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Stanford University Frankenstein & the Mysteries of Udolpho Literary Analysis

Stanford University Frankenstein & the Mysteries of Udolpho Literary Analysis.… 0}” class=”rs_read_this”>Throughout this writing project, you will plan, draft, and revise a five-paragraph literary analysis essay and then submit it to your instructor. In this essay, you will compare or contrast how authors Mary Shelley and Ann Radcliffe treat the element of fear in their respective works, Frankenstein and The Mysteries of Udolpho. You will use only the novels themselves—Frankenstein and The Mysteries of Udolpho—for evidence in your essay. 0}” class=”rs_read_this”>A literary analysis essay explains and interprets the meaning of a literary text. To analyze a text is to break it down into its smaller parts in order to understand the meaning of the whole. In general, a literary analysis essay may address howdifferent topics or themes in one literary text work together or relate to each othertopics or themes of two or more different literary texts compare or contrast with each othertopics or themes in a literary text relate to a larger context, such as politics, religion, or society Your literary analysis essay for this particular assignment willcompare or contrast how the element of fear is developed in Frankenstein and The Mysteries of Udolphomake a specific, arguable claim about the similarities or differences of how the element of fear is handled in both textsuse evidence from both texts to help develop and support your claim
Stanford University Frankenstein & the Mysteries of Udolpho Literary Analysis

What do you think are the best strategies to prevent fraud in business? Why so? As a matter of fact, employee fraud is believed to be a crucial issue that organizations should deal with. Although the executives of the company want to believe that the workers are loyal and aim to accomplish the objectives of the company and reach not only personal success but also the prosperity of the corporation, some of the employees have personal interests. The Nation on Occupational Fraud and Abuse provided a report that states that almost 5% of losses that a company is facing each year is because of employee fraud (Biegelman, 2013). Prevention approaches and strategies are essential for implementation in order to reduce the index of losses because of fraud. There are several strategies that are directed to the prevention of fraud and should be discussed; among them are the following ones, namely: Know the workers; Create a reporting system; Internal control; Monitor the balance; Hiring of experts; Corporate culture (Biegelman
A hamstring strain remains one of the trickiest injuries to rehab and take care of. Since the strain can potentially be a reoccurring issue if not healed up all the way. The strain varies from a Grade 1 which can take up to three weeks to heal if treated correctly. A grade 2 stain is going to take at least 4 to 8 weeks of proper recovery to have a chance at 100 percent strength. And a grade 3 hamstring strain is going to cause an athlete to miss up to 3 to 4 months due to recovery after surgery. Grade 3 causes a complete tear of the hamstring muscles. This paper will be covering the grade 2 strain, also demonstrating how a patient will be able to recover in the timetable that is provided above, which is up to 4 to 8 weeks of recovery. Involved Structures, Mechanism of Injury – “The hamstring muscle originates at the ischium, which is the portion of the pelvic bone that we sit on, and attaches all the way down at the tibia and fibula. There are two medial hamstring muscles, known as the semitendinosus and semimembranosus. The biceps femoris is located on the lateral side, and is made up of two heads leading to a singular insertion. These large muscle bellies make up the posterior thigh musculature, with the tendons running distally, making up the borders of the space behind the knee with their corresponding tendon location. An overstretch can strain one of these three muscles acutely, with the biceps femoris being the most often strained.”(Proquest 1). The Gracilis is also a muscle in the medial part of the thigh. “The hamstring acts at both the hip and knee joints and is primarily responsible for hip extension and knee flexion.” Knee flexion and hip extension are everything when it comes to running or participating in sports. No brainer as to why it slows athletes down so much. Literally every movement that an athlete does requires hamstring use. When the hamstring is strained, it also leads to imbalances in the lower back and in the quadricep in relation to the hamstring. The hamstring strain is an acute or chronic injury that happens when the muscle has been stretched beyond its normal limit during a muscular action. Whether it be sprinting or running there are many ways that this injury could occur. Even more so when an athlete has failed to warm up properly or when they are tired at the end of workout and exert themselves too hard. How the injury happens acutely is by a violent movement such as hitting top speed or a violent kick. The best way to avoid this from occurring or reoccurring if the athlete has already has the injury is to warm up thoroughly and remain hydrated at all times especially during time of exercise. “The predominant injury mechanism for hamstring strain injuries is high-speed running;”(Proquest 3). When it comes to the chronic side of a hamstring muscle strain, it just occurs from over exertion for an extended period of time. Athletes need to make sure that they are practicing with the correct form in what they do and also foot striking while running. The most ideal way to run is by landing with an equal distribution of your foot. The toe strike or the heel to toe strike are problematic over the long road and can lead to many imbalances down the road when it comes to tendons and muscles throughout the leg. Especially in the knees. The hamstring works eccentrically when the foot is about to hit the ground to plant for another stride, often referred as decelerators. “A lower H : Q ratio suggests a relatively poor capacity for the hamstrings to act as ‘brakes’ at the flexing hip and extending knee joints during the terminal swing phase of running.”(Proquest 2) Immediate Care Injury Evaluation Hamstring injuries should be treated right away directly after it occurs. Further usage after the injury could result in permanent damage. Immediately use R.I.C.E. which is going to be Rest, Ice, Compression, Elevation. The athlete should ice every day and do it for 15 minutes on and 15 minutes off. Repeating this 6-8 times in a day to minimize swelling applying to the injured part of the body. A tool to use when assessing a hamstring injury is to M.A.P.P.S.S. This stands for Mechanism of injury, Acute/Chronic, Pain, Palpation, Sounds, and Sign/Symptoms. First thing to do is find the mechanism of the injury. Find out what the athlete was doing at the time the hamstring was strained. Then ask what the pain felt like? Was the athlete able to walk afterwards or did it hurt so bad they needed crutches. This can help to find the severity of the injury. It could possibly be a few fibers loose or it could be a complete rupture of the hamstring. Next step is to see if it is an acute or chronic injury. Did the athlete warm up thoroughly? Find out if it was when they were super tired at the end of the workout. Was there soreness in the muscle prior to the injuries occurrence? Next you will assess the pain that they are feeling. Which part of the hamstring is the pain coming from? The injury is most common in the biceps femoris muscle on the lateral side of the hamstring. Ask the athlete what the pain is feeling like on a scale from 1-10 as well. When palpating the hamstring it will feel tender to the athlete due to the bruising the strain has caused. H.O.P.S. is the next method of to put to use when assessing an injury. History, observation, palpation, and special tests is what the acronym stands for. First, When assessing history the trainer should ask the athlete about his injury history to see if they pertain or could assist in this current problem that he has with his hamstring. When the trainer is observing, he or she should look for swelling in the injured area to see what move to make next. Also, observing how they walk can be a big indicator how hurt the hamstring is depending on how fast the athlete reported to you after it occurred. Pain will occur when flexing the leg if it is strained. And the athlete will be able to pick up on a weakness from leg to leg. And lastly the special tests will be able to finally diagnose the athlete with the strain. The Slump’s test can be used by the trainer to find out what is going on and severity of the injury. Management Surgical Procedure A hamstring grade 2 does not require surgery in most cases. The only time that surgery would be necessary would be if the athlete ended up further damaging the hamstring due to lack of recovery. Say the athlete gets a grade 2 sprain sits for a week goes out tries to run and it happens again escalating it to a grade 3 then it would be inevitable to get surgery. The whole Hamstring isn’t usable at that point the whole muscle is torn. Phases of Healing The healing process is crucial when it comes to healing a hamstring muscle strain. The healing process consists of three steps, The response phase, the repair phase, and the remodeling phase. In the response phase you are going to want to be able to realize and react on the swelling, inflammation, tenderness, and how the hamstring currently functions at the time of the athlete’s arrival. When it comes to the swelling and inflammation it may not show all the time from the outside. But inside it is obviously inflamed. The hamstring’s function ability is going to be the dead giveaway. The athlete will also notice how tender the muscle is in a grade 2 hamstring strain. R.I.C.E. and NSAID’s are going to be huge in getting the pain under control as well as any potential swelling. Rest is the most key component especially in the first week of recovery. The athlete should avoid all types of physical activity for the first week. Walking is the only type of physical activity that should be permissible pertaining to the first week of recovery. Walking would help regain some of the ROM back. If the athlete is not steady with his ROM after a week then take another week to gain more ROM. No reason to rush especially knowing that the process can take 4 to 8 weeks. The next part of the healing process is the repair phase. In this phase of recovery, the scar tissue begins to form. It is essential that the athlete rolls out his/her hamstring with a foam roller of their choice. Also, the athlete needs to continue with the NSAID’s to keep any remaining pain or swelling down. Gradually will add body weight exercises for two weeks such as squats, lunges, and pushups. After a week of doing this the athlete will then be able to start adding a small amount of weight or resistance to help strengthen the hamstring and also the other muscles around it to prevent any imbalances due to adding strength. Add gentle stretching at this point as well. More exercises that the trainer could add to this regimen would suffice. Getting on the stationary bike would also be huge for recovery. The last part of the recovery process is the remodeling phase. This is the part where the athlete is going to make sure that he is 100 percent recovered before he completes the program. Most of the scar tissue should start to disappear for the most part. No more passive movements in this phase. Time for the athlete to nut up and get it done. Rehabilitation Modalities and Therapeutic Exercise “After the early inflammatory phase of injury has stabilized, a treatment regimen of isometric exercise, cryotherapy, and ultrasound may be of benefit. In later stages of healing, gentle stretching within pain limits, jogging , stationary cycling, and isokinetic exercise at high speeds may be used. It is essential to incorporate closed kinetic chain eccentric exercises such as squats, lunges, and multiplanar movements. After the elimination of soreness, the athlete may begin isotonic knee curls. Full recovery may take from 1 month to a full season.”(5) Using MRIs can be prevalent in diagnosis of an injury to an athlete. Stretching PNF exercises as well as Strengthening PNF exercises for the hamstring will be used. “The active slump test assesses pain-sensitive neuromeningeal structures that have been suggested as a potential source of pain in the posterior thigh in hamstring injuries.”(Proquest 4). Works Cited Gallucci, J. (2014). Soccer injury prevention and treatment : a guide to optimal performance for players, parents, and coaches. Retrieved from Opar DA, Williams MD, Shield AJ. Hamstring strain injuries. Sports Medicine. 2012;42(3):209-226. doi: Duhig S, Shield AJ, Opar D, Gabbett TJ, Ferguson C, Williams M. Effect of high-speed running on hamstring strain injury risk. Br J Sports Med. 2016;50(24):1536. doi: Warren P, Gabbe BJ, Schneider-Kolsky M, Bennell KL. Clinical predictors of time to return to competition and of recurrence following hamstring strain in elite australian footballers. Br J Sports Med. 2010;44(6):415. doi: Principles of Athletic Training. New York: New York:McGraw-Hil; 2014

Managing the Stuff in my Closets using STLs and BSTs

Managing the Stuff in my Closets using STLs and BSTs.

write a program that implements and manages several user defined BSTs.Each BST will represent a container/location and the inventory of items it stores. This means that yourBSTs should store the name of the container/location and a collection of items; each item will have aname and how many of them are in the container. You should use the name of each item as your keyfor creating the BST; should a user attempt to add more of the same item, just update the item countthrough addition. You can use the list or vector STL to manage your collection of BSTs.
Managing the Stuff in my Closets using STLs and BSTs

Betham and Kant Essay

order essay cheap Extreme Measure is a thriller film that was released in 1996 and is predominantly based on a name of the same name authored by Michael Palmer published in the wake of 1991. The novel explores the dynamics of ethics and the manner as individuals we are willing to sacrifice or go an extra mile in order to change the society. Examining the concepts prompted in Kant’s deontological ethics, the film offers an insight into what Kant assumes to be morally acceptable aspects. These aspects form what we see in an individual as the ethical agents which supports ones rational actions individually. This illustrates that individual morals are ascribed in large by individual rationalism. This is testified in the film by Dr. Guy Luthan who reflects the Kants concept of motive as a key ingredient of individual ethical directions. Examining the film from the lens of Bethams argument, we find that the Dr. Lawrence Myrick illuminates what Betham viewed as the utmost good for all through his utilitarianism assumption. This concept as is reflected in the film is against the ethical aspects of sacrifice. This is illustrated by Dr.Myrick attitudes which destroyed a considerable ratio of lives without prior consideration. Though, the doctor had good intention but his motives were extremely wrong. Exploring the dynamics of utilitarianism it would be instrumental to argue that in regard to the film it lacks the autonomous virtue of personal morality and ethical values. Kant argues that an action can only be defined as good if done in good will or from the scope of pure duty. This argument is well demonstrated in the film in that universal law is depicted as an act of being ethical without treating others as an end to specific ills. It is thus essential to understand that moral issues are paramount in determining an end. More so, according to Kant’s assumption, morality is a universal dynamic that is autonomous with an individual. This illustrates that as an individual we have the power to determine if to act in good will or not. The complexity of this assumption is demonstrated by contrasting interests of both doctors. Examining the approaches of Dr.Myrick it can be assumed that he employed the aspects of classic utilitarianism. According to Bentham this asserts that we should always do whatever sets the balance of amusement over pain. And this thus shows that Dr. Myrick assumes moral aspects to be just unstable rules. Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Hence, playing the role of the almighty thinking the weak are essentially not needed in the greater society. Examining the theory of utilitarianism we find that the film offers a candid insight into effect it has on morals. In broader context Dr.Myrick can be said to be a symbolic representation of this assumption ethically. Though, this theory is seen to be effective however, on moral context Bentham seems to suggest that ethical issues should not exceed the moral good of the society. The ethical imperative expressed in Kant’s theory reflects the ethical approach exposed in the films plotline. This can be attributed to the fact that the film seems to suggest that we ought as individuals to treat other humans as an end not a means to end an end. Also, Kants aspects as played out in the film tend to illustrate that human ought to have a positive approach towards each other. Hence, this assumption conflicts with Bentham understanding of moral obligations or pure duty in regard to the willful doing of good. Exploring the dynamics presented by the two men in regard to this film it is imperative that you understand the innate reflection of their thoughts on ethics. Using the philosophical considerations of Bentham Utilitarianism assumption, the film offers moral and ethical exposure concerning Dr.Myrick. The theory provides the candid effects of moral obligations on individual and the misguided desires to do well. This is illustrated by the manner the doctor sees and perceives his actions without any objectivity. Hence, the doctor assumes reason or ethical aspects are not the final authority in regard to his actions. On the other hand we find Kants theory which is based on the moral dynamics contrasts with Benthams hypothesis. This well illustrated in the manner the theory is based on the ability of doing what creates the greatest joy. Based on that theory we find Dr. Luthans approaches to human needs to be more plausible. Though in the film we find him blanketed by two core dilemmas, that is deciding who is to go the operating room and his discovery of primitive ventures of his fellow surgeon, Dr.Myrick. Examining the manner he takes the issues of Rosenstand provides a profound understanding of the value of ethics. Therefore, in such a situation as concerns the film Kant’s theory is more engaging in that it evaluates individual willingness to provide happiness without prejudice or malice. The films present the two men conflicting moral aspects. Hence, to understand the innate difference it would be therefore essential to understand the diverse theories regarding universal aspects of virtue and morality. We will write a custom Essay on Betham and Kant specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In conclusion both Kant and Bentham offer a candid insight into the value individual’s places in ethical elements in life. Looking at the manner the film was packaged it provides a real picture of Kants deontological ethics and Bentham utilitarianism concepts in regard to ethics. Note that though Dr.Myrick intention was to cure the world his goal was in essence commendable, but his methods and approaches went against the ethical standards. That is why in the film we see Kant’s theory being given a broader angle in that it offers a greater sense in what we do as individuals. The scope of ethics plays a central role in our lives. As individuals we have the duty to decide whether to act for the few as is with Benthams Utilitarianism theory, or act in accordance with the Kants assumption which calls for doing the utmost good for all. Looking at the manner the film has been developed and presented the two ethical theories explored reflects our innate personalities and perceptions. The film touches on issues of ethical values in our society today. In regard to what transpire in the film utilitarianism can be defined as a moral approach is tied to making the majorities happy. Hence, Dr.Myrick is depicted as a utilitarian due to the manner he conducts his business and approach to fellow human beings. His attitudes can be linked to Consequentialism which asserts we ought to do whatsoever maximizes excellent outcomes. It does not in itself care what manner of activities we do.

Leeds Beckett University Trends for Electric Power Generation Industry Essay

Leeds Beckett University Trends for Electric Power Generation Industry Essay.

DescriptionTrends impacting the industry need to be identified and analyzed in terms of how each trend is impacting the industry. Your analysis of how the current trend is impacting the industry is a very important and must be evidence-based, since you are writing an analytical section, not an opinion piece. Do not just list or describes trends as you are expected to include analysis in terms of how each trend has or is or will impact the industry. Just listing trends without analyzing is insufficient.THE INDUSTRY IS the electric power generation industry. Please complete the three-page analysis.1. Social TrendsDescribe any pertinent current trends in the social climate such as: lifestyle trends; demographics; consumer attitudes and opinions; media views; legal outcomes affecting social factors; brand significance, company image attitudes, consumer buying patterns; impact of and identification of role models or idealized organizations, major events and influences; buying access and trends; ethnic/religious influences; advertising and publicity impacts; and ethical issues. Note you do not have to include everything on this list – only identify and analyze the trends pertinent to your industry.2. Technological TrendsDescribe any pertinent current trends in the social climate such as: competing technology development; available research funding; associated/dependent technologies; replacement technology/solutions; maturity of technology; manufacturing maturity and capacity; information and communications; consumer buying mechanisms/technology; technology legislation; innovation potential; technology access, licensing, patents; intellectual property issues; global communications. Note you do not have to include everything on this list – only identify and analyze the trends pertinent to your industry.1-2 page
Leeds Beckett University Trends for Electric Power Generation Industry Essay

Factor Influencing Job Involvement

This chapter shows the theoretical bases for this research which supported by the relevant literature review. The research was conducted based on the topic “Factor Influencing Job Involvement in University Malaysia Perlis (UniMAP)”. The objective of this literature review is to identify factors that caused to the job involvement in the workplace. This chapter have also reviewed the relevant research literature on the job involvement which considering the engagement of workers towards their jobs. By doing this research we can identify what are the working conditions that make the workers to be committed with their jobs. The factors that relevant for the job involvement are motivation, organizational citizenship behavior and job satisfaction. 2.1 Job involvement Job involvement has been defined in a variety ways across studies and referred as job situation of “central life interest”, the importance of individuals work for his or her total self -image, the degree to which an individual participates in his or her self-concept or self-esteem which stated by Ooi Keng Boon (2007). In the other hand, Paul F. Rotenberry (2007), has defined that one whose job is an integral part of his or her self-definition which highly job involved employees will put the forth substantial effort towards the achievement of an organizational objective and less likely to turnover. From the job involvement we can identified the factors that make the employee highly engaged and involved in their work performance. Study has shown by Hackman and Lawler (1971) theorized that job involvement refer as a salient factor in shaping up the motivation of an individual employee yet the study conducted on the effects of job involvement among criminal justice employees has been limited to the police force that found no statistically significant between job involvement and also job satisfaction which stated by Bergen (1992). According to Blau (1986) job involvement has been clearly refer to absenteeism of the employees of an organization and intent to leave. A study has shown by Frone and Rice (1987) defined job involvement that cause employee or an individual to spend more time which incur difficulties in filing the expectation of other roles in an organization. Another research has shown by Pfeffer (1994) stated the job involvement refer as an essential of an organizational objective claim it to primary source of an organizational commitment, motivation and job satisfaction that influence employee’s job performance that being involved on enhancing motivational processes which turn individual job performance such as absenteeism and also turnover. Moreover, researcher Diefendorff (2002) studying employed undergraduates in the USA has examined the relationship between job involvement and organizational citizenship behavior corroborated the validity of an employee’s self-rated job involvement which refer to the main key term of organizational citizenship behavior such as altruism, civic virtue and conscientiousness on the effect of work centrality, personality, employee status such as full time versus part time and gender. According to researcher Posthuma and Campion (2005) revealed that job involvement has the impact on the employee performance which refer on measuring the job performance of current study also examined the both in-role job performance and extra-role organizational citizenship behavior. Researcher Diefendorff (2002) had examined employees reported their full-time or part-time work status that has providing insufficient variability of the data for the variables. Another researcher Newstrom and Davis (1994) stated that employee engross themselves regarding their job but involves in the extent of employee as being a central part of their lives, for example the female managers who has career and family oriented at disadvantage because have the family demand which interfering with the women’s career, lead them to refuse overtime, rearrange their working hours on extra work assignment also risking the possibility of less involving than the male counterparts. Another researcher Cromie (1981) argued the employees which job involved more likely to believe in their work ethic also exhibit the growth needs which enhancing the individual within an organizational. For example, the concept of job involvement has searched extensively by an organizational research that been explored to the work experiences and job attitudes of Information System personnel, which have high need for achievement and growth according to Baroudi (1985). Despite that a researcher Blau and Boal (1989) has defined job involvement into four different groups by high job involvement-high organizational commitment, high job involvement-low organizational commitment, low job involvement-high organizational commitment and low job involvement-low organizational commitment. For example, researcher Blau and Boal (1989) has identified that nurses with the higher level of job involvement has significant unexcused absences than the nurses with lower level of job involvement. In addition according to Greenhaus (1989) suggested that employees with the high level with their jobs and concerned about achieving recognition in their career that could be able increase the level of effort and energy to their work role. For instance research studies over the past two decades which explained in term of construct of job involvement have approached it from the different perspectives identified by Sekaran (1989) and also viewed as a n individual of difference variable which believed to occur of certain needs, values or personal characteristic to become more or less involved in their jobs. For example, another researcher Brown’s (1996) has identified the present study of job involvement which called as meta-analysis estimated the population correlation between overall performance maybe instead of exerting a direct influence more likely to affect performance indirectly through other variables like effort. 2.2 Motivation Motivation refers to the process that causes people to act as they do. A study shows that motivation occurs “when a need is aroused and the person wishes to satisfy it”, therefore motivation is the core to the success of the organization is essential when the higher employee’s levels of motivation, the more productive outcome they can give to the organization. According to DeCenzo and Robbins (1996), motivation is the willingness or desire to do something, conditioned by the activity or action’s ability to satisfy some need. However, Robbins and Coulter (1996) have described the motivation as the willing where else another researcher, C.Vignali (1997) has stated that an employee to exert or action in order to achieve the organizational goals, conditioned by the action’s ability to satisfy employee’s individual needs. Motivation is an important factor for the achievement of employee whereby increases the employee’s job involvement. It also keeps the employees to be more productive and improve their job performance at workplace. Van Niekerk (1987) has defined that motivation as the creation of work circumstances that influence employees to perform certain task of their own free will, in order to reach the goals of the organization and satisfy their own needs. Therefore, it is very important for employer to motivate their employee in order to increase the organization productivity as well as the profit. Research has shown that the more employee become motivated the more involvement towards their jobs at workplace. However, Du Toit (1990) added that motivation has influenced by individual characteristics such as people’s own interests, value and needs, work characteristics such as task variety and responsibility and organizational characteristics such as its policies, procedures and customs. Despite that Pinder (1998) have described that motivation as the set of internal and external forces which initiate the work-related behavior and determine its form, intensity and also duration. Researcher study Cunningham (2002) shown that firefighters have one of the most dedicated and motivated professions in the world. In addition, a firefighter is also seen as one of the most ethical and honorable positions a person who able to hold because they are the most trustworthy in the consensus of the public which stated by Cunningham (2002), example to go into a burning buildings and rescue complete strangers, firefighter have to be a very motivated group of people with a sense of organization and teamwork which described by Casey (2000). Understanding the motivation is important at workplace in order increase the productivity and job involvement of the workers. Sandra Lawrence (2009) has defined that motivation can be split into explicit and implicit motive system, explicit motives means person who consciously attributes to his or her behavior and influence decisions, judgments and attributions whereby the implicit motives carry out the affective reactions and implicit behavioral dispositions. It is clearly stated in the research that motivation of a workers carry the behavioral of them towards their job involvement, also determine their level of motivation in the workplace. In some cases managers play an important role of leadership to boost their worker’s motivation towards their performance and task that given to them. Motivation of a worker could provide better self enhancement towards their career. According to Bartol and Martin (1998) classified motivation theory that owned by Abraham Maslow which is Maslow (1970) known as the hierarchical needs include of five basic level of needs of human being in their daily life. However, researcher Alderfer (1972) have propose an alternative to Maslow theory which known as the ERG theory that has three level such as existence, relatedness and growth. For example, physiological factors known as the existence needs such as food, shelter, clothes, good pay, fringe benefits and good working conditions. Relatedness needs known as the relationship such as families, friends, and work group. Last but not least self-actualization and self-esteem refer as the growth needs. For example a study of motivation shows that the impact on the academic staff motivation in a higher education which refer to the hygiene factor of Herzberg mentioned by Rowley (1996). From the study the author explained that the frustration could develop from the dissatisfaction which able to prevent staff from accomplish their jobs such as poor timetable organization, inadequate maintenance of educational equipment or else time management. In addition, Hertzberg theory has conducted a study on the motivation factors which included of the work itself, advancement, recognition and responsibility directly related to the employee job and individual itself. Taylor’s Scientific Management (1911) has proposed a science theory could be able develop for each element of an employee’s task that scientifically selected and trained, where else the managers should sincerely ensure the employee that being done in accordance with the principles of the science, and also there should be an equal division of their task and responsibility between the organization’s management. The author has argued that motivation need to bring human skills whereby minimizing their hope of mistakes and careless that they could make. According to Douglas McGregor (1960) has described in his Theory X and Theory Y justify the motivation theory. The author explained that much traditional management used the Theory X such as employee hate work who driven with the punishment to get the employees to accomplish towards their organizational objective, they tend to more like security, lack ambition, and avoid responsibility whereby Theory Y defined that people are more self-directed, accept responsibility and also they don’t have to be force to done their job. Therefore, Herzberg motivation theory has been identifying the intrinsic and extrinsic motivation. A study had been carried by International Teacher 2000 which the result indicated more motivated by intrinsic motivators than by the extrinsic motivators, this study has been reveal the outcome of achievement of teachers. For example, the teacher has carried their responsibility on guiding their students based on improving their performance. Hence, a researcher Dinham and Scott (1998) has identify that the work salary has become the important needs of every employee which could lead them to a very high or low level motivation in many academic field. For example, a supported research from Darmody and Smyth (2010) appeal that this factor lead of deterioration of some staff in academic profession. 2.3 Organizational citizenship behavior According to Organ (1988) has defined the term of organizational citizenship behavior as an individual behavior that is discretionary which is not directly that recognized by the formal reward system and also promotes effective functioning of the organization. Organizational citizenship behavior refers to employees such as supportive actions to assist other employee and go beyond the minimum requirement of their task. Researcher MacKensie (1993) identified that civic virtue as constructive involvement of the organization of minimum required by the individual’s immediate job, sportsmanship refer as the tolerant less than without excessive complaining, altruism defined as helping people with organizationally relevant task, conscientiousness which means going beyond the minimum role requirement expected by the organization, courtesy refer of preventing occurrence of work-related problem, cheerleading refer to encouraging others and peacemaking resolving disagreement and providing a stabilizing force. Another study has focus on the citizenship tendency inclined to maintain social relationship which could reduce the voice of employees and also give suggestion in order to improve existing methods. The task has highlight the importance of a change-oriented organizational citizenship behavior which mean improving the effectiveness of the social network which form to maintain the current relationship in the public sector among the employees according to Choi (2007). Moreover, organizational citizenship behavior has been related construct from the organizational commitment that developed by organizational psychologist which described by Cohen (2000), which emphasize to particular class of employee behavior and attitude based for a practically significant workplace based of employee job attitudes. In addition, organizational citizenship behavior has construct particular characteristic such as behavior that beyond formal prescribed by the person’s organizational role, discretionary behavior part of the employees which are not directly or explicitly reward the system and it is important for an effective and successful functioning for the public sector organizational stated by Netemeyer (1997). Hence, organizational citizenship behavior exist of factors such as positive and negative “extra-role” behavior which influence the employee’s productivity believed to be reflected in performance evaluations explained by MacKenzle (1991). The variable of job satisfaction has related to organizational citizenship behavior which affective response of various job related whereby explain the employee’s mood engaged with their organizational citizenship behavior according researcher Schnake (1991). Organizational citizenship behavior is most important variable of explaining the individual as a social theory with greater frequency which means the organizations and their representatives make a better allocation decision making towards their job performance described by Blau (1964). For example, teachers are professional staff in a public sector that works normatively by improving the student performance in their studies, from here the teachers have to be able face with their student discipline and aware with the student needs according to researcher Blasé (1993). From the example we can conclude that teacher exhibit the higher level of organizational citizenship behavior whenever they feel control of autonomy on their task whereby they experience the meaningfulness of their responsibility which described by Wilson and Coolican (1996). Despite that Organ (1988), has stated that organizational citizenship behavior manage the employee of a work unit whereby increase the work performance outcome, reduce the organization need in order to scarce the resources to simple functions and also improve the ability of employees to perform their jobs by for more efficient planning, scheduling and problem solving. Therefore, Organ and Konovsky (1989) has mentioned a study that organizational citizenship behavior has become an important element of a cognitive appraisal of an employee work performance and also related to their work environment based on the outcome such as positive and negative behavior during perform their task in an organization. For example, employee that has positive behavior towards their organization, then they tend to be more spiritual on handling their work. In the view of Smith (1983) has stated that organizational citizenship behavior has two main facets such as organizational altruistic, it refer to specify person and also organizational citizenship behavior compliance more of “good soldier” or “good citizen” of doing the “right and proper”. For example, employee in working environment helps to attach them with the interrelated work relationship between other employee from different department and establish an altruistic motive with an organization share their skill, knowledge, capability, and experiences together with passion which mentioned by (Bolino, 2002). According to Allen and Rush (1988) has stated that research shown that manager’s decision influence organizational citizenship behavior of an employee regarding their performance contributes to an organization by providing their employee effective training, promotion and reward to perform their task. For example, when the managers examine their employees based on the work performance, therefore the manager will included this organizational citizenship behavior factor into their assessment (Podsakoff, 2000). In fact, researcher Bolino and Turnley (2003) mentioned that managers should energize their employee through increase the level of organizational citizenship behavior by giving them reward such as compensation and employee recognition programs. 2.4 Job satisfaction Job satisfaction is an important asset to the business owners and top managers because the low levels of job satisfaction are related to increased absenteeism and higher job turnover levels towards their job involvement at workplace by Annabel Droussiotis (2007). However, Hart (1999) concluded that job satisfaction contributes to overall life satisfaction and according to Edward Lawler (1973) measured job satisfaction as quality of life in an organization which important for the managers to understand the components of work life and ensure that the workplace provides the employee needs. Moreover, job satisfaction is an affective reaction to one’s job which resulting from the incumbent’s comparison of actual outcomes with those desired “expected, deserved and so on” stated by researcher Lewis J.W. Lim (2012). According to Sempane, Rieger

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