people or items with the characteristic one wishes to understand. Because there is very rarely enough time or money to gather information from everyone or everything in a population, the goal becomes finding a representative sample (or subset) of that population.Sometimes that which defines a population Is obvious. For example, a manufacturer deeds to decide whether a batch of material from production Is of high enough quality to be released to the customer, or should be sentenced for scrap or rework due to poor quality.

In this case, the batch is the population. Although the population of interest often consists of physical objects, sometimes we need to sample over time, space, or some combination of these dimensions.For Instance, an Investigation of supermarket staffing could examine checkout line length at various times, or a study on endangered penguins might aim to understand their usage of various hunting grounds over time. For the time dimension, the focus may e on periods or discrete occasions. In other cases, our ‘population’ may be even less tangible. For example, Joseph Jaeger studied the behavior of roulette wheels at a casino In Monte Carlo, and used this to identify a biased wheel. In this case, the ‘population’ Jaeger wanted to Investigate was the overall behavior of the wheel (I.

. The probability distribution of its results over infinitely many trials), while his ‘sample’ was formed from observed results from that wheel. Similar considerations arise when taking repeated measurements of some physical characteristic such as the electrical conductivity of copper. This situation often arises when we seek knowledge about the cause system of which the observed population Is an outcome. In such cases, sampling theory may treat the observed population as a sample from a larger ‘superannuation’.For example, a researcher might study the success rate of a new ‘quit smoking’ program on a test group of 100 patients, in order to predict the effects of the program if it were made available nationwide. Here the superannuation is “everybody in the country, given access to this treatment” – a group which does not yet exist, since the program Isn’t yet available to all.

Note also that the population from which the sample is drawn may not be the same as the population about which we actually want information.Often there is large but not complete overlap between these two groups due to frame issues etc. (see below). Sometimes they may be entirely separate – for instance, we might study rats in order to get a better understanding of human health, or we might study records from Time spent in making the sampled population and population of concern precise is often well spent, because it raises many issues, ambiguities and questions that would otherwise have been overlooked at this stage.

please answer the 4 questions – use only one page for each answer. – Part 2 – please answer the 3 questions – use up to two pages for each answer. – Do not use anything smaller than Times 12 point font. – Please submit one file for each answer. – use Van

please answer the 4 questions – use only one page for each answer. – Part 2 – please answer the 3 questions – use up to two pages for each answer. – Do not use anything smaller than Times 12 point font. – Please submit one file for each answer. – use Van.

You are a clinician-scientist that has a patient with colon cancer. Identify four possible oncogenes that are both commonly affected in colon cancer and are actionable for treatment with available drugs either directly or indirectly. Identify two appropriate FDA-approved kinase inhibitor drugs for counteracting the gain of function for each of these four oncogenes. Identify which of the most common cancer-inducing amino acid mutations on these four oncogenes you would initially screen for (3 mutations for each oncogene) in your patient to identify which kinase you will target with a drug that you would first prescribe for your patient. (You may find the,, and websites as well as the lecture notes helpful.)


Dr. Ong

Prostate cancer is exquisitely dependent on androgens for growth and survival.

1. Describe the endocrine regulation of androgen levels by the hypothalamic pituitary axis.

2. Describe the androgen/androgen receptor signalling pathway

3. Name two molecular targets for treatment of prostate cancer and how drugs that target these proteins work to block androgen dependent growth of prostate cancer

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