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Standard and Non-Standard Language Essay

Standard and Non-Standard Language Essay. For most people, the term discrimination is associated with matters of race, gender, sexuality, and other issues that have traditionally been proven contentious. However, there is another class of discrimination commonly referred to as linguistic discrimination. John Baugh and Margret Pusher carried out a study on the topic, and they discovered that people are often discriminated based on their accents more when it comes to making calls to certain companies. They discovered that some companies, for example, would screen their calls if they deduced that a caller was nonwhite from his/her accent were more likely not to return their call (Baugh 156). Peter Trudgill one of Britain’s foremost citizens discusses the fact that his father was often forced to conceal his accent as he spoke as he had come to realize some doors would remain closed to him. I can relate to that in an indirect way, one of my closest friends is part Arabic and Part White, but he spent most of his early years in the UAE. Even though his Arabic roots are barely discernible, he complains that he gets discriminated more than full Chinese who were brought up in the US. The heavy Chinese accent he claims has caused him to be overlooked at service stations, hospitals and he has twice in the airport been taken through repeat “random” security checks. He tells me that when talking on the phone, he finds that he is more easily dismissed than most of his friends. He once went for an interview for a part-time job in a call center but was rejected. Later, a friend working in the same company told him the panel feared his accent would make the client feel like they were not being served by a very competent person. Unlike Trudgill’s father, my friend’s accent is very pronounced and trying to hide, it only makes it more apparent. However, he is a stoic and optimistic individual, and fortunately, not everyone judges him based on it. It is ironic that in non-American English speaking countries, people talking “American” tend to be discriminated and challenged to speak “English” English. In most cases, the British English is assumed to be standard with the rest of the variations, including even American English, seen as non-standard. From a linguist perspective, there is technically no language that is better than another. Standard language often carries overt prestige while non-standard can be a source of discrimination or even embarrassment. Ultimately, there are people that feel being born in a linguistically “correct” environment since that is the only determining factor in one’s brand of English is a mark of superiority and that they can look down on others. While there is nothing wrong with being proud of how one speaks, there is no linguistic or even logical ground to discriminate against someone because of the way they construct sentences or pronounce words. In most cases, they have had no more control over their linguistic growth than they have had their skin color, height, or even the family and place they were born. While linguistic discrimination may appear mild or less serious than the traditional sorts of discrimination may, in reality, it is just as unfair and uncalled for as racial, religious and any other kind of discrimination that exists. Works Cited Baugh, John. “Linguistic profiling.” Black linguistics: Language, society, and politics in Africa and the Americas 23.2 (2003): 155-168. Print. Standard and Non-Standard Language Essay
Bowie State University Two Sample Hypothesis Testing Questions.

Instructions: Review the data file and answer the questions. Your answers should be submitted in the form of a Word document. The Word document should include any charts, tables, or graphs you create. You are also required to submit an Excel file, or copy of hand calculations to support your answers. Question 1A real estate agent has collected a random sample of 75 houses that were recently sold in a suburban community. She is particularly interested in comparing the appraised value and recent selling price of the houses in this particular market. The data are provided in the file Real_Estate.xlsx.Calculate summary statistics for the data. Copy and paste the results.What test is more appropriate (a two-sample test or a paired test) to assess whether there is evidence of a mean difference in the appraised values and selling prices? Explain your reasoning.Using this sample data, test whether there is a statistically significant mean difference between the appraised values and selling prices of the houses sold in this suburban community.Set up the appropriate null and alternative hypothesis for this situation. Specify whether this is a one-tailed test or a two-tailed test and explain your reasoning.Use StatTools to conduct the test and compute the p-value for your test statistic. For which level of significance is it appropriate to conclude that no difference exists between these two values? Copy and paste the output generated by StatTools.Communicate the results of the test in plain English within the context of the problem.Question 2A bank has the business objective of improving the process for servicing customers during the noon-to-1PM lunch period. To do so, the waiting time (defined as the number of minutes that elapses from when the customer enters the line until he or she reaches the teller window) needs to be shortened to increase customer satisfaction. A random sample of customers at two different branches of the bank is selected and the waiting times are collected and stored in the file BankTimes.xlsx. Is there evidence that the mean waiting time in Branch 1 is less than in Branch 2?Specify the null hypothesis and the alternative hypothesis. State whether you are using a one- or two-tailed test and explain your reasoning.Determine the appropriate hypothesis test to this problem. Justify your answer.Conduct calculations “by hand” to compute the critical value and p-value of the test. Determine your decision using two methods, the rejection region and the p-value approach.Use StatTools to conduct the hypothesis test. Copy and paste the command and output generated by StatTools.Communicate the results of the test in “plain English” including the meaning of the p-value.Question 3How often does work intrude during off hours? A survey of 1,000 office workers indicated that 53% of males and 41% of females had office intrusion while on vacation. Assume that the survey consisted of 500 males and 500 females. At the 0.05 level of significance, is there evidence of a difference in the proportion of males and females who experience office intrusions while on vacation?Specify the null hypothesis and the alternative hypothesis. State whether you are using a one- or two-tailed test and explain your reasoning.Determine the appropriate hypothesis test to this problem. Justify your answerConduct calculations “by hand” to compute the critical value and p-value of the test. Determine your decision using two methods, the rejection region and the p-value approach.Use StatTools to conduct the hypothesis test. Copy and paste the command and output generated by StatTools.Communicate the results of the test in “plain English” including the meaning of the p-value.
Bowie State University Two Sample Hypothesis Testing Questions

White-Collar Crime and Bribery versus Extortion, homework help.

Theft Crimes” Please respond to the following:From the e-Activity, determine the key elements of credit fraud identification. Next, discuss the fundamental ways in which to detect credit fraud, and analyze the main reasons why it is difficult to prove such a fraud. Justify your response. Argue for or against this statement: Merchants and their employees should subtly screen their customers by asking for two (2) forms of identification in order to prevent “”White-Collar Crime and Bribery versus Extortion” Please respond to the following:Discuss the key elements of identifying white-collar crimes. Next, determine at least two (2) federal criminal statutes that government agencies commonly use to convict white-collar criminals, and specify the main reasons why government agencies commonly use the statutes in question. Justify your response.Define the key difference between the crime of bribery and the crime of extortion, based on the federal bribery and extortion statutes. Next, specify the necessity of defining the difference that you have defined. Justify your response.Gang Demographics”There is no uniform nationwide timeline of street gang emergence in the United States. As discussed in Chapter 1, each of the four (4) major geographic regions saw uneven development of gangs in the history of this country. Serious gangs first emerged on the East Coast in the 1820’s followed by the Midwest (Chicago) and West (Los Angeles) regions a century later, and in the South after another half century. In the more recent era, gang activity in America appears to exhibit a more uniform pattern. The National Gang Center (NGC) has tracked U.S. gang activity since its first emergence on American soil.After reading Chapter 7, suggest three (3) reasons why the presence of youth gang activity varies across cities of different sizes. Next, propose three (3) ways we can reduce gang activity in cities that are drastically affected. Which of your proposed methods do you believe would be most effective? Justify your response.Using your textbook, Internet, and Stayer databases state three (3) features of cities that best explains the rise in youth gang trends. Next, hypothesize two (2) reasons why these factors matter then evaluate the significance of your two (2) selected factors on youth gang activity.”Gang Activity in Urban Areas”During this week’s reading we examined the gang presence in larger cities. Using your textbook and this week’s reading, compare and contrast three (3) reasons why some gang problems become increasingly more serious in some cities while in others they do not. Next based on where you currently live, research the nearest large city near you and its various gang problems then provide a 200 to 500 word response describing how your city compares and contrasts to one (1) other city of similar demographics.Read the case study titled, “Drugs, Guns, and Disadvantaged Youths: Co-Occurring Behavior and the Code of the Street” found here. Based on this case study, name three (3) distinctive features of gangs within cities then propose two (2) features you believe are most relevant when depicting gangs in cities. Justify your response.
White-Collar Crime and Bribery versus Extortion, homework help

Kantian Ethics and Utilitarianism. I’m studying and need help with a Philosophy question to help me learn.

Former Transcanada engineer Evan Vokes filed a formal complaint against his employer with the Canadian government alleging noncompliance. [For a quick overview of the case, see this interview with Vokes on FoxBusiness: http://video.foxbusiness.com/v/2477701059001 and Peterson’s Ethics for Engineers textbook (pp. 105–06).]
In this paper, briefly describe what Vokes claimed happened and the company’s response, using at least two reliable sources; identify the relevant moral features of his act of whistleblowing, and assess the morality of this act (i) according to Kantian duty ethics and (ii) according to rule utilitarianism.
Details of the paper are in the attached PDF.
Kantian Ethics and Utilitarianism

Business 105

Business 105.

Assignment Instructions: Routine InquiryAssignment Guidelines: Routine InquiryReadings:Lesikar’s Chapter 7, pages 143 – 155Sample Routine Inquiries, pages 148 – 149Sample Memorandum format, pages 125 – 1261Instructions:You have a few topic options for this assignment, but please understand that you must choose one of the topics listed here. If you do not choose one of the listed topic options, the assignment will need to be rewritten and a grading delay will occur.No matter which topic you choose, you will write a Routine Inquiry designed to glean information that you need via relevant, specific questions. You should include a full Memorandum heading as though you were sending the document to your chosen professional. This business professional can be a family friend, acquaintance, a person you work(ed) with, someone from whom you need information for work purposes, or simply someone you admire in the professional world.To obtain the information you need, you will create a Routine Inquiry that includes a set of questions you hope to have answered. You should format your Routine Inquiry in business Memorandum format (see example below as well as pages 125 – 126 of your textbook).Your inquiry should include an introduction of yourself and why you are writing the inquiry. You’ll also need at least 4-5 good questions that will help you determine what your next steps would be. These questions will, of course, vary depending on which topic you select. With this in mind, please use the guidelines underneath each topic choice below to inform your writing choices. Audience and purpose are key elements of this assignment. Assignment Notes:Create this Routine Inquiry in Memorandum format as a Word document.Your submission should be 1 or 2 pages. Remember, the focus is on being clear with your needs and questions rather than filling space to meet a specified assignment length.You will upload your finished document to the appropriate upload area as a .doc or .docx file.The topic options are described below. Choose one of the following topics:Option #1: Online Meeting Software You are a manager for a local restaurant chain with five locations within the city. Each month, the management team has a luncheon meeting in which they discuss any issues that have arisen, the financial health of the business, progress on current initiatives, any ideas for creating new business, and various other topics. You think these meetings are a great idea, but you wonder if they are really worth the time and expense involved. Having recently attended a meeting of the Restaurant Managers Association (RMA), you learned that many of your peers are conducting this business meetings online. one online meeting technology you kept hearing about was ____________ (WebEx, GoToMeeting, or some other relevant online meeting provider – you choose the specific product). You decide to research the product’s website, view the demo, and study the fact sheet about the product. You determine that this product might be a great alternative to holding these monthly meetings on-site. To gather more facts before approaching your supervisors, you decide to consult a person2 you met at the RMA meeting. This person seemed to know a lot about online conferencing and the particular product you’re interested in. Think very carefully about what you’d like to learn; for instance, you would not want to ask any questions that can be readily found on the product’s website. Your target reader is a business professional who has no personal interest in the topic, so plan your document accordingly and create a Routine Inquiry that includes good questions for this topic.Option #2: Venue for Company Retreat The CEO of the small company where you work wants to schedule a relax-and-recharge retreat for company employees. You have been given the task of finding a suitable venue for this retreat. Your company is located just outside of Washington, D.C., and the CEO wants to hold the retreat in the Shenandoah Valley are of Virginia, which is about 90 miles from the city. The CEO specified that the retreat should be more like a getaway than a business meeting, so a cabin is preferred over a hotel. The retreat is for the 20 company employees only; families are not invited. After some research, you believe you have found the ideal place: a large, isolated cabin overlooking the valley. You learn about the property from the website. Here are the specs listed on the website: The cabin will sleep 20 and is equipped with a large kitchen, a deck with 20 chairs, a large-screen TV, and a game room. The cost is $50 per person per day, except on weekends and holidays, when the rate is increased. But you need to know more. You have tried calling and emailing the venue with no luck. You therefore decide to send a Routine Inquiry to the venue’s owner3in an attempt to get the information you need, Evaluate the information provided above and determine what other factors you would need to know before booking your company’s retreat at this venue.Option #3: Career Exploration As a part of your career exploration, you recently discovered that a mentoring organization exists that provides advice to people who are considering career paths. This organization is called Mentors, Inc. You have been considering a particular career, and you want more information about it from an experienced professional. Thus, you have decided to interview a business professional from Mentor’s, Inc., to learn more. Write a Routine Inquiry in which you ask your questions. Find out the main elements you want to know about this field of employment in a way that shows consideration for the reader and demonstrates your won serious interest in the type of job that the mentor does.4 If you were to contact a career mentor, think about the types of questions you might ask: specifics about the field, advice for how to enter the field, skills needed to success, etc., are all things you might include in your inquiry.Sample FormatPlease see the following document in addition to the information in your textbook for an idea of how you should format this assignment._____________________________________________________________________________1 You will lose points if your Memorandum format is not correct.2 You will need to make up a name for this person.3 Make up a name for this person.4 Please make up a name for this person.
Business 105

Sony Corporation Innovation All The Way Business Essay

essay writer free Sony Corporation Innovation All The Way Business Essay. The report is an evaluation of the organization structure implemented by Sir Howard Stringer in October 2005. The transition of Sony’s organization structure from Transnational structural to multidivisional structure has been analyzed in detail. Goold and Campbell’s five tests have been conducted to determine the appropriateness of Sir Howard Stringer’s structural choice given his desire to make Sony a more innovative and flexible organization. The risks and benefits of the structural choice has also been assessed. The report displays the cultural web of Sony before and after Sir Howard’s arrival. It was derived that the Reconstruction type of strategic change had been used to bring about the transformation in the organization’s culture. Consequently, Sir Howard adopted the “Education and Communication” and the “Collaboration/Participation” styles of strategic change implementation. In conclusion, it can be seen that the stock share value has increased during 2005-2007 which means that Howard Stringer was doing a good job at implementing his change. Acknowledgement We thank Heriot-Watt for giving us the opportunity to enhance our learning in Strategic Project Management by means of this group assignment. We would like to give a hearty thanks to our Professors at Heriot Watt, namely Dr. M. A. Salama and Dr. Michael Clarke for their time and guidance for completing this assignment. We would like to thank the university librarian Ramakant for his cooperation in providing us the appropriate books and journals for reference. We would also like to thank our families and friends for their support through out the completion of this assignment. We could not have done this without them. — PM Stars Incorporated Introduction As a part of this report let us start by introducing Sony Corporation. SONY Sony is one of the leading manufacturers of electronics, video, communications, video game consoles, and information technology products for the consumer and professional markets. Sony was founded on 7th May 1946. The representative corporate executive officers at Sony as of today as Howard Stringer(Chairman, CEO and President), Ryoji Chubachi (Vice Chairman) and Nobuyuki Oneda (Executive Deputy President and CFO). (Sony Global (2009) has provided the above information). Sony Corporation (commonly referred to as Sony) is a multinational conglomerate corporation headquartered in Minato, Tokyo, Japan, and one of the world’s largest media conglomerates with revenue exceeding ¥ 7.730.0 trillion, or $78.88 billion U.S. (FY2008). Its name is derived from sonus, the Latin word for sound. Sony Corporation is the electronics business unit and the parent company of the Sony Group, which is engaged in business through its five operating segments-electronics, games, entertainment (motion pictures and music), financial services and other. Sony’s principal business operations include Sony Corporation (Sony Electronics in the U.S.), Sony Pictures Entertainment, Sony Computer Entertainment, Sony Music Entertainment, Sony Ericsson, and Sony Financial. As a semiconductor maker, Sony is among the Worldwide Top 20 Semiconductor Sales Leaders. The company’s slogan is make.believe. (Wikipedia (2009) provided information regarding Sony Corporation). Company Strategy Vision (2005): “make Sony cool again” Vision (2009): “make.believe” When Howard Stringer joined as the CEO of Sony Global Japan he made new strategies and used those strategies to restructure the organization to be in-line with these strategies. Firstly, he looked at the core competencies of the company and focused mainly on the electronics, games and entertainment sector. He established a growth strategy saying, “Our target is for the Sony Group to achieve consolidated sales of over 8 trillion yen and an operating profit margin of 5% (electronics 4%) by the end of fiscal year 2007”. NewsBlaze (2005) published the company strategy from the fiscal year 2005 to 2008 as given in Appendix C of this report. The three-year revitalization plan/strategy was as follows (in brief): Restructuring the Electronics Organization Eliminated the corporate silos and bring more focus on competitive growth. Improving Sony’s Profit Structure Cost Reductions Sale of Real Estate, Stock and Non-Core Assets Strengthening Sony’s Current Electronics Business Focus on areas of the Electronics business by bringing profitability in television by the second half of 2006. Focusing Resources on Growth Strategy Making the HD World and Major Profit Pillar Launching of a range of high-definition products in 2006. Focusing on IntelligentSony Corporation Innovation All The Way Business Essay

MN 605 Practice Models Worksheet

MN 605 Practice Models Worksheet.

Practice Models Topic Supervisory Practice Collaborative Practice Independent Practice List the name of a State that is representative of each regulatory model. California Illinois Washington Evaluate how each model affects the NPs scope of practice? (include, if applicable, the use of protocols, formulary, written agreements, direct versus indirect supervision, referral policy, patient care, review of medical documentation, and payment reimbursement. How does the model of practice serve as a barrier to access to care? Compare/contrast the prescriptive privileges of each model and example State. Compare/ Contrast how each model impacts payer status for the NP. Compare/Contrast how these models may impact NP job satisfaction.
MN 605 Practice Models Worksheet

Gene Flow: Causes and Barriers

Gene Flow: Causes and Barriers. Variation of inherited traits in the section of individual organisms over a period of time is referred as evolution. The major renowned sources of variation are gene flow, genetic recombination and mutation. Gene flow that is also acknowledged as gene migrations is the genetic allele’s exchange within populations by migration of gametes, spores and individuals of the same species. This is common in species through crossbreeding, migration and cross pollination which yield hybrid organisms. Movement of genes is often carried out by human being and wind. When people move from one town or country to another and carry with them plants to experiment if they can grow in their new location gene variation commence. Differences in gene flow across populations depends on the type of organism, populations of inactive organisms tends to be more isolated from each other than population of actively moving organisms. This paper will examine gene flow as an aspect of evolution biology and provide a deeper understanding of its benefits to organisms. Mobility in gene flow One of the principal factors contributing the flow of genes between different populations is their movement habit. Plant population compared to animal population appears to be sedentary, hence, animals have high rate of experiencing gene flow. Migration and emigration of populations can reduce genetic differences within that particular group (Beurton, Peter, Raphael Falk et al 224). Through emigration, genes are carried away by the ongoing individuals to a new destination, whilst migration brings on board new genes to an existing gene pool. These processes are activated by perpetual diffusion and mixing of genes of a sexual population. Barriers to Gene Flow Human growth and advancement in technological world has not been without its cons to gene flow. This is a major obstacle to gene flow, especially in its many artificial and permanent development of the landscape. A structure like the Great Wall of China has hinder movement of many organisms and relocation of alleles of genes of indigenous plants population (Lewin 95). Another behavior that prohibits gene flow is the fencing of a game park where insider animals are restricted from meeting others from another park. Vast human progress and occupation can wipe out or partition ecosystems into a desert or secluded islands resulting to lessening genetic variation of the populations imprisoned there. In the efforts to facilitate gene flow scientists are increasingly crafting new ways to connect to these isolated species as away of maintaining viable genetic variation. The other distinguished barriers are the natural barriers that halt or slow the rate of migration of genes among populations. These are oceans, impassable mountains, hills and large and wide deserts that exhibit great challenges for animals’ movement. This hindrances leads to loss of genes in a population as fertile population are barred from meeting the weak or other strong ones (Beurton et al 124). These barriers in human population have created suspicion and tension among races to an extent of tribal animosity. Conducted studies reveal that sex chromosomes (X and Z chromosomes) are affiliated to reproduction and sex genes (Lewin 88). These genes are a factor in the progression of post zygotic isolation especially in hybrid sterility. It has been noted empirically that strengthening of zygotic isolation does occur in certain conditions. Recombination between alleles is a significant factor that has been identified to be opposing reinforcement. Connections between genes that affect mating and those that affect hybrid fitness plus sex chromosomes have the likelihood of boosting the process of hybridizing species. These ideas fall short of extrapolating whether essential forms of non-adaptive effect of divergence with no gene flow are stagnant or they increase. As a result of this we discover that there exists co evolution of zygotic barriers to the flow of genes. Gene flow in action The lives of species is involves a lot of movements in search of satisfaction and fulfilling hierarchy of needs. Thus, migration has become a significant force of restructuring genetic variation. In the contemporary globalization characterized by wide dispersions of humans in search green pastures and mates gene exchange is take place fast. There are now inter-racial marriages aiding much generating patterns of hereditary variations. Migration can occur to a mass of people due war or search of resources and food or to an individual as a result of displacement or personal drive to explore. Large scale migration of people leads to accumulation of mutations and as a result population diverges as there is genetic drift. Individual movements in a small geographical area enhance genetic variation between populations. These migration behaviors have distinctive effects on population structure with each having its methodological challenges. Gene flow accelerated by intermarriage between national or state communities occurs frequently within a short time period. It remains a challenge to determine temporal control and spatial control of historical human migration. Geographical sampling is a costly exercise, hence, to determine geographic scope of a specific event advanced genotyping technologies are used as they are economical. Determining temporal control which is when gene flow has occurred is even more challenging; DNA studies are examined to come up with resolution pertaining human mobility. New methods are underway to provide conclusive sequential bounds on flow of human genes using genetic data that will be analyzed to show human gene flow. To discover historical movements’ researchers use genetic markers like mitochondrial DNA and the Y chromosome as they are highly thought to be mainly instructive genetic markers. To study human history using these markers one has to understand that Y chromosome is passed from a father to sons while mitochondrial DNA is passed only from mother to off springs. This distinctive mode of transmission makes it easier to study human descent. Due to high rate of random genetic drift in these systems Y chromosome and Mitochondrion DNA have been found to have uncertainty. Their records show biasness towards the sex-specific migration of women and men as they are small loci representing large region of human genetic variations (Slarkin 327). Nowadays, multiple markers can be screened across human genome due to rapid progress in use of genotype technologies. Hence, to determine if two populations have similar genetic variations has become simple. However, it requires advanced modeling and inferential statistics to enumerate and establish the amount of gene flow between them. Gene flow from Neanderthals have made scientist to meditate and compare entire genomes. Complete genome sequence of Neanderthal has been sequenced by some scientist. Previously only mitochondria DNA were accessible from Neanderthal as they occur in numerous copies per cell which make it difficult to mine DNA from primeval remains (BartonGene Flow: Causes and Barriers

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