Client The client has responsibilities on a work site. The client is responsible for checking the competence of all the appointees and their resources. They must make sure that the facilities for all of the workers are suitable for their welfare. They must allow sufficient resources and time for each stage in the project and not rush any of the project. They must also provide information to the designer and contactors before the construction. The client is also responsible for hiring a CDM co-ordinator and a principle contractor. They must also make sure that the construction doesn’t start unless the construction phase is complete and all of the welfare facilities for the workers are on site, provide a health and safety information file for the CDM co-ordinator and retain and provide access to the health and safety file. CDM Co-ordinator A CDM co-ordinators main duties are to advise and assist the client with their duties, to keep the HSE notified of the project details. Cooperate with everyone involved in the design and coordinate all of the health and safety aspects of the design. Facilitate good communication between the designer, contractor and client. Communicate and meet with the principle contractor regarding the design work. Analyse, gather and convey pre-construction information. And to prepare and keep the health and safety file up to date. Architect The architect is responsible for making sure that there will be no risks or hazards whilst still in the design stage of the build. After that is done they must provide information on all the other risks that there could still be and that cannot be completely prevented. The architect must make sure that the client is aware of their roles and responsibilities during the design stage and the construction phase of the whole process; they are also responsible for making sure that the client has hired a CDM coordinator. They must also provide information for the health and safety file and also keep the file updated. Workers Workers have health and safety responsibilities on site, as they are the most likely to be involved in an accident they also have duty’s to health and safety. The workers must be competent and know what they are doing at all times. They must report any obvious risks that they see in a site so that accidents can be avoided. Coordinating their work and cooperating with all of the workers to ensure you own and everyone else’s health and safety. They must also follow the health and safety rules and procedures and be aware of any hazards there could be on a site. P2 – Outline the legal duties of employees and employers in relation to three pieces of health, safety and welfare legislation relevant to the construction and built environment sector Legislation in health and safety are very important as they can help protect people from accidents and keep them safe in the working environment. This also covers people who aren’t part of the building company’s employment. There are many different legislation which all protect different areas of work. Legislations like the Health and Safety at Work Act 1974 (HASAWA), Working at Heights 2007 (WAH), Control of Substances Hazardous to Health 2002 (COSHH). The HASAWA is a very important legislation that was introduced in 1974 and many other pieces of legislation have been developed from this act. The HASAWA covers the duty of care that is on a construction site. There has been a large amount of health and safety legislation that has been created since HASAWA. It covers the occupational health and safety in Great Britain. Health and safety executives and other enforcing bodies are responsible for the administration of the legislation. The employer has responsibilities that they must follow out so that employees are safe. The employer must ensure health, safety and welfare at work to all of their employees. The employer must prepare a written statement of their general health and safety policy. They are also responsible for the enforcing of safety and reduce the risk to health involved in all the employees’ areas. The employee also has duties that they must follow out. The employees must take reasonable care in their safety and the safety of those around them who may be affected by their actions. They must also cooperate with the employer so that requirements can be met. COSHH is another important piece of legislation that is used in construction. This legislation helps to protect then workers from handling substances that could be fatal. The legislation ensures that the harmful substances will be supressed so that it is less of a risk to the employees. The legislation also states that employees must be informed about the substance and should have their health monitored if work with hazardous substances. Many businesses use substances that can be harmful to workers and these businesses should inform and train employees so that the substances can be handled. The employee has duties that they must carry out whilst enforcing the COSHH act. They must make sure that the substance has had a proper assessment identifying the risks that this substance may have on the heath of anyone involved, the assessments must also be updated if they become invalid or out dated. Substances that have a COSHH warning label must be stated in the inventory and material safety data sheets. The employees must also be train, supervised and instructed on the risk that the substance could have on the health of the employees and the precautions that must be taken. The employees also have duties that they must follow according to the COSHH act. Employees must know the hazards substances that are present and read the signs that are present at the work site and should handle the substances safely and follow the instructions given. They must ensure that the warning labels are left on the containers and inform management of and situation involving the substances that could be dangerous. The final legislation is the WAH. This act is a law. This legislation ensures that before workers start working at a height the working must be planned and organized, the workers must be competent. The work must be assessed before the workers go up and the equipment that they are using must be the correct equipment. The risk of surfaces that may be fragile should be controlled and supported and the equipment that is used must be properly inspected and maintained. The duty holder must be responsible for the legislation being put into practice. The employer must ensure that all of the work is planned and organized and is carried out by a competent employee. The employees must receive information, training and instruction on how to safely use the equipment and how to spot defects in the equipment. They must follow the hierarchy of controls and they must do as much as they can that is practical to stop workers from falling. Employees must report and possible hazards or faulty equipment to the employer and they must use the equipment supplied and follow instructions correctly and safely.
Challenges in Predicting Terrorism. Evaluate the claim that however thoroughly the security manager plans and prepares, acts of terrorism are always unpredictable and this makes terrorism a form of risk that is ultimately impossible to manage. ———————————————————- Despite being unpredictable, the consequences of terrorism can be sufficiently contained by thorough planning and preparation. It would be impossible for a security manager at whatever level, in the government or the private sector, to eliminate every risk. Clearly, our human ability to foresee every type of terrorist attack is limited. Also, from a financial point of view, there would be a strain on the public purse to put in place a contingency plan for every eventuality. The new threat of ‘global terrorism’ however is a reality so the security mangers must focus principally on civil protection and business continuity. It is also true that perception plays a major role when implementing prevention measures as the security manager’s view of risk could differ substantially from that of the public. There is a clear codependency between the perception and management of risk. Risk is a fluid concept and cannot be sufficiently identified or labelled as it depends on the context and the perception of people at any one time. In assessing the management of terrorism we must come to a consensus on what are ‘acts of terrorism’. The League of Nation’s definition reads, ‘All criminal acts directed against a state and intended or calculated to create a state of terror in the minds of particular persons or group of persons or the general public.’ The UK terrorism Act 2000 provides this definition, ‘The use or threat of action that is designed to influence the government or to intimidate the public or a section of the public within or outside the United Kingdom’ A security manager would therefore have to be aware that although a terrorist group often have a political agenda, the target for terrorist activity are members of the public and therefore harming innocent civilians and disruption of day to day affairs is a likely consequence. Constant planning, preparation and implementation of security measures are the only antidote to such calculated and sporadic violence. Sociological theories- Rational Choice and Psychopathology A security manager in the government or the private sector must also be aware of why people commit terrorist acts in order to inform proper planning. In considering this social scientists have sided with either the rational choice or the psychopathological theories. The psychopathological theory is that terrorists are psychopaths so although they think logically when planning and committing violent acts they are still irrational actors. It is debateable as to how far this goes in explaining the galvanising of thousands of supporters of different ages across various countries which comprises the organisation known as Al Qaeda. It is clear that this organisation has as its members those that are well educated and otherwise well respected in society. The level of sophistication of the attacks also points to a high level of planning and worldwide participation. The rational choice theorists hold that a terrorist is a rational actor who makes a decision to become involved in acts of terrorism due to environmental factors. It would therefore be safe to say there are combinations of irrational and rational reasons why people become terrorists. Terrorism today Terrorism is by its nature multifaceted and no one cause is predominant rather interrelated factors are at play. This would explain why no one definition of terrorism has gained universal acceptance. However these two facts remain, that terrorism is politically motivated and it is targeted at innocent civilians. Many believe that the openness of Western liberal societies and democratic values held make them more vulnerable to terrorist attacks. Globalisation and the breaking down of traditional barriers have also facilitated to the increase in terrorist acts along with post modern values and beliefs. Gunaratna and Steven state, ‘The face of terrorism is changing rapidly…Governments should be using every tool of statecraft… to combat and reduce the threat of terrorism. [It] has replaced the threat of nuclear confrontation the predominant threat during the Cold War. From an economic standpoint reasons for terrorism can be viewed as relating to poverty, inequality and injustice- real or perceived it is the perception that counts in assessing to what extent the risk can be managed. The economic impact following a terrorist act is also used by terrorist for personal gain. Many also believe that religion is being used to give violence legitimacy and power. The Cabinet Office Paper named Countering International Terrorism- The United Kingdom Strategy states that the principal threat is from, ‘… radicalised individuals who are using a distorted and unrepresentative interpretation of the Islamic faith to justify violence. Such people are referred to here as Islamist terrorists.. Undoubtedly because Islamist fundamentalists believe that they are supported by God this gives them an added impetus to keep fighting for their cause. Religious leaders bearing the group’s sentiments are used to interpret religious texts and beliefs to support the group’s ideology. Those who do not side with them are seen as apostates. Other terrorist groups today include animal rights or anti abortionists who seek to change a specific legislation rather than a whole political system. Gunaratna and Steven state that although religion plays a significant factor, ‘…it is imperative to recognise the roles and degrees of influence of other factors…focus on solely one aspect such as religion would ultimately lead to misunderstanding’ Although the UK is no stranger to terrorism due to the long battle with IRA attacks, September 11 and the attack on the World Trade Centre in New York caused the need for greater measures to be implemented to combat the new ‘global terrorism’. Al Qaeda was said o be responsible for the Sept 11 attacks and also those on the London Underground and buses on July 7th 2005. Much criticism has been levied at both US and UK governments as to whether sufficient planning and preparation was put in place to prevent these attacks or minimise their devastating effects. The UK government argues that the public perception that the government is not doing enough to combat terrorism is explained In the Cabinet Office Paper Countering international Terrorism , Our strategy comprises [of] elements, which can be freely publicised and discussed, and classified elements… There have to be such secret elements, in order to avoid alerting the terrorists themselves [of] capabilities we possess… or to vulnerabilities which they could exploit. It is clear that it the police need to have access to reliable intelligence in order to combat global terrorist activity. This is fundamental to the success of identifying and arresting suspects and also preventing possible attacks. Storbeck states that, ‘In practice, however, the exchange of data between national and international law enforcement agencies continues to be reactive rather than pro-active’ The challenge for the police and intelligence services is to keep up to date with the jihadist movements and preempt their actions. The old models previously used would not work as there is a new level of sophistication involved in today’s terrorist threat. Jenkins comments, ‘We no longer confront hierarchical, highly-structured foes, mirrors of our own institutions but rather shifting networks, constantly mutating configurations and constellations.’ In the event of a terrorist attack the preferred avenue is to contain it or bring enforcement measures against the perpetrators via the criminal justice system. However the issue of employing the armed forces has also been considered but the question of course is when it becomes necessary to do so. Freedman states, ‘The conclusion must be that, in certain cases, the military instrument can be helpful in responding to terrorism, but for most of the time these are likely to take the form of contributions from specialist services provided by the armed forces’ Role of Security Managers in public and private sector There is clearly an overlap between risk management in both the public and private sector although the government agencies are primary charged with civil protection and private companies concerned about business continuity. Therefore, security managers in both spheres would be involved in managing the release of information to the public, press reporting on any major disaster as well as he smooth operation of department services. The Civil Contingencies Act 2004 governs the area of public protection and contingency planning in the case of emergencies. The definition of emergency in the Act can be summarised as an event or situation which threatens serious damage to human welfare in a place in the United Kingdom or ‘war or terrorism which threatens serious damage to the security of the United Kingdom.’ The Act gives security managers in the public sector a duty to plan assess and advise where there is a threat to human welfare which includes loss of human life or physical injury, damage to property or disruption of systems of communication. It further stipulates what arrangements they should make for civil protection and the continuance of commercial and non commercial activities and confers emergency powers to make regulations necessary to deal with the most serious cases. Organisations termed as category 1 responders include the police and local authorities and will provide an immediate response. Category 2 responders like the Health and Safety Executive will provide ancillary support. Security managers under both categories within the public sector have therefore been given the responsibilities and powers to counter terrorism despite the difficulties that are clearly involved in dong so. The Act further provides for sharing of information between the various bodies in the public sector and its provisions thereby give risk managers in Local Authorities, utility and emergency services tools to formulate plans for effective risk containment. In the area of commercial enterprise, attention has been focused on business continuity planning. Although security managers in individual public sector departments must also focus on this as it is an integral part of good management aside from what has been stipulated in the 2004 Act. The MIT Business Continuity Management Plan 1995 echoes this where it states, ‘The organizational backbone of business continuity planning at MIT is the Business Continuity Management Team. In the event of a disaster affecting an MIT organization or its resources, the Business Continuity Management Team will respond in accordance with this Plan ‘ The questions undoubtedly arise as to how a business will deal with the disruption caused by a major terrorist attack and how its day to day operations can be maintained. The London Chamber of Commerce in its report states that, ‘…chronic lack of preparedness on the part of small firms is the greatest avoidable threat in the capital today…several years after 9/11 almost half of SMEs in the capital have inadequate planning provision’ It would be fair to say therefore that despite the unpredictability of terrorist acts there are still measures that must be taken by security managers to limit their likely effects. When formulating a business continuity plan security managers must ensure that all steps have been taken to reduce the damage of a terrorist attack. Plans need to be made to protect all core activities, staff and resources. A good continuity plan will ensure that if a serious incident occurs, a business will still be able to survive and operate effectively. One would expect the security manager to ensure that all response and recovery measures after a potential attack need to be up to date and all staff given effective training on a regular basis. All business continuity plans must have the approval of the Chief Executive Officer of the business and a management structure put into place to ensure proper communication within the organisation as well as with outside agencies including the police, local authorities and emergency services. Nactso report, Counter Terrorism Protective Security Advice for Shopping Centres states, ‘For independent and impartial counter terrorism advice and guidance that is site specific, the Security Manager should establish contact with the local police Counter Terrorism Security Adviser (CTSA). Most UK Police Forces have at least two CTSAs.’ Terrorist acts can be described as potential disasters because of the scale of property damage and loss of life envisaged which cannot be easily dealt with by emergency services. In preparing for any potential disaster the security manager must observe the steps of mitigation, readiness, response and recovery. In mitigating the risk the security manager must assess and evaluate the terrorist threat and then take the necessary action to limit the potential damage. In fulfilling the readiness criteria this will include communications, media policy and warning systems and the security manager must consider what resources would be needed to carry out the plans outlined. At the response stage the business continuity plan would be implemented and the assistance of local authorities sought. At the recovery stage the security manager is concerned with the necessary activities to return the organisation to normality. The MIT Business Continuity Plan states, ‘The time required for recovery of the functional area and the eventual restoration of normal processing depends on the damage caused by the disaster. The time frame for recovery can vary from several days to several months. The primary goal is to restore normal operations as soon as possible. ‘ A security manager needs to asses the potential political and social risks and put contingency plans in place to mitigate them. They must also keep up to date with political developments and consider the modus operendi used by various terrorist organisations. One would expect to see continuous audits and training to test crisis management procedures. In high risk areas, assessments such as, explosive effects assessment, risks assessments are crucial along with creating various models of the business premises and testing procedures. In the example of security mangers in charge of a shopping centre the above will be relevant as the Nactso report, Counter Terrorism Protective Security Advice for Shopping Centres states, ‘Particularly relevant to protective security in shopping centers are the specific requirements of the Health and Safety at Work Act 1974 and Regulations made under it’ So in actual fact many of these measures should be part and parcel of a good Health and Safety Policy. Perhaps the ability to assess risk and prevent disaster is influenced by factors only discovered on closer inspection and are related to management culture as well as political and social factors. It is important that organisations learn from each other and lessons from previous disasters are specifically applied. Security managers must not adopt the view that there is little chance of their organisation being involved in one so adequate preparation is a waste of time. Foresight must be properly applied in the planning and preparation stage. There must be a clear strategy that is followed through in the event of a disaster and not ignored due to panic as this would only lead to chaos and defeat the object of planning and risk assessment strategies. In planning against a possible terrorist threat the security manager could consider certain specific measures. Strict measures around vehicle entry and parking will reduce the risk. Large and unauthorised vehicles should not be allowed to enter business premises. The Nactso Report States, ‘If you believe you might be at risk from a vehicle bomb, the basic principle is to keep all vehicles at a safe distance. Those requiring essential access should be identified in advance and checked before being allowed through’ There must be a close monitoring of visitors and thorough searching of handbags. Also security guards could be employed outside working hours. All incoming post must be monitored with staff briefed about letter bombs and suspect packages. Plans must be made for evacuation of the premises in the event of a suspect package. The Natsco Report advises, ‘Visitors to private areas should be escorted and should wear clearly marked temporary passes, which must be returned on leaving. Anyone not displaying security passes in private areas should either be challenged or reported immediately to security or management’ The Security Manager must also consider insurance against terrorist acts although this is becoming increasingly difficult it is for this reason that a sound contingency plan must be prepared by the security manager for a large proportion of risk. After the September 11 attacks the insurance industry faced new problems with how to quantify and underwrite the risk of terrorism. It was difficult to determine geographic risk as the terrorism activity could happen at any time .Commercial high rise buildings were now seen as high risk. Ericson  states ‘At the same time the limitations of insurance became evident. The new terrorism is another catastrophe risk that threatens global insurance capacity: how many such losses can the industry absorb?’ The Media Through the media, terrorists can create anxiety for their targeted audience. The test is to inform the public but not sensationalise the threat. This is an important issue and therefore provision made in the Civil Contingencies Act 2004 Regulations 2005. Communications and good media relations must therefore be part and parcel of any risk management strategy. In relation to public perception of the media The Cabinet Office Key Document entitled Communicating Risk states, ‘…While many people really value the information…the media gives them, they are also very wary of the power they feel it has over them…newspapers have been responsible for sometimes whipping up hysteria’ The security manager must therefore be in close contact with the communication officials of the organisation. A communication strategy must be built into the business continuity plan or risk management framework. There must be a clear management structure whereby decisions on communications can be made speedily. Communicating Risk explains, ‘ …speed in delivering messages to and through the media…is of the essence. This does not mean being forced into instant decisions… It does mean keeping the media in the picture…explaining why it is not possible to fully meet their demands’ Websites, call centres and public information points are all useful communication tools in the event of an emergency. Where the media are concerned it would be incumbent on the security manager in the contingency plan to ensure that there are established good relations with media contacts ahead of a perceived crisis. The MIT business recovery plan also echoes this where it states, ‘The Director of the MIT News Office, a member of the Business Continuity Management Team is responsible for directing all meetings and discussions with the news media and the public, and in conjunction with the Personnel Department’ The BBC has launched an initiative called Connecting in a Crisis which seeks to encourage security managers to work more closely with the BBC and other broadcasters in the risk management and planning stage. It proposes ten objectives of how effective relationships can be built, ‘Involve the BBC at a local level in the emergency planning process…Establish a clear procedure for communicating information to the BBC with absolute clarity over who rings who. It should be technically robust…’ Conclusion Where the interests and safety of the public are of paramount importance, Government agencies must distinguish between accidents and wilful acts Where no responsibility is claimed for terrorist activity, there is a further difficulty posed for the police. Human intelligence is therefore crucial as it provides the basis for the operational procedures to be carried out. Jenkins comments’ ‘Intelligence services will have to learn how to get smart fast, exploiting a variety of closed and open sources, both old-fashioned espionage and collection systems employing the newest technology’ The challenge for the security manager is to put contingency plans in place without raising unnecessary alarm. There needs to also be greater cooperation between various government agencies and the media. A contingency plan should not have to cater for all eventualities but must have a flexible framework that can be adapted depending on the situation and that is simple and easy to use. The costs of implementing the plan and the added insurance premiums must also be included in any assessment. As well as protection of civilians business continuity is a key consideration for security managers today. Terrorism post the Sept 11 2001 World Trade Centre attack and July 2005 bombings in London has posed new threats that go beyond the traditional considerations of emergency response or disaster management . Although the risk of terrorist acts ar unpredictable, it is not impossible to manage if the Security manager recognises the need to ensure business continuity and adopts this as part and parcel of good management practice. The Business Continuity Guidelines by ASIS International state that it is no longer enough for the security manager to, ‘…draft a response plan that anticipates naturally, accidentally, or intentionally caused disaster or emergency scenarios. Today’s threats require the creation of an on-going, interactive process that serves to assure the continuation of an organization’s core activities before, during, and most importantly, after a major crisis event’ BIBLIOGRAPHY London Chamber of Industry-Crisis and business Continuity planning : A programme for business survival September 2005 http://www.londonchamber.co.uk/docimages/853.pdf Countering international Terrorism. The United Kingdom Strategy- July 2006 http://www.ukresilience.gov.uk/media/ukresilience/assets/countering.pdf Counter terrorism- Rohan Gunaratna and Graeme CS Steven- ABC-CLO http://www.asisonline.org/guidelines/guidelinesbc.pdf LEARNING FROM DISASTERS a management approach (Brian Toft and Simon Reynolds) Communicating Risk http://www.ukresilience.gov.uk/media/ukresilience/assets/communicatingrisk.pdf Catastrophe Risk Insurance and Terrorism- Risk and Regulation magazine- Richard Ericson 2004 Confronting Terrorism, The club de Madrid Series on Democracy and Terrorism, Vols I – III: International Summit on Democracy, Terrorism and Security, 8 – 11 March Madrid:21 – 26;available online at http://english.safe-democracy.org Nactso report, Counter Terrorism Protective Security Advice for Shopping Centres Smith, R. (2005) The Utility Of Force, The Art of War in the Modern World, London: Allen Lane. Calhoun, C., Price, P. and Timmer A. (2002) (eds.) Understanding September 11, New York, The New Press. Hershberg.and Moorte, K. (eds) Critical Views Of September 11, New York, The New Press. Slovic,P., Fischoff, B And Lichtenstein,S. (1980) “Facts And Fears: Understanding Perceived Risks”. In R.C.Schwing And W.A. Albers (Eds) Societal Risk Assesment:How Safe Is Safe Enough, New York: Plenum Press. Ericson, R.V. And Doyle, A. Catastrophe Risk Insurance And Terrorism (2004) Economy And Society, 33(2), Pp.135 – 173. Mit Business Continuity Plan (1995) Massashussets Institute Of Technology. Beck, A. And Wills, A. (1993) The Terrorist Threat To Safe Shopping,_Leicester Scarman Centre For The Study Of Public Order. 1 Footnotes  UK terrorism Act 2000 Part 1 s (1)  Counter terrorism- Rohan Gunaratna and Graeme CS Steven- ABC-CL  July 2006: pg.6  Counter terrorism- Rohan Gunaratna and Graeme CS Steven- ABC-CL:pg.2  Counter terrorism- Rohan Gunaratna and Graeme CS Steven- ABC-CL:pg.13  July 2006: pg.5  Club de Madrid Vol I pg. 10  Club de Madrid pg. Vol I 15  Club de Madrid pg. Vol I 20  Civil Contingencies Act 2004: Part 1 s1 ss1(c)  Civil Contingencies Act 2004: Part 1 s2 ss1  Civil Contingencies Act 2004: Part 1 s4  Civil Contingencies Act 2004: Schedule 1  Civil Contingencies Act 2004: Part 1: s6  Crisis and business Continuity planning : a programme for business survival- Sept 2005: pg.3 Nactso report, Counter Terrorism Protective Security Advice http://www.nactso.gov.uk/documents/ShoppingCentreScotland.pdfPg.5  Pg.17  Pg.16  Catastrophe risk insurance and Terrorism- Risk and Regulation magazine- Richard Ericson 2004www.lse.ac.uk/resources/riskAndRegulationMagazine/magazine/catastropheRiskInsuranceAndTerrorism.htm  http://www.ukresilience.gov.uk/media/ukresilience/assets/communicatingrisk.pdf pg.  http://www.ukresilience.gov.uk/media/ukresilience/assets/communicatingrisk.pdf pg. 51  http://www.bbc.co.uk/connectinginacrisis  Club de Madrid Vol II pg. 15 Challenges in Predicting Terrorism
The Glass Menagerie by Tennessee Williams Essay. The Glass Menagerie is a beautiful and appealing play written by Tennessee Williams in 1944. The story provides an insight into one unhappy family, in which each member feels lonely and wasted upon. Among the main topics involved are the beauty and its vulnerability, the balance between social obligations and personal freedom, parental authority, memories of long ago, and escaping from reality. The Play The most notable feature of the play is its symbolism, which is demonstrated by the author in a variety of ways. The glass is the most important symbol, as the name of the play suggests. Laura’s glass collection represents fragility and beauty, but it has no practical point. The broken piece stands for the broken heart of the girl. Another symbol for Laura’s ephemerality is her nickname “Blue Roses,” which Jim gives her in the following words, “They are common as – weeds, but you – well – you’re – Blue Roses!” (Tennessee 87). Laura strongly depends on her family and lives in isolation like a ghost. The fire escape symbolizes getting away from reality, and the narrator’s monologues take place there. Finally, the act of blowing out the candles probably means the end of all hopes for Laura and the end of the old life for Tom. The Characters Amanda Wingfield used to be the reigning beauty of a small town, but now she is an abandoned spouse living on the memories of long ago. Amanda can hardly accept her present position, and as a devoted mother, she is fully committed to her children. However, her efforts to make them succeed in life turn to unbearable pressure for both Laura and Tom. Laura is timid and unsocial due to physical disability. The outside world frightens the girl, and her way of escaping from reality is the glass collection. However, she is not dead inside and has feelings towards a young man. Tom is committed to poetry, but he has to work in a shoe warehouse to support his family. He feels imprisoned both at work and home. “I know I seem dreamy, but inside — well, I’m boiling!” he exclaims (Tennessee 62). Night movies are his escape. Amanda wants Tom to demonstrate “Spartan endurance!” (Tennessee 32), and to find a husband for Laura. Once her future is safe, he may have a chance to start a new life. Finally, Tom chooses freedom and leaves home. As abandoned Laura and Amanda could die in poverty, it must be a tough decision. Jim is the long-awaited potential husband for Laura. He is vivid, enthusiastic, and charming, but not willing to marry. After making advances to Laura, he confesses that he is engaged. The girl is hurt, of which the play hints: “Glass breaks so easily. No matter how careful you are” (Tennessee, 86). Maybe the engagement does not exist, but it makes an excellent excuse for Jim. One more character is the absent Amanda’s husband, who left his family years ago looking for freedom and life pleasures. However, he seems still to belong to the family, which “struggles against hopelessness that threatens their lives” (Nalliveettil and Sobhi 201). The ex-husband remains an authority for Amanda and influences her decisions. Conclusion None of the characters in the play is completely good or bad, and the author managed to avoid any black and white coloring. That is why the heroes really seem living and appealing, and one can easily associate himself with any of them. Amanda is tough, but she is a devoted mother, while nice and pretty Laura is a burden to her family. Although the plot and the characters of the play reflect the social background of the middle of the past century, the problems raised by the author are supertemporal and remain challenging for many people in the contemporary world. Works Cited Nalliveettil, George, and Mahmoud Sobhi. “Discourse Analysis of Tennessee Williams’ The Glass Menagerie.” Advances in Language and Literary Studies, vol. 7, no 3, 2016, pp. 201–10. Tennessee, Williams. The Glass Menagerie. New Directions, 1999. The Glass Menagerie by Tennessee Williams Essay
WR 123 UofM Challenges of Changing Face of Agribusiness Sector Annotated bibliography
WR 123 UofM Challenges of Changing Face of Agribusiness Sector Annotated bibliography.
use my paper, see attached file, write this annotated bibliography. 1. Create an Annotated Bibliography.–> Your annotated biblography should have a minimum of twelve (12) sources. –> Of these, at least 6 must be scholarly sources (either peer reviewed journalarticles or academically-sound books—popular interest books or journalism don’t count. –> No more than two standalone websites will count toward your total. What do Imean by “standalone?” Well, if there is an academic journal that happens to publish their issues online, that wouldn’t be considered a “website.”–> Each annotation must begin with a correctly-formatted citation of the source. Then you’ll write a paragraph or two or three (at least 125 but probably not more than 300 word). In this text do the following: a) provide a brief summary of the overall argument of the book or article or chapter, then b) explain how it is relevant to your paper topic, and how you plan to incorporate it. Look at Beacon Learning under Unit 1 for an example annotation.
WR 123 UofM Challenges of Changing Face of Agribusiness Sector Annotated bibliography
The dowry system for woman in India
best essay writers In this research paper I attempt to explain the current Dowry crises in India, along with my opinion. The strongest parts of my paper are the explanation of female foeticide, where I explain why families do not wish to have girl children because dowry exerts considerable economic pressure on families. Also the dowry prohibition act and why it struggles to be enforced today. I struggled with finding why there is a religious aspect to the dowry system, I couldn’t find much sources on that. I try to bring strong arguments to the reader, which he/she absorbs. The consequences of the dowry system for Woman in India Today, Indian society is surrounded with many problems such as illiteracy, unemployment, population growth, delivery of social welfare and a very difficult and bureaucratic legal system. Among these struggles, which lie deep rooted in Indian society, is the problem of dowry, which is a series of payments from the bride’s family to the groom or groom’s family at the time of marriage (Kamayani 2005). The system has a long history in India and other Asian societies (Lee 1982). These gifts were traditionally given as small gestures of good wishes to the groom, however, based on the economy today, India is a growing country that wishes to be globalized and compete with the market, therefore, the dowry system has become a major factor in marriage negotiations because of the money that they bring in to families. Unfortunately, women are being mistreated for not providing sufficient dowry, because the groom’s family may be greedy and would like more gestures. “The most serious of these [abuses] being the mental and physical abuse of wives, and bride-burning or murder of brides due to the inability of a bride’s family to meet the dowry demands of the groom’s family (Dalmia 2005: 72)”. Legally, dowry is a banned practice and is supposed to be enforced by the Dowry Prohibition Act of 1961, but the act hasn’t resulted in sufficient prevention of dowry payments or punishment for offenders. India’s women are being mistreated with abuse from the cruel traditional system of dowry, preventing women from being equal to men. Fortunately there are solutions to this problem, such as globalization, that are beginning to change how women are treated and how they think of themselves. The dowry system has been in existence for thousands of years. Over the course of history, it has appeared in many different cultures in several different forms. For example, the Code of Hammurabi is almost 4000 years old and has regulations for the giving and receiving of dowry (Horne, “Law Code of Hammurabi”). Another example of the practice (but in a different form) is in Thailand where the dowry system requires a man to provide a payment showing his generosity and love for the bride (“Thai Dowry System”). This cultural practice is different from the system in India, with the man providing the gift as a way of showing respect and admiration. Varadakshina (voluntary gifts given by the bride’s father to the groom) is the root of the modern practice of the dowry system in India (Diwan, 1987; Van der Veen, 1972).Today in modern India the dowry is a gift of monetary value from the bride’s family to the groom’s family. This gift must satisfy the groom and his family in accordance to the family’s rank and caste. As recently as April 19th, 2011 a 22 year old woman named Lalita was set on fire by her in-laws, and died of her burns in New Delhi Hospital. Lalita was burned because her father could not provide the sufficient dowry of a motorcycle and a RS 5 lakh. This is one of the many bride burnings that happen so often in India (Datta 2011). What does it say that a woman was burned to death for a motorcycle and 10,000 dollars? Sadly, Indian society doesn’t value women as much as monetary value. This is because women in India are not seen to make the same societal contributions as men; therefore the loss of a female life is not viewed as a loss to society. Padma Srinivasan and Gary R. Lee say that “the frequency and severity of violence against wives who bring too small a dowry to their marriages, perpetrated both by their husbands and their husbands’ families, is a growing problem (Srinivasan 2004).” The National crimes records bureau of the government of India handles dowry-related matters along with its crimes. The Bureau statistics (2004) show that, from the year 2003 to 2004, dowry deaths increased by 13.26% over the preceding year from 7,210 deaths to 9,427 deaths. This data however, is only reported data (National Crime Records Bureau, 2006). There are many occurrences of bride deaths that are under-reported or are not reported at all. Most of these deaths are when the bride is set on fire. Sanghavi, Bhalla and Das, estimated over 176 000 fire-related deaths in 2002 in India. “These figures were seven times that reported by police. About 110 000 of these deaths were that of women, mostly between 14 and 33 years of age (Sanghavi, Bhalla and Das 2009, 1282)”. Not only are women in India still suffering at the hands of the dowry system, they also clearly don’t feel safe enough to come forward about it. So why is it that the system is becoming more extensive and the values of the dowries are increasing? When seeking a mate, India has long been known as a country for its “hypergamy”. According to the Oxford English Dictionary, the word hypergamy refers to “the action of marrying a person of a superior caste or class.” If a woman or a woman’s family that is “lower class” desires to arrange a marriage with an “upper-class” man, they must provide a sufficient dowry. Also, most grooms’ families will look at the bride’s family’s general capacity to “give”. If these are not sufficient, the wives may suffer severe consequences, such as abuse or even death. Equality has always been an issue in India. There have always been clearly defined gender roles in Indian society. Women are expected to stay at home and perform the majority of domestic tasks such as cooking dinner and tending the house. These are not unfamiliar roles for women globally. The roles of women in western society are traditionally very similar, however, they are evolving much more rapidly than the Indian expectations. Because women’s roles are focused on the domestic activities, it is deemed unnecessary for them to receive a full education. If they do not receive a full education, they are not prepared to enter the work force and therefore cannot earn money to support themselves. This leads to their continued reliance on men. In this way, society continues to perpetuate the subjugation of women. Sex determination in India for the foeticide of female babies is growing problem in India. The ability to determine the sex of the baby, by ultrasound scanning, has aggravated the female foeticide situation because once the sex of the baby is determined, the parents can decide whether or not to abort the baby. The reason for abortion of a female is the dowry system. Parents do not wish to pay a dowry, they wish to receive one, so they would rather pay for the abortion than the expense of a dowry. A recent article published by Indu Grewal and J. Kishore reported that there were advertisements in Bombay advertising sex determination that read, “It is better to pay 500Rs now than 50,000Rs [in dowry] later (Grewel Kishore 2004).” Families do not wish to have girl children because dowry exerts considerable economic pressure on families and they will use any means to avoid having girls. If the sex is determined to be male, then the parents will keep the foetus and be able to demand a dowry in the future. Hinduism is a catalyst to the situation because it lowers the status of women. Religion in India represents the ideal woman as being submissive and obedient to men. Women in India often feel anxious to have a boy but they are always pressured to have the sex determination test. Most women suffer from psychological trauma as a result of the abortions of their daughters. There is an overall decline in fertility in India; however, the preference for male children still remains strong. This means that the number of marriageable women is declining, and men are now looking to marry younger women. This will eventually lead to a rise in population growth because the younger a woman is the more years of fertility she will have while married. The Indian government passed a prohibition of sex selection act (1994) that aims to prevent female foeticide. The act led to a “fine of 10,000Rs and up to three years in prison for a first offence, with greater fines and longer terms of imprisonment for repeat offenders (Grewel Kishore 2004).” Killing a child is wrong in general, it is not humane, and to kill a female foetus because it is a girl is unacceptable. Most clinics in India had serious failures in the implementation and knowledge of the act. If India wishes to prevent female foeticide they must move away “from religious teachings and the advocacy of a scientific rational and a humanistic approach. They must also publicise in the media and have NGOs take part in educating the public (Grewel Kishore 2004). The dowry prohibition act was enacted in 1961 and was amended because it didn’t work. It was later reinforced in 1985, and has not been enforced strictly. The original idea was to have a penalty for the giving or taking of dowry. If a person disobeyed the act by giving or taking a dowry, he would be punished with imprisonment for no less than five years and there would be a fine of no less than 15,000Rs. Note that these penalties are heavier than those parents receive for killing their children for being female, indicating that the exchange of money is more important than the life of a female. The dowry prohibition act is obviously not working because the practice is still active today. Thousands of women continue to die every year in dowry related deaths. The reason for the continued practice of the dowry system is that it is a long standing cultural tradition and it is encouraged by families who wish to receive the added income of a dowry, especially in difficult economic times (Teays 1991). The act also states that the dying declaration of the victim should be obtained by or in the presence of a female officer, who may be more likely to inspire confidence in the victim (“Bhagwant Singh vs. Commissioner of Police, Delhi on 6 May, 1983.” 1983). The problem with this statement is that female police officers do not inspire much confidence in the court, because “there is probably greater concern by the legislature that police officers will be bribed and, hence, their reports not are in accordance with the facts (Teays 1991).” For example, “There is also the case of Manjushree Sarda who is reported to have been suffocated and given poison by her husband, Sharad Birdichand Sarda. Here not only did the woman’s sisters and friends supply written statements, but her father, mother, sister and friend testified about the husband’s abusive behaviour-all of which the court discounted (Teays 1991).” Another way of dealing with the dowry related deaths is social pressure. The public needs to be aware of who is committing these crimes. They need to show a strong commitment to social boycott. Social boycott means that people would avoid social and business interactions with persons who were known to have participated in dowry transaction, bride burnings, or abuse of women over dowries. This boycott could take the form of not buying goods from the person, refusing to sell to them, or refusing to interact with them on a social level. This has been shown to be an effective means of social control. The Indian government has serious issues enforcing the act because of women’s status. If women police officers and families have evidence of dowry acts, and the court doesn’t wish to accept them because of possible bribery, then the problem will continue. The courts must change how they handle dowry murders. The people of India follow the arranged marriage system. Most women are raised to expect arranged marriages, and this is widely accepted. We know that women do not appreciate the dowry systems; however we also know that they are fearful for themselves, as evidenced by the unwillingness of bride burning victims to speak out against their assailants. The social custom dictates that women are inferior, and because of this, women are afraid to take a stand. It’s a long standing fact that educating the citizens of a country vastly improves the lives of those living in the country. It has in fact been argued that women should be educated, so that they can better participate in the education of their children. Women nourish their children, instilling them with education would prepare them for the world, but the women have to be educated first. Knowledge is power, this is a universally agreed upon fact. In this case knowledge would give women the power to get high paying jobs so that they could support themselves. The cruelty of the dowry system is one of many institutions preventing women from being equal to men in India. Women are human beings and they deserve social equality as well as legal rights in society and to be treated like any other human. They deserve the social equality and legal rights that any other person is guaranteed under the Geneva Convention. Women could be considered as second class citizens because of their statuses in India and they are treated as such. The Indian government needs to take responsibility and strictly enforce the laws they have made against dowries to prevent women from being mistreated. Many women can be saved from abuse if the dowry system is abolished, if the preventative laws are rigorously enforced, if gender and social inequalities are equalised and if women receive equal education. If India wants to continue to compete on the global scale, it needs to recognize and protect the rights of all its citizens. Women’s rights are human rights and like all humans they deserve to live with dignity.
Please read this case study and answer the questions on the last page. Note: While it is only 3
Please read this case study and answer the questions on the last page. Note: While it is only 3 pages, the situation is actually quite difficult and there is no straightforward solution. Just answer the questions using your personal judgment, and we will discuss this in detail during the lecture.
Religious Studies homework help
Religious Studies homework help. Numerous sources report that the United States spends more per capita on health care than other industrialized nations. In 2010, Medicare and Medicaid Services stated that medical-related expenditures exceeded 2.6 trillion dollars; however, indications are that these high expenditures are not improving health outcomes to the degree expected. What makes containing health care costs so difficult? What are the ethical issues of balancing cost with providing greater access to health care and improving quality?This week, you will consider health care economics and how cost influences the decision-making process regarding coverage. You will also examine the trade-offs related to cost, quality, and access?three factors that drive the health care policy process.This week, you analyzed ethical and economic challenges concerning health care policy decisions and reimbursement mechanisms for services, that included trade-offs related to cost, quality and access.1 1/2 pages with 3 references, APARequired ReadingsKnickman, J. R., & Kovner, A. R. (Eds.). (2015).ÿHealth care delivery in the united statesÿ(11th ed.). New York, NY: Springer Publishing.Chapter 11, ?Health Care Financing? (pp. 231?251)This chapter attempts to unravel several of the complexities in America?s health care system, and it also provides an analysis of the health care/insurer/patient relationship and how hospitals are actually funded.Chapter 12, ?Health Care Costs and Value? (pp. 253?270)Rising costs of health care and potential approaches to constraining growth in health care expenditures are examined in this chapter.Chapter 10, ?Health Workforce? (pp. 213?225)This chapter looks at the nature of the supply and demand for health care professionals in the United States.Milstead, J. A. (2016). Health policy and politics: A nurse?s guide (5th ed.). Burlington, MA: Jones and Bartlett Publishers.Chapter 10, ?Overview: The Economics and Finance of Health Care? (pp. 283-308)This chapter breaks down the basic elements of economics as they relate to health care, explaining how consumer choice combined with limitations on what hospitals can supply affects the type of care given.Reinhardt, U. E. (2010, Jan 20). State of the nation (a special report): Voices?A good start. The Wall Street Journal, p. R5.Retrieved from the Walden Library databases.This article describes how the U.S. health care reform bill seeks to obtain better value for the U.S. health care dollar by generating more research into cost-effective care.Stein, R. (2010, November 8). Review of prostate cancer drugs Provenge renews medical cost-benefit debate. The Washington Post. Retrieved from http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2010/11/07/AR2010110705205.htmlThis article describes a federal review conducted to determine whether Medicare expenditures should be allocated to an expensive prostate cancer vaccine. The author details both sides of the debate on the issue.Required MediaLaureate Education (Producer). (2012c). Healthcare economics and financing. Baltimore, MD: Author.Note: The approximate length of this media piece is 16 minutes.Accessible player–Downloads–Download Video w/CCDownload AudioDownload TranscriptOptional ResourcesThe following resources may support the Assignment; however, they are not required readings.Mller, D., Zimmering, M., Chan, C., McFarlane, P., Pierratos, A., & Querfeld, U. (2008). Intensified hemodialysis regimens: Neglected treatment options for children and adolescents. Pediatric Nephrology, 23(10), 1729?1736.Retrieved from the Walden Library databases.Neil, N., Walker, D. R., Sesso, R., Blackburn, J., Tschosik, E. A., Sciaraffia, V., & ? Bhattacharyya, S. K. (2009). Gaining efficiencies: Resources and demand for dialysis around the globe. Value in Health, 12(1), 73?79.Retrieved from the Walden Library databases.Religious Studies homework help