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Stages of Language Development

Stages of Language Development. Need help with my Sociology question – I’m studying for my class.

In two to three double-spaced pages (not including title and references pages), choose three stages of language development as discussed in Chapter 9 of your text; in your own words,

Describe each stage, and expand on concepts highlighted in each stage.
Argue the implications of this information for parents and teachers.
Plan a specific learning activity to be implemented in a childcare or early learning setting which supports each of the three stages discussed.

Stages of Language Development

The central theme of this poem is centred around a hard topic: the bombing of London during War World II. Edith Sitwell presents a world in need of change. However, she deals with this theme from a Christian perspective. This viewpoint is portrayed in seven irregular stanzas and thirty five lines which are written in free-verse. This means that, despite being an organized piece of writing with a coherent rhyme, meter and rhythm, it does not follow traditional patterns and these effects are used irregularly. The four final words in stanza 1 are an example of this: “Rain”, “loss”, “nails”, and “Cross”. While the first and third form a half-rhyme, which is a common feature in free-verse poems, the second and fourth form a perfect rhyme. Contrarily, the four lines in stanza 3 end with the words “Tomb”, “rain”, “brain” and “Cain”, forming a perfect rhyme in the last three words, while the first one does not rhyme at all. Moreover, sometimes an internal rhyme can be detected in words such as “Field” and “feet”, both in line 11, following a pattern of assonance since they have the same vowel sounds. Most lines have different lengths and they lack an established pattern of stressed and unstressed syllables. Overall, both free verse and these latter features enable the author to express her feelings more vividly, so that these emotions will be easily transmitted to the reader. Finally, all these effects provide the poem with beauty, making it more attractive for this reader. The structure or line divisions also create units of meaning. The seven stanzas of this poem may represent the seven days of the week, symbolizing how the suffering of Christ still persists. In the same way, six of these seven stanzas begin with the same statement: “Still Falls the Rain”. This number six can refer to humankind, which was born in the sixth day of creation in accordance with Genesis 1. Furthermore, the fact that Sitwell uses this sentence so many times emphasizes the duration and severity of that moment, thus bringing us closer to her emotions. Moreover, the expression “He bears in His heart all wounds” (line 20) strategically appears in stanza 5. This number may refer to the five main wounds of Christ (two in his feet, two in his hands, and one in his side). Nevertheless, all these effects contrast with the last stanza, which is finished with a hopeful message: “‘Still do I love, still shed my innocent light, my Blood for thee'”. Sitwell uses these words as she wants to remind us that God loves us and He gave His life for us; she trusts in God’s ability and willingness to act in a chaotic world. Overall, this poem shows the pain in the world, but leaving a gap of hope at the end. Since Sitwell has such firm religious vocation, biblical allusions are widely present in this poem. In line 3, for example, Sitwell refers to the rain as follows: “Blind as the nineteen hundred and forty nails”. By naming those nails used upon Christ’s cross, she represents the year of writing of this poem as well as the years elapsed from Christ’s birth. Similarly, other expressions such as “the Starved Man”, which is repeated in lines 14 and 19, indicate the existence of the Messiah, the Savior. It emphasizes the fact that wars only bring about pain and sins which ordinary people could only stand through their hope that this starved man will help them. Moreover, Sitwell sets her poem in the “Potter’s Field” (line 8). Later described as the “Field of Blood” in line 11, it describes a piece of land obtained by Judas Iscariot after betraying Christ, which was and is actually still used as a war cemetery. This field makes us think about past relatives who fought in the war, creating empathy. Overall, these biblical allusions especially help Christians to relate the poem to themselves and understand the consequences of war. Finally, the transmission of such deep emotions and reflections also helps to conclude that the register used in this poem is as lyrical as it is religious. The language of poetry has the power to touch our emotions and affect our understanding of ourselves and the world. This means that language can make the reader perceive the world and the poem with a higher definiton or, on the contrary, with ambiguity, providing this poem with different meanings. Sitwell creates these effects through rhetorical features such as imagery and simile. Imagery is the most popular device in this poem. For example, the rain may be understood as normal rain as well as the raining down of bombs during the air raids. This effect is created through descriptive adjectives like “dark” and “black” in line 2, giving a somber mood to the poem, and “blind” in line 3, representing the blindness of those people in war who do not remember Christ’s suffering during His crucifixion. The rain may also symbolize the blood shed by Christ’s side, which is a symbol of redemption for all sinners. Sitwell confirms this fact in line 19: “Still falls the Blood from the Starved Man’s wounded Side”. Christ shed His blood for everybody in the same way people are unified in their communities during times of bombing. Sitwell conveys that we all have a God to believe in, who will always help us without making any distinction between social classes. Thus, Sitwell makes a plea for clemency in line 15 by referring to a parable about Dives and Lazarus: “Christ that each day, each night, nails there, have mercy of us”, continuing in line 16 as follows: “On Dives and on Lazarus”. Dives represents the rich man who is unaware of the poor man, the beggar Lazarus. They may symbolize hell and heaven respectively. Several images of the poem produce feelings of suffering in regards to the war. Thereby, “the hammer beat” in line 7 could be understood as an image of something which strongly beats this poem, emphasizing its hardness. Other words such as “Tomb” in line 9 and “that worm with the brow of Cain” in line 12 also stress this suffering. The latter refers to the mark made in Cain’s brow after killing his brother Abel. Finally, Sitwell refers to the “The wounds of the baited bear” in line 23, describing the helplessness of an animal in captivity towards its keepers and, concurrently, symbolizing the suffering of all those people involved in the war. More rhetorical features are found in this poem, such as the use of the simile. As it has been explained before, the rain is constantly compared through adjectives which convey darkness and hopelessness in the world such as those in line 2: “Dark as the world of man, black as our loss”. Another feature is personification. This is demonstrated in lines 12 and 13, where Sitwell claims that “the human brain Nurtures its greed”. She provides the brain with the personal ability of nurturing itself. Finally, alliteration on the consonant ‘s’ occurs in line 28: “See, see where Christ’s blood streames in the firmament”, representing the sound of that flowing blood. Overall, rhetorical features force the reader to engage with his or her imagination and invite him or her to live the experience of war. Sitwell integrates all the previous points in the poem by using the third person, since she is describing what she feels and sees: the rain and the war. However, she sometimes changes this by directly referring to God. This happens, for example, in the last stanza: “Then sounds the voice of One who, like the heart of man, Was once a child who among beasts has lain- ‘Still do I love, still shed my innocent light, my Blood for thee'” The fact that she is referring to God is portrayed through her use of capital letters in some words, such as “One”. It is also present when thinking about the biblical parable of Jesus having been born in a stable among animals, as is explained in line 34. Hence, it may be understood that Sitwell is trying to represent God’s own words in the last line. Moreover, there is a change of person in line 27, where the author introduces her own words as follows: “-O Ile leape up to my God: who pulles me doune-“. This is the only time she uses the first person, and it is written between dashes. While the dashes usually appear as a stylistic device in the poem, this time they are used to introduce the author’s own voice in that line. This change of person causes the reader to understand and feel the situation from the author’s own perspective. Finally, special punctuation, such as enjambment, is used in order to beautify the poem. It appears between lines 11 and 12, as the pause does not coincide at the end of the sentence: “In the field of Blood where the small hopes breed and the human brain Nurtures its greed, that worm with the brow of Cain” This poem is a statement of the author’s Catholicism, which is used to reflect the existing difficulties in the world, such as the connection between the bombs and the dead in the ground. In general, she deals with this theme from a hopeful point of view. In my opinion, this poem is magnificently written. Sitwell employs a fantastic use of vocabulary and literary devices which cause great tension when reading the poem. This also led to me being reminded of some ancestors who fought in the war whilst reading it. I liked how the poet smoothes the tension in the last stanza and gives us that encouraging and optimistic message. Sitwell’s poetry reflects his heroic stance to face the terrors of life with an unshakable conviction that faith and poetry will ultimately triumph.
Losing someone dear can lead to grief, yet tenderness also. This is expressed in Christina Rossetti’s ‘Remember’, in which the persona is demanding to be remembered, grieving not only about her death, but also the emotional war her partner will have to go through. The same notion is expressed in D.H. Lawrence’s ‘Piano’, where although the memories were positive, he is mortified through his unsuccessful attempt to confine his emotions. This is also found in “Mid-Term Break” by Seamus Heaney, where the persona is hit with confusion regarding the loss of his brother. Physical loss, as presented here, is simpler compared to the convoluted nonmaterial losses, because not everyone will have to endure the sorrow of the death of a loved one, whereas nonmaterial losses are inevitable. Likewise, nonmaterial loss such as the loss of love or the loss of childhood innocence also brings sorrow. This notion is supported by John Keats’ “La Belle Dame sans Merci. A Ballad”. Its subject is about the loss of love- how his “lover” had left him. This similar theme is mirrored in Countée Cullen’s “Loss of Love”: women are evil. Another part of this nonmaterial loss is childhood innocence. This yearning for the innocence is conveyed in Seamus Heaney’s “Death of A Naturalist”, in which the persona is transitioning from innocence to experience. Although the situations of the losses differ, all loss, it seems, lead to the same end: feelings of grief, confusion, and even anger. Physical loss of a loved one will bring grief, even it is for oneself. Christina Rossetti’s “Remember” effectively conveys the grief experienced in losing someone; herself. Written approaching the end of a long battle with cancer, Rossetti grieves for what her lover will have to go through, when she passes away. Rossetti, although was from the Victorian Era, is a strong woman. At this stage, women were treated powerless compared to men, but as she was involved in the Pre-Raphaelites movement, we can see that she out drove social change. Due to her failed relationships, her independence is shown by the imperative “Remember me”, that is repeated throughout the poem; emphasizing that she should be remembered. As an Anglican, her words can be seen to be religious in nature, supported by “silent land”. Using euphemism, she softens her nearly-lost battle with cancer, effectively conveying to the reader of an almost idealistic peaceful land. She also shows that this “silent land” is not very far away, creating a sense of familiarity to the reader, appearing to the ears. The effective repetition of “day by day” shows the time passing, and creates a sense of losing time unwillingly. This can be seen as that she does not want to leave yet, but has to, and that death is merciless; supported by “It will….pray”. Rossetti seems to confine her emotions- perfectly justifiable as she would like to give the least pain to her lover, and this is evident in the form of the poem. As a Victorian Sonnet, the structure is very strict, and that it must be 10 syllables a line, and must be forming of two quatrains followed by a six lined stanza. This idea of conceding to his happiness is presented in the last stanza acting as a Volta. As the ‘sovereign’ of the relationship, she gives him options that will do better for him, such as “forget and smile”. This option distances her needs and highlights her lover’s needs for moving on. This shows tenderness, and not possessiveness that was previously shown. This approach to theme of loss affects one that makes one respect Rossetti, as despite her hardships, she remained tender towards her lover- something we all could learn from. Similarly, in ‘Piano’, D.H.Lawrence experiences the mortifying part of loss: remembrance. The persona was abashed through the power of childhood memories of his mother that took on him- an unusual response towards a memory. However, the persona’s reaction towards the childhood memory is justifiable due to the historical context- men were not to cry given any situation. D.H.Lawrence’s clever use of lexis has shown that the persona’s manhood has broken, as he “weep like a child for the past”. The successful simile of a child’s weeping to the persona’s loss softens the truth that the persona has wept, making the reader show his/her sympathy towards him. Throughout the whole poem, it is the piano in a room which had sparked his childhood memories to overwhelm his emotions. The piano, before his inner turmoil took place, was looked as almost magical – represented through its “tingling strings”. However, the “boom of the tingling strings” create a more aesthetic atmosphere; thus adding to the ambience of his past. The word “boom” has very many connotations, but also serve as a contrast to the soft sounding of the “tingling”. This onomatopoeic word suggests many connotations, all consequently coming to the same conclusion: magic-like. However, despite the pleasant memories the persona has, we can see that the persona is suffering in an inner turmoil- and hating the nostalgic memories that overpower his emotions. This memory triggers the nostalgia deep within him, and shows the yearning to become a younger boy again, wishing for his mother. Through this yearning, D.H.Lawrence shows the confusion of when his manhood was cast, along with the anger that is present in the “clamor” of the ‘magical’ piano. The piano was just an object that unleashed the yearning for his childhood- when he still had his mother. Although the reaction to the loss is quite contrasting to “Remember”, they both share the commonality of the sense of trying to confine emotions. This reaction to the memories is what I believe as unnecessary. However it can also be justified as some memories can be powerful enough to break one down- even if one is a man. Likewise, Seamus Heaney’s “Mid-Term Break” also conveys the same message of the consequence of physical loss. The persona is in confusion of what had happened to his younger brother. Heaney effectively conveys the confusion when he arrived home through the direct descriptions: “father crying” and “old men …my hand”. It has been quoted that his father has “taken funerals in his stride”, however he is met with his father crying- indicating that something is wrong. To add to the confusion, when he enters the house, he sees random strangers, who come to shake his hand. Although throughout the poem, Heaney starts to find out that the death was of his brother, but the question is; has he accepted it? The persona refers to his brother, Christopher, as a “corpse”, not ready to admit it is indeed, his brother that lies in the coffin. However, as the poem unravels itself, the persona is slowly accepting the loss; identifying the “corpse” as his brother. The last statement that the coffin was “four foot long” shows the finality of the death- including the acceptance of the consequence of his brother. Analogous to the previous poems, ‘Mid-Term Break’s persona tries to confine the emotions of distress about his brother through the uniform stanzas. As a 12 year old boy living in a traditional Irish family, it would be harder for him to not be upset about the situation as confusion overwhelms his emotions. Especially that his father was found crying, despite the strict expectations of the stereotypical male’s role in a funeral, had shown Heaney’s strength to restrict himself from pouring out once he had understood the full story. Loss of love or the childhood innocence can also cause one to be distressed. In “La Belle Dame sans Merci”, John Keats explores the loss of love through a folk ballad. Keats, as a Romantic poet, conveys the common belief of the era that ‘all women are evil’- a ridiculous assumption that we, women, wouldn’t tolerate. However, the persona’s belief is supported through the content- a ‘lover’ had left him “alone and palely loitering”. “O…..loitering?” is a question asked by the writer- purposely to induce the reader to spur curiosity about the central character- the knight- , in the emptiness. The last sentence of the first stanza: “And no birds sing”, is a contrasting short sentence with intention to change the general rhythm of the poem. Through this, it attracts the reader into the fate of something; obviously not known to the reader just yet, implying that an event unpleasant had occurred. The next stanza is something very similar, and is achieved by using incremental repetition. This technique repeats and emphasizes the question, until there is a shift in narrator- from a bystander, to the central character (knight); almost as if he was answering the question. There is a repetition of the image of death portrayed by nature. Evident in for an example: “I see a lily”. A lily is a symbol of death as it is used in funerals, therefore foreshadowing the fate that would cause the knight to be distressed. A personification is dexterously used in “anguish…fever-dew”, which creates an almost wet atmosphere, inducing sadness upon the reader. However, as the poem progresses, the knight’s memory with the “faery” seem to be very pleasant- as each stanza starts with “I”- implicating that the knight is in control. Irony can be spotted in Stanza V, as there is an emasculating image of him making “garland for her head” He is a knight, someone who is considered as a strong ‘leader’. This concludes that the knight was definitely in love, thus consequently losing control. The poem then takes a shift in control, to his lover through the use of repetition of “She”. However, most love does not last forever, as demonstrated in stanza 8, as “she wept…sore”, suggesting that he cannot be with the woman, and something must change-bringing us to the fate of the relationship. The last stanza is a repeat of the first stanza, suggesting that love like this goes in a cycle. The loss of the love is shown through the desperation that the man was in, by himself and “loitering”, proving the distress that the man was in. The stanzas are uniform but not even, suggesting that Keats is confining his emotions- similar to the previous poems. Keats’s work shows the devastation he was going through when his wife Fanny Brawne left him, thus concluding that the loss of love brings distress among many. Analogous to the idea that loss of love brings distress, Countée Cullen’s “Loss of Love” highlights a similar story. Cullen portrays how badly he had fallen for his love, through using a range of figurative language. An example of this usage is present in “Orchard…fruit”. Cullen’s shrewd use of a metaphor effectively conveys the wreck he was in- showing how heavy his heart was after love was lost. The whole piece is characterised by dark images, successfully conveyed through lexis. “Agony with clotted teats” is one example of a powerful description that affects the reader to sympathize on Cullen. The word ‘agony’ connotes pain, and therefore brings the reader closer to the text by being able to relate to the emotions felt. Agony is a very strong adjective, therefore suggesting that this love had broken Cullen down completely. Through Cullen’s descriptions, there is no doubt in what had happened, as it has been explained- “All…room”. This clear description helps to bring the reader’s focus upon Cullen’s reaction. The context of the poem is very clichéd, as his wife had divorced him, similar to Keats. However, the last two lines of the piece is a very deep message: losing love is worse than death itself. I would side strongly on that message- there is nothing worse than losing love. Losing love is a terrible event in life as it could bring distress and consequently make someone go out of one’s one routine in life, and become ignorant of the surroundings. This can also be supported by the form of the poem- free verse. In contrast with previous poems, Cullen does not make an effort to confine his emotions, but to unleash them by using free verse. Not only love, but the loss of childhood innocence can also bring about distress. Seamus Heaney’s “Death of A Naturalist” yearns for this loss showing the not-so-smooth transition from innocence to experience, using his a part of his childhood memory gone wrong. It generalises the loss of innocence we all once had, as passions change on the ride of maturity. The structure is simple: a before and after – emphasizing a sweet childhood memory gone sour. The first stanza explores the persona’s passion for nature’s “gruesome” side. Effectively using onomatopoeia, Heaney conveys interest that he once had towards frogs, in such “gargled”, “slap and plop”, and “farting”, each connoting a very gruesome side of nature. Descriptions are given in a quite indelicate light, perhaps suggesting Heaney was an inquisitive child without the fear of being squeamish towards gruesome nature. To set the scene, Heaney uses a combination of assonance and alliteration in “flax-dam festered”. In effect, this creates a sense of rotting and a heavy atmosphere, which is also supported by the “punishing sun” – the use of clever personification increases the heaviness as the reader could imagine a stuffy atmosphere. Using a metaphor to convey his excitement towards frogspawn, he effectively brings the reader back to the times of when he used to be small, using childlike language to manipulate the reader by the mention of “warm thick slobber” as the “best of all”. Despite his sugar-sweet memory, this childhood memory becomes bittersweet shortly after. The stanza itself is shorter, while also changing the tone into a very unpleasant. Descriptions become a big contrast, using very un-tumultuous imagery such as “coarse croaking”, not appealing to the ears despite the alliteration as harsh words such as “coarse” is used. Later, the adult frogs seem to be seeking vengeance, further scaring young Heaney, and therefore turning his “dream” into a nightmare. As Heaney sees nature in the raw, he is scarred; an absolute contrast from the beginning. The title of the poem refers to the non-material “death” of the innocent enthusiasm that Heaney once had as the reality of nature starts to make sense. The poem is also explores the transition that one inevitably takes from innocence to experience. This is one of the biggest aspects of innocence of childhood; we cannot hold on to them, they will have to be let go. In conclusion, the losses presented in the 6 poems vary through the materialistic aspect, however all the poets agree on the same idea that all loss consequently brings about negative emotions, such as grief, anger, confusion and distress. Although loss overall causes all of us to grieve, it is important that even at the hardest of times, we have to stay strong and keep striving forwards, and not allowing the memories to take over each of our daily routines of life such as in “La Belle Dame sans Merci”.
Mediation Arbitration Argument Resolution Process Article Summary.

Your submission must include the following information in the following format:Journal Article AnalysisJournalCultural influences to NegotiationDEFINITION: a brief definition of the key term followed by the APA reference for the term; this does not count in the word requirement.SUMMARY: Summarize the article in your own words- this should be in the 150-200 word range. Be sure to note the article’s author, note their credentials and why we should put any weight behind his/her opinions, research or findings regarding the key term.ANALYSIS: Using 300-350 words, write a brief analysis, in your own words of how the article relates to the selected chapter Key Term. An analysis is not rehashing what was already stated in the article, but the opportunity for you to add value by sharing your experiences, thoughts and opinions. This is the most important part of the assignment.REFERENCES: All references must be listed at the bottom of the submission–in APA format. Be sure to use the headers in your submission to ensure that all aspects of the assignment are completed as required.Any form of plagiarism, including cutting and pasting, will result in zero points for the entire assignment.
Mediation Arbitration Argument Resolution Process Article Summary

Possible Causes Of And Solutions For Low Achievement Education Essay

Fortunately, I worked for different kind of schools and used to teach in different educational stages in Egypt. But I noticed that the common problem was that there are always a considerable number of lower achievers in every stage. I used to be worried about this fact .Especially, I teach English as a second language. Sometimes, I thought I did my best in teaching the subject and I hoped all the students to be high achievers and I thought that I wish I could apply the policy of ”No child left behind .” as much as I can. Therefore ,I have reviewed some literatures, educational researches and thesis (English as well as Arabic resources and I had to translate the later as possible as I could but not as a specialist) to investigate and know more about the possible causes of students low achievements and some practical solutions for this problem. Introduction Low achievement is considered as a multidimensional problem because there are so many factors contribute to the reduction of the educational lower attainment which may be psychological, educational, social or medical reasons. However, for educational purpose, we can say that the low of educational achievement is the lack of grades which a student gets in tests in all subjects. There are two apparent types of low achievement ”general low achievement” which is related to the student level of intelligence and the second type is “partial/special low achievement ” which is related to the lack of capacity, i.e., in a subject like reading as it is called “literacy “or the students lack of counting capacity “numeracy ” as another example. Let’s first examine some of the reasons for low achievement: Medical researches indicate that “difficult labour” may cause damage or partial harm in the child brain cells which may reduce his mental capacity. Also, studies indicate that the process of the mental capacities would be different to the girl is higher than the boy in the first ten years. Added to this, differences in “the age of the children,” when they enter kindergarten or school play an important role in determining the level of intelligence and mental abilities of the child. We must not ignore the role of simple “mental retardation”, where the number of children who suffer from this problem in primary school is about 5%. Also there are many reasons of the delay of “physical growth” of the child, like malnutrition or Anaemia, which in turn leads to the delay of mental growth of the child. Moreover, diseases and disorders of the nervous system is of great importance to the emergence of the difficulties in school students for example, “brain damage” because of the high body temperature or bacterial infections, and also “simple epilepsy”, which lead to the loss of awareness confuses the concentration of the student on the school subject. Also, the optical problems are considered a major reason for low achievement. “Colours blindness” in which the student sees the pictures jump or he is unable to keep the place of the word. Because of “audio inflammations” make the Child to move his head repeatedly, which lead to a sense of pain and confusion to follow-up the lesson. Nevertheless physical hormones disorders may lead to disorder behaviour of children, sadness and depression, diabetes, in which he frequently urinates and drink more water. These physical hormones disorders may lead to early or late growth which followed by many behaviour problems. Psychological reasons: like the shy child who cannot participate in school activities because of the lack of maturity in his emotional aspects which in turn makes him unable to depend upon himself or be responsible for his actions that makes him hates the learning process. Also, sometimes we see the child when he is worried makes a lot of movements or suck his nails and fingers. There are many other psychological and behavioural disorders that make the child a low achiever such as unconscious urinating unstable sleep, nightmares, sexual harassment, behavioural problems with other classmates and sometimes fear from the teacher. Social reasons like continuous family disputes between parents, bad education, divorce and the lack of the interest in the academic achievement for the child, living far from parents, the big number of the family and the bad economic conditions, and the high aspiration, of the parents for their child, which is not suitable for his abilities and attitudes. The impact of schools and textbook adoption There is a study found that schools do make a difference to outcomes. While students’ social and economic circumstances are the most important factors explaining their educational results, about 14 per cent of the incidence of low achievement is attributable to school quality. As well as, textbooks produced or approved by a governing body, such as a Ministry of Education, may allege to adhere to curriculum guidelines, but in reality not fulfil the objectives they set themselves. As Fullan (1991, p.70) states. It is time to look for some hints and solutions: Education is a process of living through a continuous reconstruction of experience. It is the development of all those capacities in the individual, which will enable him to control his environment and fulfil his possibilities/needs. The learner is an active participant in teaching learning process. Much of the activities of the educational institutions are built around the student. Each student has a unique personality and unique needs, beliefs and attitudes. Each enters the class with different background knowledge and different experiences (prior knowledge) . Motivation is one of the most vital determinants of learning. According to Frieze (1981) people’s beliefs about the causes of their success and failure influence their motivation for learning . In fact Maslow’s hierarchy of needs is one of the motivation theories, which throws light on student’s motivation. It provides guidance for teachers about how can they motivate a student for learning .students must first feel loved and have a sense of belongingness as well as adequate self esteem needs before satisfying intellectual needs . Schools are most effective when they help students feel socially accepted and valued and they build student’s sense of self esteem. Teachers typically believe that low achieving students exert little effort and lack motivation. They rarely explain low achievement in terms of teacher’s behaviour or classroom environment. Graham (1991) found that students attribute their failure to their lack of ability when teachers express pity or hollow praise (‘I don’t believe you are to do this task.”).Also students made attributions to lack of ability when teachers gave them help even though they didn’t ask for any. Students who have learned from experience that effort does not affect outcomes develop learned helplessness, they stop trying . Integrative Motivation Motivation has been identified as the learner’s orientation with regard to the goal of learning a second language (Crookes and Schmidt 1991). It is thought that students who are most successful when learning a target language are those who like the people that speak the language, admire the culture and have a desire to become familiar with or even integrate into the society in which the language is used (Falk 1978). This form of motivation is known as integrative motivation. When someone becomes a resident in a new community that uses the target language in its social interactions, integrative motivation is a key component in assisting the learner to develop some level of proficiency in the language. It becomes a necessity, in order to operate socially in the community and become one of its members. It is also theorised that “integrative motivation typically underlies successful acquisition of a wide range of registers and a nativelike pronunciation” (Finegan 1999:568). Instrumental Motivation With instrumental motivation the purpose of language acquisition is more utilitarian, such as meeting the requirements for school or university graduation, applying for a job, requesting higher pay based on language ability, reading technical material, translation work or achieving higher social status. Instrumental motivation is often characteristic of second language acquisition, where little or no social integration of the learner into a community using the target language takes place, or in some instances is even desired. Care from parents is a basic need of a child. This is necessary to help a child to gain the feeling of stability and harmony. Sometimes, parents neglect their children in some ways. This results bad effects on a child’s personality. Surfleet (2003, p.39) argued that “It is very important to the child’s whole development that his family relationship should be well adjusted. Lest of any parent can develop any aggressive behaviour, resistance to authority, bad temper in feelings of inferiority, Jealously or hate in less clearly defined ways.” Some Practical recommendations It is because al-Ghaza¯li ( A muslim Arabic scholar who had contributed to education and science in the past ) views education as a technique or skill that he places great emphasis on teaching methods and on the teacher-student relationship. Some of his recommendations have a remarkably modern flavour. He emphasises differentiation, neither holding back able and well-motivated children for the sake of their classmates, nor trying to place demands on children that exceed their capacities. He also suggests differentiated education for boys and girls. He believes That pupils should not move on to the next stage of their studies until they have demonstrated mastery in the earlier stage. Teaching for younger children should not be abstract but should be linked to concrete situations .He believes that students who achieve highly merit public praise and recognition. If a pupil makes a mistake, it is best to ignore it the first time and to deal with it in private if it is repeated. Punishment may sometimes be appropriate but only for the sake of helping the pupil (al-Ghaza¯li, 1898,Vol. 1, pp. 62-63). Pupils need time to relax through games and other activities to relieve the tensions and constraints of study (al Ghaza¯li, 1898, Vol. 1, p. 63). Instruction should be a gradual but active process, involving stimulation and motivation, as well as practice and repetition, and the aim should be that pupils do not simply memorise information but put that information to use in their lives (al-Ghaza¯li,1898, Vol. 1, p. 12). The teacher is a model for his pupils, not only in academic learning but also in personality and moral judgement, and the pupil owes him the same respect, trust and obedience as he shows to his father (al-Ghaza¯li, 1898, Vol. 1, p. 34). Teachers should therefore practise what they preach and show kindness and compassion to children, educating them with an open, smiling face. Al-Ghaza¯li even recommends a kind of code of ethics for teachers (al-Ghaza¯li, 1951, p. 134). Ibn Khaldun (a famous Arabic thinker and scientist who wrote about societies and education and one of his well known books ”almukademah”) supplements some general principles with a number of practical recommendations. He recommends to teachers that they present their students with consistent teaching material suited to their capacities, keeping to the works selected for the course and seeing to it that they are completely assimilated before passing on to others; not teaching two subjects at the same time, not stretching out the study of a subject over too long a period, in order not to break the interdependence between its different facets. Influences outside school ”Pre-school education, parenting help, income support, and everything which improves the home learning environment have major parts to play in reducing later low achievement. All these measures are essential components of what needs doing. It is by no means up to primary and secondary schools alone.” Tackling low educational achievement, by Robert Cassen and Geeta Kingdon, is published by the Joseph Rowntree Foundation.

The Death Of A Salesman English Literature Essay

best essay writers The play, “Death of a businessman” was written by Arthur Miller in 1949. According to reasonable amount of evidence from the play, it is a parody of the American dream. The pursuit of this essay is to determine the extent of truth in this allegation. In order to comprehend the topic fully, it is important to have a glimpse of the meaning of the American dream. The dream is all about having a fulfilling life where one possess a decent job, house, car, good social connection and respect. The American dream concept is said to have been born in the in the nineteenth century. During that time, there was massive immigration to America by millions of people looking for fulfilling lives. All it counts for one to be within the limits of the American dream is possession of important things in life such as well paying job, home and a satisfying social life. The first time the phrase “American dream” came into existence was in 1867 after author Horatio Alger’s book, “Dick”. The book gave a story of a poor boy that moved from rags-to-riches. The boy was so determined. He worked hard, saved his money and eventually became rich. Therefore, the story was a great inspiration that determination, honesty and hard work were avenues to the realization of American dream. There are various connections in the play, “Death of a salesman” with the American dream. During the West movement, the American dream concept was developed. The conditions of living as at that time played a crucial role in the birth of the concept. There was extreme social stratification in Europe which caused many settlers to leave. The monarchy imposed extreme suppression on the middle class people. At that time, a life of a person in Europe was determined by the social class he/she occupied and how financially able his/her parents were. It was impossible to overcome the social barriers between different classes. The settlers sought to look for a better future and eventually found it in American habits. In the play, the author does not mention the products that the Willy Loman sells. Perhaps this can be seen as an opportunity to give diversified interpretations from the viewers. Similarly, it can be seen as a representation of all people. The interpretation given by each viewer should suit their life. Willy Loman is presented as a very optimistic salesman who is driven by false hopes of becoming rich one day. The criticism can be justified from the author’s socialist inclinations. Nevertheless, there are varied interpretations about the harsh criticism of the American dream presented by the author. The interpretation is highly dependent on the beliefs of the character analyzing the story. Willy Loman is the protagonist in the play, “Death of a salesman”. As the author presents it, the protagonist has the desire to attain the American dream. However, it is ridiculous that he wants to achieve the dream through charisma. The greatest belief that Willy Loman possesses about his attainment of the American dream is personality and not innovation and hard work. The pursuit of the protagonist is to ensure that there is immense liking of his boys by the people. Willy hopes that if his boys are liked by other people and popular, they will definitely attain the American dream. For instance, when Biff confesses to making fun of the teacher’s lisp, the father is extremely concerned with the manner in which the classmates reacted to the joke. “BIFF: I crossed my eyes and talked with a lithp. WILLY: (Laughing.) You did? The kids like it? BIFF: They nearly died laughing! Of course” (28). The version of Willy’s American dream seems distorted and is a total criticism of the true American dream. In spite of the popularity that Biff possesses in school, he grows to be a ranch-hand. Eventually, the Willy’s career fails due to his poor techniques in sales. However, Willy maintains his personality that he must live the American dream. It is his misplaced personality that totally eliminates him. When he approaches his boss in demand for a promotion on the basis of his personality, the boss sacks him. From the play, there are several instances that represent the American dream in its true nature. For instance, the protagonist brings to the fore some of the characters that lived to achieve the true American dream. An example of such a character is Willy’s brother Ben. Through the achievement that Ben acquired, Willy is jealousy about it. Willy expresses the humble beginning that Ben had before he later became rich. The journey for Ben towards being rich was not a simple one. Willy says that Ben set out for the jungle with clothes on his back. By the time Ben was twenty-one, he had already become immensely wealthy. At that young age, Ben was a proud owner of many mines for diamond. “That man was a genius, that man was success incarnate!” (32). Willy also tells of a story of a man who lived the American dream- his father. As Willy gives the account of Ben’s success, he remembers his father’s experiences. The father is said to have been a great inventor who set out to provide a fulfilling life to his family. He traveled with his family towards the west into America. Due to the success he attained through selling the inventions he made, he became rich. The author presents the characters in different ways according to their view of the American dream. The protagonist’s perception is painted in a ridiculous manner. The pursuit of the American dream is demonstrated through his charisma and lack of commitment in his work. The author paints Willy as a character who lacks innovation. He is a mere fanatic and does not live in reality. Willy believes in attainment of great success through simple ways, effortlessly. It is through this lopsided thinking pattern that Willy ignores the importance of hard work in the attainment of his American dream. Willy’s brother, Ben represents a true path towards the American dream. When Ben sets out into the jungle, he is only seventeen years. However, he comes out at twenty-one a rich man. The author demonstrates a clear picture of the American dream through Ben’s encounter. The poor young boy moves from rags-to-riches. However, the process is not very comfortable; it involves immense risk and self denial. Ben denies himself the comfort and safety enjoyed by his brother Willy. He leaves for the jungle oblivious of the dangers facing him. His determination is just one- to get rich in spite of the challenges. The author shows that the American dream can only be achieved through persistence and possession of immense aggressiveness in business. In a modern world of great competition and extinction of competitors, the fittest of all people will rule. Willy’s lack of practicality wastes his American dream. He dies with his dream. His son realizes the mistake and vows not to be a prey to Willy’s confused dream. Biff decides to escape his father’s dream and pursue his own, “BIFF: There’s nothing more inspiring or – beautiful than the sight of a mare and a new colt. And it’s cool there now, see? Texas is cool now, and it’s spring. And whenever spring comes to where I am, I suddenly get the feeling, my God, I’m not getting’ anywhere! What the hell am I doing, playing around with horses, twenty-eight dollars a week! I’m thirty-four years old. I oughta be makin’ my future. That’s when I come running home.” (85). From the foregoing, the author creates a picture of different characters and their perception of the American dream. The protagonist’s perspective is a complete satire of the American dream. Realization of personal success and achievement is a representation of the capitalistic tendencies of the American dream. The author demonstrates the agony and suffering that individuals have to put up with in their pursuit of the American dream. The negative aspects of the American dream are represented in the individual struggle and the eventual selfishness they depict after they achieve their goals. For instance, when Ben struggles to excel, he suffers profound pain. However, when he becomes rich, he gets tough and ruthless towards his nephew Biff.

Global Marketing Plan Of Selco Solar Energy

More planning shall give greater possibility of victory, while less planning, lesser possibility of victory, so how about without planning?” (Tzu, 2010) People who are getting ready to fight a battle or go into war do not do so without being prepared. There is strategic planning before the soldiers even enter into the field of combat. The same goes with marketing. Marketing takes planning and evaluating so that when the time comes, the plan can be implemented with great success. The plan must be organized and well thought out so that it can be “forecasted into the future with some measure of accuracy,” (Tzu, 2010). Executive Summary The SELCO Solar Energy is an innovative concept that has been introduced in the Indian market because of the rising fuel price in the country. The idea behind its conception is to provide a sustainable energy that is eco-friendly and a small energy that would be suitable for India. The company introduced its plan not only to target the Indian market but also cater to the growing demand for such energies in the international market. In order to understand the competitiveness of the company and its position, a series of analysis is energyied out like Porter’s Five Forces and SWOT as well as the Value Chain under the McKinsey Business System. Following this analysis, it can be seen that REEA is well placed to perform in a good way in the EE market. Even though there are various challenges that the company could face, it can be overcome by adopting certain strategies. The company’s key strength is that it provides high technology energy, in fact way ahead of others in terms of technology; the added point is that this high tech energy is made possible at a lower cost. The cost compared to other manufacturers in the same industry is three to four times lower. The pull down factor for the company is that it does not offer a wide range of options. It should be noted that in the future, the range of energies offered should be broadened so as that it satisfies various kinds of customers. Despite all this, SELCO energy is making headway into many countries and in the future it would turn out to be one of the major players in the eco-friendly energy industry. Introduction In this assignment, the company taken into study is Solar Electric Light Company (SELCO) which is offering its services in India. The company would be analyzed on its competitiveness by doing an industry analysis based on Porter’s Five Forces; a situation analysis is done using SWOT and is followed up with McKinsey Business System to analyze the value chain in SELCO. Based on this analysis, it can be understood whether the company is competitively placed to face other companies in the industry. The company strategy undertaken and also the ones to be taken are described so as to understand its future prospects of performance. The challenges to be faced ahead are listed down with recommendations to be considered in order to improve its standing. Company Profile SELCO is the first sustainable electric company to operate in India. It is the result of a joint venture between Maini Group and Amerigon Electric Technologies (AEET Inc.) of USA. The Maini Group holds 70% equity while the rest is with AEET. SELCO was formed in 1995 by an entrepreneur named Harish Hande who got the inspiration to start this company while studying energy engineering at the University of Massachusetts at Lowell. Harish Hande has an undergraduate degree in Energy Engineering from Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur. The reason for the SELCO project is to be able to provide reliable, cost effective, and environmentally sustainable energy services to homes and businesses, especially in the rural areas. This plan was introduced in the Indian market in 2001 to symbolize a new beginning after four years of research and design. With depletion of all kinds of reserves and a world characterized by smog, noise, and all kinds of pollutants, the governments are awakening to the several benefits of sustainable energy technology. Sustainable energy has vast potential in India and around the globe. Governments around the world are already advocating the use of eco-friendly energies as steps to control pollution in the environment. Analysis of SELCO In order to examine the competitive market that SELCO is engaged in, it is vital to do an industry analysis based on Porter’s Five Forces. Then a situation analysis should be done by assessing the internal capabilities and external possibilities using SWOT Analysis. This is followed up by doing a Value Chain Analysis which is a method used to identify potential sources of economic advantage by suggesting how the firm’s internal core competencies can be integrated with its external competitive environment to direct optimal resource allocation. The McKinsey Business System is used to analyze the value chain in SELCO. Porter’s Five Forces Analysis Michael Porter provided this famous industry analysis that states that an industry is influenced by five forces. It is very important for SELCO to develop a strategic edge over competitors by better understanding the industry context in which the company operates. The purpose of the Five Forces model is to analyze major economic and technological forces that will ultimately influence an industry’s profit potential. Identifying the profit potential otherwise known as attractiveness of an industry provides the foundation for bridging the strategic gap between the firm’s external environment and its resources. (Fleisher

Strayer University Roles that Nurses Performed Discussion

Strayer University Roles that Nurses Performed Discussion.

#1. In the discussion preparation, you were asked to analyze the major
professional roles played by physicians and nurses as they apply to
physicians’ conduct in the medical arena and to nurses in the role of
adjuncts to physicians. You were also asked to evaluate the degree and
quality of care that physicians, nurses, and medical technologists
provide in their primary roles, including, but not limited to, patient
safety and satisfaction as required in 21st-century U.S. hospitals.
Provide your evaluation and analysis in the discussion. #2.With electronic medical records now available, we have tremendous
access to large amounts of health care data. Hypothesize two ways
today’s health care informatics can improve health care decision-making
and the quality of health care delivery. When and where have we been
able to improve health care decision-making and care quality? Justify
your response by finding a scholarly (peer-reviewed) article from the
library that supports your hypothesis and provide examples.
Strayer University Roles that Nurses Performed Discussion

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