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STA 3215 San Jose State University Probability Discussion

STA 3215 San Jose State University Probability Discussion.

A:Probability is the idea of getting the likelihood of an event’s occurrence after random experiments are conducted. The probability outcomes are always ranging from zero to one. Normally, the probability is considered zero if the event has no chance of occurring, and it is one of the events has a hundred percent chances of occurring (Grinstead & Snell, 2012). Probability is important; that is why we need it in our daily lives. It is one of the important factors in decision making. It is also important in making predictions. For prediction, the probability is used in gaming, betting companies and their customers apply the concept of probability in placing their bets.Mutual exclusive events are probability events that do not happen simultaneously. One event happens while the other one will not appear. Independent events are a probability where another event’s occurrence does not affect the appearance of the other event (Spatz, 2019). Examples of mutually exclusive events are; if someone is a man, he cannot be a woman, if you are tall, you cannot be short, and if someone is beautiful, she cannot be ugly. Examples of independent events are; tossing a coin one by one, running a competition and class competition, for example in school.Expected value is a multiplication of all the possible outcomes of the probability. Standard deviation is the measure of variation in the given set of values. Measures of central tendency and standard deviation and expected value are all data values components (Spatz, 2019). Data values have both the measures of central tendency and measures of dispersion. A binomial experiment is an experiment with fixed independent trials. In the experiment, there can only be two outcomes possible. The statement about the experiment is true because the trials in the experiment are independent. We can be certain that success does not change from trial to trial because all conditions are under the same conditions.————–.(Minimum 160 words) + 1 reference APA formatB:We do need probability because with the use of it we can calculate the results of our tasks like counts, measurements or responses. Independent events are those events in which the occurrences of one of the events does not have impact on probability of the occurrences of the other events(Hawkes, 2019). One of the example of it is flipping a coin, rolling a dice, picking a card from the deck. While mutually exclusive events are the ones that does not occur at the same time. Examples of it are turning left or right, flipping a coin, kings and aces in the deck cards.As per (Hawkes, 2019), Expected value in the binomial distribution is calculated by the total number of the trials and the possible probable chances of the true success. Standard deviation is the square root of the variance which is multiplication of the total number of trials, probability of success and probability of failure. Central tendency of the dataset is being measured based on the expected value and the standard deviation will show how the data is being distributed to measure the variation in the data. Binomial experiment means that it does have at most two outcomes at the end of the experiment whether it can be positive or negative, true or false(Hawkes, 2019). As per (Hawkes, 2019), All the trials should be independent and they should be repeated for the fixed number of trials and that should be always followed because previous trial’s outcome should not decide or impact on the current trial or the future trial’s outcome should not be dependent on the current trial. Yes the probability for the success is same for each trial..————–.(Minimum 160 words) + 1 reference APA formatNote:Must be entirely focused on the specific content.Add some generic points that could applyPlease check plagiarism, GrammarlyAPA FormatRecommended Textbooks:Discovering Statistics, by Hawkes and Marsh. Published by Hawkes Learning Systems. Chapters 6, 7.Lind, Marchal, Wathen, Statistical Techniques in Business and Economics, 16th Edition. Chapters 5,6
STA 3215 San Jose State University Probability Discussion

Share this: Facebook Twitter Reddit LinkedIn WhatsApp Background Vitamin K is a fat-soluble vitamin that can be found in many foods. The two natural forms of vitamin K in food are phylloquinone (vitamin K1) and menaquinones (vitamin K2). Phylloquinone is found primarily in dark green leafy vegetables and vegetable oils and is considered to be the major vitamin K source in the Western diet. The dietary recommendation for vitamin K is solely based on phylloquinone. Meanwhile, menaquinone is mainly presented in animal foods such as dairy and meats. In addition, many fermented foods including natto are good sources of vitamin K2.1 There is no RDA for vitamin K due to the lack of adequate information. An Adequate Intake (AI) has been established, which is based on observations and experimental evidence. The daily AI for vitamin K is 90 mcg for women and 120 mcg for men aged 19 years and over. 2 Vitamin K is an essential micronutrient that required for many metabolic processes in the human body. The major role of vitamin K is to function as an enzyme cofactor for the post-translational carboxylation of vitamin K dependent proteins. Reduced vitamin K acts as a cofactor in the carboxylation of glutamic acid residues (Glu) into gamma carboxylation acid residues (Gla). This change allows proteins to bind calcium and functions as normal. Blood-clotting proteins are a major class of protein that dependent on vitamin K as the cofactor. Besides involved in blood coagulation, vitamin K dependent proteins are also important in bone metabolism, prevention of vessel mineralization, and regulation of various cellular functions.2 Research Question Cardiovascular disease is a leading cause of death around the world. One characteristic of cardiovascular disease is the presence of atherosclerotic plaques in arterial walls. Plaque rupture which leads to the formation of blood clot in vessels is the common cause of a myocardial infarction or stroke. Vitamin K has been proposed to have a protective role against CVD because of its role in vitamin K-dependent proteins. Matrix Gla protein (MGP) is the most studied vitamin K dependent protein in vascular tissue, which inhibits calcification when it is carboxylated. Calcification of the atherosclerotic plaques will occur as atherosclerosis progresses and may cause future CVD events.2 According to the report from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III, vitamin K intake was inversely related to mortality. Compared with individuals with inadequate vitamin K intake, people with adequate intake had a 22% lower risk for cardiovascular disease-related mortality and a 15% lower risk for all-cause mortality.3 In a prospective cohort study which included 7,216 older participants with risks for developing CVD, individuals who increased their intake of dietary phylloquinone had a lower risk of cardiovascular mortality risk while no association between changes in menaquinone intake and cardiovascular mortality was observed.4 Another large prospective study followed 35,476 healthy Dutch adults for 12.1 years also found that there was not a significant association between dietary vitamin K intake (phylloquinone and menaquinone) and risk of incident stroke.1 A recent prospective cohort study included 3,075 older adults. Vitamin K status was not significantly associated with CVD risk overall, but low plasma phylloquinone was associated with a higher CVD risk in older adults treated for hypertension.5 Based on all the researches above, there are mixed results about the relationship between vitamin K status and cardiovascular disease. Therefore, I am interested in investigating the role of vitamin K status in cardiovascular health as my research direction. Methods In order to gather more information about vitamin K and CVD, I first did a brief research on PubMed. I learned about some recent findings about vitamin K and its role in cardiovascular disease. If there are any knowledge gaps that current researches could not address thoroughly, I may include it as my interview questions. For example, “what are some diseases conditions that can be influenced by vitamin K status?” I also formulate questions based on my research online in finding public claims and concerns about vitamin K and vitamin K supplementations. For instance, “what is your opinion on vitamin K supplements?” Overall, my interview questions progressed from general scientific questions about vitamin K status and CVD to the opinions of experts about the current messages on the lay media. From this interview project, I learned the process of conducting an interview from scratch. I become familiar with conducting pre-interview research, connecting with experts, , preparing interview questions, following up after the interview. During the interview project, I found that the most effective interview question is open-ended questions such as “what do you think about xxx?” or “How does xxx work?”. This type of questions will allow the interviewee to talk about their opinions in depth and may lead to other interesting topics that are not in the original list of questions. In the future, I would practice the interview questions ahead to make sure that I am very familiar with each of the questions. During the interview process, it is highly possible that you need to change the sequence of your questions based on the content your expert talked. Therefore, be more familiar with the questions and be able to adjust the question according to the discussion is helpful when conducting the interview. Findings From this interview with the Vitamin K Laboratory team, I expanded my knowledge about vitamin K and its role in human health. First, we talked about the complexity of vitamin K biomarkers. Currently, there is not a golden standard vitamin K biomarker for scientific researches. Plasma circulating phylloquinone can reflect dietary vitamin K intake, but different parts of the body may have different vitamin K concentrations, thus researchers may measure vitamin K in two or more parts of the body to get a more accurate value. Dephosphorylated-ucMGP (dp-ucMGP) is another vitamin K biomarker with controversies. The carboxylation of MGP happened in the blood vessels but dp-ucMGP levels in the blood may not reflect the extent of coronary artery calcification, thus cannot be related to heart diseases. One study followed 438 healthy older adults found that plasma dp-ucMGP was associated with vitamin K status biomarkers and was reduced following phylloquinone supplementation. Plasma dp-ucMGP did not reflect coronary artery calcification in healthy older adults.6 Therefore, it is not an accurate/reliable standard to measure the vitamin K status regarding CVD risks. In addition, dp-ucMGP measurement has not been validated in other studies as a biomarker. The relationship between vitamin K and CVD is complex and can be influenced by many factors. Individuals with different disease conditions may have different vitamin K status and CVD risks. Among older adults with hypertension, low plasma phylloquinone was associated with a higher CVD risk. However, there was no association between low plasma phylloquinone and incident CVD among those with untreated hypertension or no hypertension.5 In addition, diabetes patients may also have the same association between vitamin K and CVD risks. Renal patients have low Vitamin K status and higher risks of CVD but the mechanism is not clear. Moreover, it is unclear that the relationship between vitamin K and CVD is due to the vitamin K status or due to other factors that contribute to both the low vitamin K status and diseases. Ethnicity is another factor may interact with both vitamin K and CVD. Studies found that there is a race interaction with vitamin K status. In a multi-ethnic community-based cohort, there were more Caucasian, African-American, and Hispanic participants in the lowest quartile and more Chinese-Americans in the highest quartile of serum phylloquinone.7 In the Healthy ABC study, African-American participants have lower dp-unMGP levels compared with Caucasian participants.5 There is no documented side effects of vitamin K intakes. High dose of menaquinone 4 is used as a treatment for osteoporosis in Japan and patients reported skin irritation after using it.8 Other possible side effects are gastrointestinal tract symptoms such as discomfort of stomach and diarrhea since vitamin K is a fat-soluble vitamin. There is no optimal dosage of vitamin K supplements for CVD prevention purpose. Young, healthy individuals can get adequate amounts from their diets since vitamin K is highly available from foods. Many questions in the field of vitamin K remain unsolved. However, it is clear that cardiovascular disease and Vitamin K status have some relationship. For the general healthy population, there is no need to take extra vitamin K supplementation for the purpose of reducing CVD risk. For people with certain disease conditions such as hypertension, renal, diabetes, they may benefit from extra vitamin K regarding CVD prevention but more studies are warranted. Discussion Observational studies showed that there is an inverse relationship between vitamin K status and cardiovascular disease. However, the underlying mechanism behind the association is complex and remains unclear. One thing I learned from this interview is that race and ethnicity can interact with vitamin K status differently, leading to inequivalent exposure to CVD risks. However, current studies did not find conclusive results. Future studies in racially and ethnically diverse groups are needed to identify how race and ethnicity play a role in the association between vitamin K status and CVD. For further investigation, I would like to work towards identifying the association between vitamin K status and CVD in different ethnic groups. In addition, people with certain diseases may benefit from vitamin K supplement regarding CVD. I would also like to investigate more about whether chronic kidney disease patients may benefit from vitamin K supplements. The research finding could shed lights on an effective approach in decreasing the patients’ CVD risks and enhancing the health condition of renal patients. References: Vissers, Linda E. T., et al. “Intake of Dietary Phylloquinone and Menaquinones and Risk of Stroke.” Journal of the American Heart Association, vol. 2, no. 6, 2013, doi:10.1161/jaha.113.000455. “Vitamin K.” Linus Pauling Institute, Linus Pauling Institute, 26 Nov. 2018, lpi.oregonstate.edu/mic/vitamins/vitamin-K#coagulation. Cheung, Ching-Lung, et al. “Vitamin K Intake and Mortality in People with Chronic Kidney Disease from NHANES III.” Clinical Nutrition, vol. 34, no. 2, 2015, pp. 235–240., doi:10.1016/j.clnu.2014.03.011. Juanola-Falgarona, et al. “Dietary Intake of Vitamin K Is Inversely Associated with Mortality Risk.” OUP Academic, Oxford University Press, 19 Mar. 2014, academic.oup.com/jn/article/144/5/743/4615722. Shea, M Kyla, et al. “Circulating Vitamin K Is Inversely Associated with Incident Cardiovascular Disease Risk among Those Treated for Hypertension in the Health, Aging, and Body Composition Study (Health ABC).” The Journal of Nutrition, vol. 147, no. 5, 2017, pp. 888–895., doi:10.3945/jn.117.249375. Shea, M. Kyla, et al. “Circulating Uncarboxylated Matrix Gla Protein Is Associated with Vitamin K Nutritional Status, but Not Coronary Artery Calcium, in Older Adults.” The Journal of Nutrition, vol. 141, no. 8, 2011, pp. 1529–1534., doi:10.3945/jn.111.139634. Cushman, Mary, et al. “Associations between Vitamin K Status and Haemostatic and Inflammatory Biomarkers in Community-Dwelling Adults.” Thrombosis and Haemostasis, vol. 112, no. 09, 22 May 2014, pp. 438–444., doi:10.1160/th13-12-1003. “Vitamin K.” Gale Encyclopedia of Nursing and Allied Health. . Encyclopedia.com. 10 Dec. 2018 . Share this: Facebook Twitter Reddit LinkedIn WhatsApp
Overview: Technology has made team collaboration easier and more effective, but assembling the right mix of people and skills for a project remains a challenge for many organizations.

Scenario: You have been tasked with creating a training program to help executive management develop fully functional virtual teams around North America (Mexico, U.S., and Canada) that will either (1) develop new products, (2) be tasked with regional distribution services, or (3) be in charge of regional marketing; this is your choice.

The name of the training program is titled ?The Dream Team.?

You are going to create a virtual team training session and you will choose the reason for the teams? development through the training program from the three possibilities provided above. Then address the following checklist items:

Checklist:

You will describe the overall training program to train 20 teams of 5 for the reason you chose.Use the Training Steps (from your reading area on tab #2) to create an agenda that will include the vital content you deem necessary to manage and develop collaborative high performing teams for the purpose you selected from the three possibilities.Make sure to address the needed team building process steps.How will these teams manage themselves?What skills will these high performing team members need to direct themselves?What skills will be needed and what practices will need to be implemented by the external leaders of these high performing teams?Respond in a 2 to 3-page paper with 2 short in-text citations in current APA format and citation style with additional title and reference pages.

NSG482 University of Phoenix Community Health Plan Paper.

Use the data from your family and community assessments (I have attached these files) to:*Analyze the role of community/public health nursing and community partnerships as they apply to the case study family’s community.*Analyze the influence of social determinants of health, such as culture and access to resources, in the case study family’s community.*Compare epidemiological data for the case study family’s community to state-level data.*Determine at least one community nursing diagnosis that relates to the case study family’s community.Select one Healthy People 2020 Leading Health Indicator (LHI) that relates to your case study family’s community. Based on your selected LHI topic:*Identify at least one nursing intervention for each diagnosis above. *List the health partnership(s) that could or do assist in implementing the interventions in the community.Create a plan for how nurses can advocate within the community for sustained change. Include:Goal(s)Planned action Needed resourcesTimeframe for evaluationInclude at least one peer-reviewed and one evidence-based reference, and an APA-formatted reference page.Note: Remove all personally identifying information such as the family members’ names. Refer to family members by initials only.Format your assignment as an:1100 word document.
NSG482 University of Phoenix Community Health Plan Paper

Personal Reflection And Action Plan

Personal Reflection And Action Plan. Self-monitoring is a personality trait which measures the ability of an individual (he or she) to adjust their behaviour to the demand of the external situational factors. There were many situations where my behavior was not proper with respect to understanding of other person’s situation. Every employee gets stressed as they approach deadlines. I have neglected colleagues many times by not replying to their urgent emails because I was much worried about completion of work on time, though the sender required input data from me to go ahead further. I gave inappropriate answers to colleagues who approached me for technical doubts that added unnecessary arguments. The management had introduced a new process for the projects like documentation, reviews and so on. I argued many times by not thinking from perspective of the manager and the organization. There were situations when I got escalated with trivial issues. However, the problem might have been solved easily if I had thought from the other person’s perspective and acted accordingly. 1.Action Described People Centred Manager Skills that I will develop Example of New Behaviour you will display given this new skill Resources you need to implement action Action’s specific benefits to an organization according to theory ( KinickiPersonal Reflection And Action Plan

University of the Cumberlands Module 12 Sony Corporation Analysis Paper

online homework help University of the Cumberlands Module 12 Sony Corporation Analysis Paper.

All original threads should be at least 250 words. This parameter helps to promote writing that is thorough, yet concise enough to permit other students to read all the postings. The thoughts and opinions expressed in your thread need to be substantiated by research and literature (from the textbook or outside sources). All references should be in correct APA style. While this is a formal discussion environment, you are allowed to use the first person perspective in all your posts since you will be expressing your personal opinions. All original threads should: Bring clarity to the issues being discussed. Raise new and novel (yet relevant) points. Relate issues to personal experience. Rationally defend your stated position.Sony Corporation: An International Innovator?This activity is important because, as a manager, you must be able to understand how businesses can expand revenue and profits by expanding in foreign markets. Successful firms focus on value creation and strategic positioning.The goal of this exercise is to demonstrate your understanding of international business strategy: value creation, strategic positioning, value chain operations, global expansion opportunities, cost pressures, and choosing a strategy that fits with the core business model of a company in its industry.Read the case below and answer the questions that follow.Sony Corporation (sony.com) is one of the most well-known companies in the world. With a heritage from Japan as a multinational conglomerate that was founded in 1946, the company is headquartered in Kōnan, Minato, Tokyo. Sony has annual sales of about 7 trillion Japanese yen (65 billion U.S. dollars), 128,000 employees, and some 100 global subsidiaries and affiliates. The global strategy of Sony has been as an innovator in its industries of electronics, semiconductors, computers, video games, and telecommunications equipment.Strategically, Sony’s products and services can be classified into 12 core business segments: TV and video, audio, digital camera, professional products and solutions, medical, semiconductors, smartphones and Internet, game and network services, pictures, music, and financial services. To integrate these 12 segments, Sony has a vision of “using our unlimited passion for technology, content and services to deliver groundbreaking new excitement and entertainment.” The mission is even clearer. Sony is “a company that inspires and fulfills your curiosity.”This “strategic curiosity” has served Sony well as a global innovator for more than seven decades. For example, in 1960 Sony launched the world’s first direct-view portable transistor TV and in 1961 developed the world’s first transistor-based videotape recorder. The strategy for the future is through the stunning reality of visuals that can be created by big-screen TVs and dynamic sound, Sony plans to transform the viewing experience from “watching” to “feeling.”Behind the scenes, Sony has also spent more than 50 years honing its technological excellence in the field of broadcasting and in the professional products. The company’s products are widely used in the production of movies and television shows, as well as in live sporting events. This has resulted in a high global market share for Sony and the company receiving a number of Emmy Awards—one of the most prestigious prizes in the broadcasting industry. Moving forward, Sony is placing a strategic emphasis on providing new value through end-to-end solutions that meet the needs of various customers by incorporating technologies enhanced in the area of content creation.Beyond the 12 core segments that have served Sony well strategically for a long time, the company is embarking on global initiatives to create new business opportunities. They are accelerating research and development (R&D) activities to bring about innovations that can, if successful, become new strategic business segments serving customers’ needs and wants. To strategically evaluate and nurture potential opportunities, Sony divides these into new business ventures (Life Space UX, Seed Acceleration Program, and Sports Entertainment) and R&D opportunities (Future Lab Program and Sony Computer Science Laboratories Inc.).On the business venture side, Life Space UX is a concept that is defined by delivering unique experiences and facilitating new ways to transform a person’s living space. The Seed Acceleration Program’s goal is to gather and nurture new business ideas from beyond the boundaries of existing Sony organizations (which is very similar to many organizations’ strategies that are innovatively new). Additionally, with its range of products and services designed to enrich various everyday life situations, Sony is focused on a new business venture of providing discoveries and experiences in sports.The Future Lab Program is a part of Sony’s heavy investment in R&D. It embraces an approach to technological R&D that emphasizes an open creative environment and direct lines of communication with society, with the end goal being to co-create new lifestyles and customer value. At Sony Computer Science Laboratories Inc.—often abbreviated to Sony CSL—value is assessed based on achievements that can contribute to humanity and society, to new science and technology, to industrial progress, and to product development.Sources: Anousha Sakoui and Yuji Nakamura, “Sony CEO Heads to Hollywood in Push to Revive Movie Studio,” Bloomberg Businessweek, January 31, 2017; “New Business and R&D,” March 22, 2017, www.sony.net/SonyInfo/CorporateInfo/newbusiness; “Here’s Sony’s New Business Strategy,” The Economist, February 21, 2015; and “Sony Global Corporate Strategy,” June 29, 2016.Sony has 12 core segments in its business. Is this too many or not enough? Are today’s companies diversified like they used to be a few decades ago? Can Sony’s 12-segment business model be sustainable?The Future Lab Program, which is a part of Sony’s investment in R&D, embraces an approach to technological R&D that emphasizes an open creative environment and direct lines of communication with society, with the end goal being to co-create new lifestyles and customer value. Does Sony create significant customer value? Does Sony create new lifestyles?
University of the Cumberlands Module 12 Sony Corporation Analysis Paper

Business Finance for financial analysis must include Forecast financial statement

Business Finance for financial analysis must include Forecast financial statement.

it’s case study need someone to be able to write a presentation I will provide all the information and the case. will need presentation slides Case name Polymold Division 1.Forecast the financial statements for the Polymold Division with and without the CAD/CAM purchase.a.What differences do you find in the income statements as a result of the purchase?What causes those changes?b.What differences do you find in the balance sheets as a result of the purchase?What causes those differences?2.If you were deciding whether or not to purchase CAD/CAM, what financial statement information would you consider?What other information would you take into account?3.Should the Polymold Division be allowed to purchase the CAD/CAM?
Business Finance for financial analysis must include Forecast financial statement

Example Answers to Questions on What is Strategy

What is the focus of the assigned material? Present a summary of each video/paper assigned; focus on the most important message presented in each. YouTube video: Talking Management: Pure Managing with Mintzberg. The video discusses Mintzberg’s research and experience into the fundamentals of pure management. According to Mintzberg (2010), management is not simple and that is more an Art than Science and remains a basic human activity in three planes where managers’ act through information, works through people, and manage action directly. He describes the existence of a wide range of management practices and not a matter of which is right or wrong. He describes how a lot of myths are dispelled once you observe what managers actually do. To illustrate his point he dispels the myth that some people believe that leadership is more important than managing. He stresses that leadership and management are tantamount and should not be separated in practice (Mintzberg, 2010). Mintzberg discusses the unavoidable conundrums of management. He details the challenge of how does a person remains connected to what he or she is doing when becoming a manager disconnects you from what you are managing. In his final point Mintzberg (2010), discusses that effective managers are not flawed fatally in the circumstance and the environment they are managing. As managers we have to make sure we are right for the job and where our weaknesses don’t undermine our success. b.). YouTube video: What is Strategy? by Michael Porter The object of the video is to illustrate how good strategy is developed and how to separate strategy from other types of goals, objectives and issues that managers’ are frequently engaged in (Porter, 2009). According to Porter (2009), mistakes that organizations’ often make is that they define steps they may want to take and which may be appropriate but are not strategy. To illustrate he uses examples whereby an organization may declare that their strategy is to internalize a process, or that their strategy is to consolidate their industry, or to outsource more of their production. These steps that organizations take are not strategy. Porter states that strategy is what your company’s unique position needs to be, what it will be able to achieve to have a distinct advantage over your competition, and how it is going to be sustained over time (Porter, 2009). Numerous companies become engrossed on a particular action they may want to take and that becomes their strategy. Reading: Of Strategies, Deliberate and Emergent by H. Mintzberg