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St Johns College Adjusting General Journal Adjustments Worksheet

St Johns College Adjusting General Journal Adjustments Worksheet.

The unadjusted trial balance of Fix-It Co. at Febuary 28, 2010, the end of the current year,is shown in the sheet entiltled “Worksheet”. The data needed to determine year-end adjustmentsare as follows:A. Supplies on hand at February 28 are $4,000.B. Insurance premiums expired during the year are $2,000.C. Depreciation of equipment during the year is $6,000.D. Depreciation of trucks during the year is $3,500.E. Wages accrued but not paid at February 28 are $450.Instructions:1 Formulate the adjusting general journal entries for the problem in the sheet provided and the post into the worksheet. Include a narrative for each general journal entry.2 Complete the twelve (12) coulumn worksheet.3 Calculate the Net Income or Net Loss for the problem.4 Formulate the Closing Entries with narratives for the problem in the sheet provided.5 Formulate the Post-Closing Trial Balance for the problem in the sheet provided.6 When finished, kindly TURN IN and upload spreadsheet into google classroom.BEST OF LUCK !!
St Johns College Adjusting General Journal Adjustments Worksheet

SOC 320 Week 5 Journal. I’m working on a Sociology exercise and need support.

Week 5 – Journal
Reflections on Federal Immigration Policy
For your journal entry, you will explore aspects of your personal experience and/or beliefs regarding significant public policies and what you have learned in your readings. As you reflect, please address the following questions:
What are the major current federal immigration policy issues?
In your informed opinion, why is immigration policy such a controversial issue?
Describe at least two opposing viewpoints on federal immigration policy
What, if anything, has changed or is changing, and how does it affect you personally?
What were your thoughts prior to reading this week’s reading assignments?
How has your perspective been either reinforced or changed now that you are more informed?
There are many Recommended Resources that can assist you in this journal assignment.
The purpose of the journal activity is to allow you to thoroughly reflect upon what you have learned during this course, particularly this week, and to provide you with an opportunity to relate this what you have learned this week to your own experiences. The reflective journal is not a formal written assignment. However, you are expected to adhere to conventional rules of grammar, sentence structure, spelling, and punctuation while focusing on clearly conveying your thoughts between 300-500 words.
Recommended Resources
Articles
1. Aguirre, A. (2008/2009). Immigration on the public mind: Immigration reform in the Obama administration. Social Justice, 35(4), 4-11. Retrieved from the ProQuest Central database.(The article focuses on how the administration of U.S. President Barack Obama developed its plan for addressing issues surrounding Mexican immigration.)
2. Brezenski, T. F. (2011). Lessions learned? A comparison of modern state immigration laws and past federal health policy in the stigmatization of minority groups in the United States. Journal of Multidisciplinary Research, 3(3), 25-37. Retrieved from the ProQuest Central database.(This article reviews anti-illegal immigration laws and long term effects in stigmatizing minority populations.)
Required Resources
Required Text
1. The policy game: Understanding U.S. public policy making
Chapter 7: Changing or Terminating Policy
Chapter 12: A case study in Implementation and Evaluation: The Debates Over Federal Immigration Policy
Chapter 13: Understanding Choices and Decisions about Policy
SOC 320 Week 5 Journal

Sociology homework help. Explain the differences in men and women as both victims and offenders in terms of deviance and crime. Are the rates of victimization and crime different? What factors lead to those gender differences? How does gender affect treatment in the criminal justice system?,Explain the differences in men and women as both victims and offenders,1. Explain the differences in men and women as both victims and offenders in terms of deviance and crime. Are the rates of ,victimization, and crime different? What factors lead to those gender differences? Also, How does gender affect treatment in the criminal justice system?, , Or, 2. Analyze the claim that there are gender differences in academic performance. Furthermore, What factors lead to this gender gap in education? Besides, What are the short-term and long-term effects of the gap?,Lastly, Provide an example of how teacher expectations can impact academic achievement.,Firstly, What is the relationship between gender and crime?,Males were more likely to be murder victims (76.8%). Females were most likely to be victims of domestic homicides (63.7%) and sex-related homicides (81.7%) Males were most likely to be victims of drug-related (90.5%) and gang-related homicides (94.6%).,What is a gendered crime?,A gender crime is a hate crime commit against a specific gender. Specific gender crimes may include some instances of rape, genital mutilation, forced prostitution, and forced pregnancy. Further, gender crimes are commit during arm ed conflict or during times of political upheaval or instability.,Who is most likely to commit a crime?,Gender and biology Males commit more crime overall and more violent crime than females. They commit more property crime except shoplifting, which is about equally distributed between the genders. Moreover, Males appear to be more likely to re-offend.,What is considered a property crime?,Property crime is a category of crime, usually involving private property, that includes, among other crimes, burglary, larceny, theft, motor vehicle theft, arson, shoplifting, and vandalism. When property is destroy, it could be called arson or vandalism., ,Attachments,Click Here To Download,Sociology homework help
Bollywood, the second largest film industry is widely known for its form of creative art. It is a form of art with the ability to entertain, educate, and reflect and shape our sense of who we are and our understanding of the society in which we live. In Hindi films there exists the hero and heroine, however gender hierarchy can be seen and importance is imposed on the male actor. One would agree that the Hindi film industry is male-centric, with limited space for females to be versatile in the character they play. The roles played by the heroine are almost replicated by the same guidelines seen within the Indian society. The Indian society is an influence to Bollywood and is what shapes and defines the roles played by females in films. It has been quoted “if the image [of women in the cinema] is submissive or secondary, it is the society who is responsible for it . . . filmmakers, keeping in mind the commercial aspect of films, simply highlight what exists”1. The portrayal of women in Hindi films has been stable in correspondence to the norms and values contained in the Indian society. India is known to be a hierarchal society, whether it is religion, northern or southern Indian, all groups of people are ranked according to various qualities. Within gender hierarchy, men outrank women of the same or similar age, and senior relatives outrank junior relatives2. This same concept is taken into the Hindi film industry where more emphasis is created on the male actor. From the beginning of the film process importance is on the male. For example within the internal aspects of film processing the second step is acquisition of leading male role and then followed by female acquisitions3. None the less, females are a priority in films; however their portrayals in films are steady and follow certain guidelines according to the roles played. Indian society has many norms and values, one being the role played by an individual in the society. In Indian society the dominant forms of how women are seen are either as the nurturing mother, innocent wife, the vamp, or the educated modern woman. One or more forms of these roles are always portrayed in Hindi films. With these roles come specific characteristics that are viewed in the society which are then followed and expressed in Hindi films. For example it is considered ideal for a woman in Indian society to have characteristics that include, passive, victimized, sacrificial, submissive, glorified, static, one-dimensional and resilient4. These are the traits that are then brought into the film which not only reflect culture, but also shape culture. India is a religiously complex society with dominancy in the complex religion of Hinduism. In traditional Indian society there were definite and essential norms of behaviour that were usually passed down from previous generations. For example Sita, from the Hindu mythology of Ramayana was seen as ideal woman and ideal wife as she was unwaveringly loyal to her husband and obeys his wishes unquestionably5. Hindi films have achieved this ideal of wife’s self devotion. The Indian society is known to be restricted to strict rules and regulations which are to be followed by women. The moral of the Indian society states no independence in women and that she should always be under the guidance of another significant male. For example a female in childhood is subjected to her father, in youth to her husband and after to her children. This interpretation of females can be seen in the film Mother India directed by Mehoob Khan. This film reveals the ideal characteristics of a mother played by Nargis. At the beginning of the movie it seen that she plays the typical role of a female who is married in an Indian traditional manner. The song “Pi Ke Ghar Aaj Pyari Dulhaniya Chali” is a significant with the line that states that it is a women’s fate to leave home. This applies to the traditional moral of the female being passed on from the authority of the father to her husband who now she must be committed to. This is seen in the character. Dharma referring “self-subsistence or a universal law or norm, which applies at the moral, the ritual and social level6. This is another religious and mythological aspect that is inflicted upon women. This is also portrayed in the film through and expressed in the song “Duniya Men Hum Aaye Hain”. Here the lyrics in the song express that the only honour that a women has in her life is a women’s dharma. In context of the movie it states that a women may overcome her struggles but with the conditions that are still expected with the role of a mother. After her husband leaving her she still has hope that he will return and keeps faith and raises her children on her own sacrificing everything she has. This shows the over stress on the love for husband and the duties she has as a mother. It can be seen that in any case, in Indian society the first priority of females is to always keep in mind the norms and values placed on them as females. One may argue that these norms and values have changed within the Indian society with the progression of modernization. However, the lifestyle may have changed in roles of mothers, but the beliefs of the values and norms still exist. For example Kal Ho Na Ho directed by Nikhil Advani is a film set in New York with a modern setting. The role played by Jaya Bachchan shows similar characteristics of a mother which were portrayed by Nargis in Mother India. Jaya Bachchan, also a widowed female in the film experiences many difficulties due to her husband committing suicide. Even though the true reasoning behind the suicide is known by her, the blame is turned towards her by her mother-in-law. However, this does not stop her from being loyal to her husband as she stayed widowed and to the challenge to raise her children and show her devotedness to her husband. Throughout the film we see that she still supports her husband when people including her daughter talk negatively about him. Here she is also in the struggle of raising her children up on her own and sacrifices all she has to raise them and keep them happy. In both Kal Ho Na Ho and Mother India the role of the mother can be seen to be dedicated with the qualities of self sacrifice, devotion, and religious beliefs. If not seen as a traditional woman with traditional values, in Hindi films the female is then portrayed as the vamp or modernized women. Bollywood shows both the traditional and modernity of females, yet tends to portray the modern as immoral and favour the traditional aspects. The vamp is usually portrayed as morally dishonoured person and associated with everything that is disagreeable about the west7. Again this is due to the norms and values seen in the Indian society. In this case women are seen as decorative objects and used for entertainment. Courtesan is another common role played by women which is attended for an arousing effect upon men. These types of roles are usually associated with protagonist character. The female is seen modern and revealing clothes and becomes an object of male desire. In many films with picturization of this role of female is usually seen to be glamorous and captures the female’s beauty in a sensual manner. An example of this is seen in the movie Sholay directed by Ramesh Sippy in the song “Mehbooba Mehbooba”. Here the female dancer appears very different from the other female lead roles. She is there for entertainment and to add glamour. Her clothes are revealing and she is used for the pleasure of the antagonist. A similar but slightly different scene is also seen in “Kal Ho Na Ho” with the song “It’s the time to disco”. The difference in this song is that the lead female is in the song but is portrayed with a different characteristic that is not the usual in her role. Here Naina (Preity Zinta) is raised in New York but is a casual girl. In this particular scene the audience sees that her attire is modernized, but not revealing. However, in the song a different perspective of her is seen when she gets drunk. Her clothes become more revealing and her actions are different. This is intended to show how a female may act when they go outside of their boundaries of the Indian society and the consequence of it. Jaswinder (Lilette Dubby) in the movie is would be seen as the vamp in the movie as her clothes are trendy and she is flirty around men. Not only are women who aren’t seen in traditional clothes seen as vamps, but also those who don’t obey traditional rules. These would include those who are adventurous, independent and have values different from the norms. Thus, women commonly in Hindi films are either the modernized seductive role or the sophisticated tradition Indian women. There are many women in the Bombay film industry. Many have reacted with different opinions on how females are being portrayed. For example quoted from Ayesha Jhulka, an actress: “You have to accept the fact that it’s a male-dominated industry. And you have to accept that basically heroes are given much more importance than the heroine…So it’s better to accept it and then carry on. You have your own place which nobody else can take. What you can do, the heroes probably can’t do”8. Another opinion quoted by the actress Shabana Azmi: “The one thing that hasn’t changed only superficially I think, is in its portrayal of women…I think it’s a waste if you don’t offer them and give them roles that are on par with their hero…I think that would be very interesting, and basically do films that are pro-women”8. Lastly. Actress Ritha Bhaduri states: “At the moment I think character roles have more to say than the female heroine, actress…There are very few films that are women-oriented, or have a women dominating the whole thing”8. From these opinions of several actresses it can be concluded that many actresses are aware of the stereotypical roles given to women in Hindi films. They do feel that there isn’t much importance given to their roles, but also know that a film without a complementing female role would not do very well in the box office. Even though the roles of females are driven by the aspects in the Indian society, actresses have continued to accept the roles and play them according. As stated previously the main cause for this orientation is due to what takes place in the society. As the Indian society makes different progression a change in female roles in Hindi films will also be seen. In conclusion, the female roles played in Hindi film are very restricted and do not have space for variety. Either they are seen as objects to add glamour and entertainment to the film or they are portrayed with important roles such as mothers but with general Indian societal values that come with that role. The Indian society has a main impact on the portrayal of women in Indian cinema. The Indian society has been shaping the role of women in Hindi films Endnotes: 1 Boot, Gregory D. “Making a Woman from a Tawaif: Courtesans as Heros in Hinidi Cinema.” New Zealand Journal of Asian Studies, 2007: 3 (http://www.nzasia.org). 2 James Heiztman, Robert L.Worden. India Country Studies. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data, 1995: 235. 3 Class lecture (Vishwanathan 2010) 4 Pattanayak, Saswat. Women journalists in Hindi Films:http://saswat.com/articles/bollywomen.htm. 5 Chap. 5 Indian Popular Cinema: A Narrative of Cultural Change, by Wimal Dissanayake K. Moti Gokulsing, 79. Trentham Books, 2004. 6 Chap. 6 Indian Popular Cinema: A Narrative of Cultural Change, by Wimal Dissanayake K. Moti Gokulsing, 39-44. Trentham Books, 2004. 7 Wimal Dissanayake.79.2004 8 In Bollywood a guide book to popular Hindi cinema , by Tejaswini Ganti. 187-192: Routledge

Arizona State University Rise in Criminal Activities Writers Journal

Arizona State University Rise in Criminal Activities Writers Journal.

BackgroundDeciding on a research project can be daunting for many students; after all, at the end of the project they must produce something–some sort of artifact–based on their research. There are ways, however, that researchers can both alleviate their anxiety and ensure that their research process will be more effective and engaging.PurposeIn this Writer’s Journal, you will reflect on an initial central research question (CRQ) for you to explore throughout this course. If you are able to begin your course-long research project with a CRQ that is both precise and interesting, you will find it easier to stay motivated and be effective as you work through subsequent research steps.Skills and OutcomesRecognize a local problem or issue (Critical Thinking, Reading, and Composing; Processes)Explain why a local problem or issue is interesting (Rhetorical Knowledge; Critical Thinking, Reading, and Composing)Generate a productively-complicated central research question (Rhetorical Knowledge; Processes)Habits of Mind PracticedCuriosityOpennessEngagementMetacognitionTasksIn your journal entry, you should first describe a problem or issue in your local community. Your “community” can be where you live, where you work, or even a group with common interests that you belong to. Next, explain why this problem or issue is interesting to you AND why it may be interesting to others. If it is not interesting, or if you have a difficult time describing why it is interesting to you AND others, you should consider a different problem that is more interesting to you.Finally, use the resources we have already covered in this module to craft a CRQ (be sure to see “Strategies for Complicating a CRQ”).*NOTE: There are many different ways to approach these tasks, but you should aim to be as thorough as possible in your response (approximately 500 words is a good target length).Criteria for SuccessIn each Writer’s Journal, you should:clearly address each question or task;employ many details, examples, and explanations in answering each question or task; and,create an internally organized text, employing sentences (or notes where applicable) that clearly relate to one another.
Arizona State University Rise in Criminal Activities Writers Journal

The Silent Language in Overseas Business by Edward Hall Essay

best assignment help The Silent Language in Overseas Business by Edward Hall Essay. The article written by Edward Hall (1960) describes the differences in the behavior of American entrepreneurs and those people who represent other cultures. In particular, the author focuses on such aspects as time and space management, attitudes toward formal agreements or friendship, and people’s values that may affect business communication. Overall, this source can be of great use to organizations and individuals who want to do business in Latin American countries, for example, one can mention Brazil. Edward Hall identifies possible causes of miscommunication and conflicts that may arise because people do not understand the perceptions of one another. This is why cultural differences should be taken into account. Edward Hall attracts the readers’ attention the peculiarities of time management in the United States and Latin America. For example, American entrepreneurs may regard a delay as lack of punctuality or commitment (Hall, 1960, p. 89). They may even come to their conclusion that their business partners lost interest in their prior agreement (Hall, 1960, p. 89). In contrast, Brazilian entrepreneurs attach less importance to schedules, but it does mean that they lack commitment (Williams, 2011, p. 454). Thus, American entrepreneurs should take this difference into account because they can result miscommunication and failure to establish business agreements. Secondly, Edward Hall’s article is useful because it demonstrates that cultural values can differ significantly and people do not regard the same things in a similar way. For instance, Edward Hall shows that in Latin America, friendship implies that people have to assume more obligations toward their friends (Hall, 1960, p. 96). It is a much closer relationship and Edward Hall points out that “being a friend involves much more than being nice, visiting, and playing golf” (Hall, 1960, p. 96). This is why American entrepreneurs may not establish friendly relations as quickly as they expect. Additionally, researchers argue that in Brazil business relationship and business can be diffused (Kotabe, M.The Silent Language in Overseas Business by Edward Hall Essay

Assumptions, research design and data collection strategies

Chapter 1 Introduction The purpose of this assignment is to offer a critical analysis of the underpinning assumptions and research design and data collection strategies and the practice of academic research. Two research papers are chosen for the purpose of this analysis. The first paper is a quantitative study and the second paper is a qualitative study. They are as follows:- Shafer, W. E., Fukukawa, K. and Lee, G. M. (2007) ‘Values and the perceived importance of ethics and social responsibility: The U.S. versus China’, Journal of Business Ethics, 70 (3), pp. 265-284. Tsoi, J. (2007) ‘Stakeholders’ perceptions and future scenarios to improve corporate social responsibility in Hong Kong and Mainland China’, Journal of Business Ethics, pp. 1-14. The main reason for selecting these two papers is that they both report upon the area of corporate social responsibility, which is the focus of my PhD. Within the field of corporate social responsibility (CSR), there has been considerable research discussing the relationship between values and perception with the attitude/behaviour of businesses towards CSR. These values are considered quantifiable and thus have been measured quantitatively using scales developed by authors such as Forsyth (1980), Singhapakdi et al.(1996), and Vitell and Patwardhan (2008). Interviews have been used to bring forward the values that are deemed important by stakeholders, and were explored qualitatively by Fukukawa and Teramoto (2009), Siltaoja (2006), and Lähdesmäki and Siltaoja (2009). The two papers selected both looked at cross-cultural values and perceptions, however, they utilise different methods of investigation. This difference could provide a good basis for comparison, in terms of philosophical assumptions, research design, and the method of data collection. The analyses will begin for each paper with an introduction of the research aims, followed by the epistemological and ontological position, the research design, followed by analysis of its research methodology, the alternative research design and lastly, conclusions from this discussion will be provided. Chapter 2 Review of Quantitative Research paper 2.1 Research Objectives This study by Shafer, Fukukawa and Lee (2007) examined the values and the perceived importance of ethics and social responsibility on managers from China and the U.S. The authors used scales instruments to obtain quantitative data in order to make inferences on whether the managers’ nationality and personal values have effect on their ethical perception. The American and Chinese managers are assumed to differ in their personal values and subsequently this should be reflected from their responses to the “Perceived Role of Ethics and Social Responsibility” (PRESOR) scale. The authors provided the relevant background information and built up the reasoning for their hypotheses. The first hypothesis was that managers from China would believe less strongly than American managers in the importance of ethically and socially responsible conduct to achieve organisational success. The second hypothesis was that both American and Chinese managers’ personal values are believed to have significant impact on the responses to the scale. These hypotheses seem to correlate strongly with the research objectives which are to determine that there is variation in response due to cultural differences. 2.2 Epistemological and Ontological Assumptions It is likely that the authors based their research on moral philosophy which “refers in particular to the principles of rules that people use to decide what is right or wrong” (Ferrell, Fraedrich and Ferrell, 2005:19). This paper seems to indicate that the principles of rules of managers of different cultures are likely to differ and thus ethical decision-making would vary. The authors provided examples of other empirical research to support this notion. The assumption that personal values can influence ethical decisions shows that the research is likely to infer an ontological assumption of realist, whereby reality is seen to have an existence independent of the activities of the human observer (Blaikie, 2007:13). As the research strives to compare values and perceptions, these elements are thought to be measurable and quantifiable; seemingly leaning towards the empiricism position in which the key idea is that knowledge comes from observing the world (Blaikie, 2007:19). The authors employed deductive research whereby the “hypotheses formed are tested to determine if the statements can be supported” (Sekaran, 2003:31), which is a typical research approach of empiricists. Taking possibly the stance of positivists, these values are assumed measureable, and are thus thought to form the social reality that these values affect the perception of corporate social responsibility amongst the managers from these two countries. 2.3 Research Design The intention is to establish the differences in personal values, by using large quantities of data, which would be representative of the overall population of American and Chinese managers. This suggests that there are two assumptions, that values are measureable and that it is possible to generalise the population from the sample. In order to generalise, a considerably large amount of data is required, thus a survey research instrument was employed. The PRESOR scale developed by Singhapakdi et al. (1995) was used. The reasons that the PRESOR scale was chosen over the cultural dimensions formed by Hofstede (2001) were argued; examples of the latter in other research were shown to be inconsistent and inconclusive in its directional impact, thus making theoretical predictions difficult. The use of PRESOR scale in other research was exemplified and seemed to have established the reliability of its measurement. The PRESOR scale was explained further in the introduction of the paper. Thirteen out of sixteen original items were selected and the authors justified this by stating that only these thirteen items had significant factor loadings in the Singhapakdi, Scott and Franke (1999:25) study. These items were grouped into two categories; the Stockholder and the Stakeholder views. The Stakeholder View reflects the importance of ethics and social responsibility to organisational survival and success, whilst the Stockholder view indicates that organisational success depends on more than just profitability and obligations to the stockholders (Axinn et al., 2004:104) In the methodology section, the Schwartz value instrument and a demographic questionnaire were mentioned as being used together with the PRESOR scale. There was little mention of the reasons the Schwartz scale was used and how it was applied. It was only later in the appendix that the items considered in the Schwartz scale was provided in details. A clearer explanation could have improved the clarity of the paper. The research design employed the use of two research instruments (PRESOR scale and Schwartz value instrument) as means for data collection. The sample of practising managers from the two different countries was given the same survey to complete, thus the responses could be compared on that basis. The results from the analyses were then compared against the hypotheses formed, affirming or not affirming the hypotheses. This process is typical of the deductive approach (Blaikie, 2007:70). 2.4 Data Collection The sample consisted of 311 practising managers, enrolled part time in selective MBA programmes in the U.S. and China. The participation was voluntary and the scales were completed as an in-class exercise. The authors acknowledged potential problems from this sample selection. The first is that, although the MBA programmes in these two countries appear to be comparable, the sample may have confounded the effects of national differences and MBA programme differences. Secondly, the sample was not randomly selected as the authors had asked their students to complete the scales in-class. The authors did not provide further justification for these two problems and thus this is believed to have weakened the external validity of this investigation (Bryman and Bell, 2007:204). Aside from this comment from the authors, there was very little mention of the validity of the measurement which makes it difficult to make further discussion on this. The basis of their selectivity and the criteria in which these programmes were said to be comparable, were also not provided in details. The details of its comparability may have helped clarify and strengthen the validity of the selection criteria, as well as making the paper more understandable. Considering the objectives of the research, in which the authors seem to be looking at making generalisations on the affect of personal values, there is a need to collect large quantities of data. The survey method seems to be appropriate as surveys are easy to distribute to large number of people and costs can be kept to a minimum (Bryman and Bell, 2007:195). This relates to external validity, which is “about generalisability of results beyond the focal study” (Easterby-Smith et al., 2008:87). In this paper, external validity was not discussed; however, it is likely that the results are meant to be applicable for the context of China and the U.S. only. The authors stated the limitation of which the participants can not be assumed as representative of the broader populations of managers in these two countries, due to the fact that the MBA programmes were selective in nature. The research took consideration of the possibility that the age and experience differences of their sample might affect the results, and thus these factors were examined for significance. The scale was translated to Mandarin Chinese and later back-translated with resolution of discrepancies, to take account of the language difference. These examples seem to reflect on the effort of the authors in ensuring that the results are not significantly affected by other variables. In order to test the dimensionality of the PRESOR scale, a principal components factor analysis with varimax rotation and Kaiser normalisation was applied. This is typical of a quantitative study where factor analysis is usually applied as part of the research design. In terms of research replication, this research had provided considerable amount of information which would possibly allow other researchers to perform similar research. The items from the two views (Stockholder and Stakeholder) of the PRESOR scale were provided in details. In addition, the authors also mentioned the calculation method used, such as the use of mean values and the Univariate Analysis of Covariance models (ANCOVA). The only exception would probably be the PRESOR scale itself, whereby the questions that were asked and the choice answers were not explicitly given, which might mean that future researchers might find it difficult to replicate the research and might even have to approach the authors or Singhapakdi who developed the scale. 2.5 Alternative Method The authors mentioned that more in-depth examination using qualitative design of investigation such as interviews would perhaps be more revealing. It is agreed that qualitative measure would allow insights into the importance of ethics to managers, and the various ethical issues that managers prioritise. The researchers are more likely to obtain a richer data of the decision-making process of managers, at the same time; they would be able to achieve the research objectives. The researchers can make use of semi-structured type interview which will allow better control of what questions need to be asked, and to ensure that the objectives of the interview are achieved as well (Bryman and Bell, 2007:474), if time and costs are constraints. There are also other alternatives methods to obtain qualitative data that would have fit this research, such as the use of focus groups. Focus group interviews allow researchers to observe the behaviour of the American and Chinese managers as they interact with each other. It would be possible to see the differences in reaction to ethical issues much more clearly, when these managers are given, for example, the same ethical dilemma, and they are required to rationalise the problem and come up with solutions. This method might be more useful than questionnaire surveys, particularly in that the values of the American and Chinese managers could be brought out through the way they respond and react to ethical problems, the problem-rationalisation process, and the degree of attention paid on a particular problem. Similar to the interview method, this would be considerably more costly to conduct, and it might even be more costly than doing interviews, however, the researchers would gain not only in achieving the research objectives but they would also attain a better understanding of the effects of personal values in ethical decision-making. However, if the goal was only to establish that perception of CSR differs between diverse cultures, the research design would have fit the purpose. This is because the data collection strategy used (questionnaire survey), allowed the authors to obtain considerably response for generalisation. A questionnaire survey would also have been more cost-efficient and less time consuming, especially for cross-cultural studies. Chapter 3 Review of Qualitative Research paper 3.1 Research Objectives In this second paper, this qualitative study aims to make apparent the perceptions and views of the future scenarios from stakeholders within the garment industry in Hong Kong and Mainland China. The underlying intention was to seek consensus and common ground, on a local and regional level to help companies develop an appropriate CSR strategy, to improve the state of corporate social responsibility and in the long run, to achieve sustainability in the region. The main objective was stated as “by engaging with major stakeholders, to identify the local and regional supply chain stakeholders’ perceptions and expectations” (Tsoi, 2007:1). Typical of a qualitative study, generalisation is often not the objective of the study (Bryman and Bell, 2007:410). This is apparent from this study as the author had mentioned that the sample may not be sufficient for generalisation for the entire garment industry, however, it is “relevant to garment businesses involved in export-orientated activities” (Tsoi, 2007:1). Tsoi (2007) used an inductive approach to identify the perceptions of stakeholders by conducting interviews. 3.2 Epistemological and Ontological Assumptions Although the author did not indicate the philosophical assumptions behind this study, the author implied that by identifying the stakeholders’ perception, “the findings would help in building consensus, strengthening the implementation, and establishing future CSR framework”. This suggests that the author has an ontological position of constructionism, which asserts that social phenomena and their meanings are continually being accomplished by social actors, implying that there exists social interaction and that there is a constant state of revision of the social phenomena (Bryman and Bell, 2007:23). In this case study, the social reality of what is happening in the garment industry, in terms of its corporate social responsibility, is a social reality that was formed by the stakeholders. It suggests that the social phenomena (condition of CSR) can undergo changes, and that it is dependent on the activities of the social actors. The views of the social actors are thought to be indicative of the important issues in corporate social responsibility, within the garment industry. This form of research is consistent with the research paradigm of the interpretivist position, as the basis of the research is that the study of the phenomena requires an understanding of the social world that social actors have constructed and which they reproduced through their continuing activities (Blaikie, 2007:124). In this instance, the stakeholders are the social actors who will continually interpret and reinterpreting their social world which can be the garment industry. The social phenomenon that the author is investigating is the current state and the future of the corporate social responsibility in Hong Kong and Mainland China. The future conception of CSR in these two places is related to phenomenology, whereby, it concerns with the question of how individuals make sense of the world around them (Bryman and Bell, 2007:18). In this case, it can be viewed as the way stakeholders make sense of the state of corporate responsibility in the region. 3.3 Research Design The author relied on a qualitative method, specifically, the face-to-face semi-structured interview, which indicates the leanings of the author in “conducting a naturalistic inquiry in real-world rather than experimental or manipulated settings” (Ritchie and Lewis, 2003:4). For qualitative studies, semi-structured and unstructured interviews are commonly used as they provide rich, detailed answers and taps into the interviewee’s point of view (Bryman and Bell, 2007:474). As the focal source of data was the stakeholders themselves in this study, this seems to infer that the research design is based on the interpretivist view that the “social phenomena can only be understood and be investigated from the inside” (Blaikie, 2007:125). The author identified major stakeholders possibly with stakeholder theory, stating the assumption “that multinationals see stakeholder consultation and management as an important communication tool in identifying and interpreting the needs of salient stakeholders” and as such would enable “the development of a common language for CSR and subsequently the development of proactive CSR strategies”. This correlates with the stakeholder approach of Wheeler et al. (2003:19) who stated that “value creation at the highest level requires an ability to build value-based networks where all stakeholders see merit in their association with and support for a business”. In this instance, it is likely that the stakeholders were deemed to be important in the future direction of CSR in the region, and this was the reason that stakeholders were chosen as source of data. The author mentioned that these interviews conducted in 2004 and 2005 may no longer be relevant, since there were major developments in 2008. This might have made the interviews slightly outdated however; there should not be many changes to the overall aims of the stakeholders and thus the outcomes of this research would remain valid. However, as an alternative, the author could have applied longitudinal design which “represents a distinct form of research design than is typically used to map change in business and management research” (Bryman and Bell, 2007:60). The longitudinal design would not only serve the purpose of this study, but it would also allow insights into the factors that cause change to the perception. With this sample, it is possible to use cohort study, whereby “the cohort is made up of people who share a certain characteristics” (Bryman and Bell, 2007:61), since the stakeholders have a stake in the garment industry. However, longitudinal research may require a lot more preparation, could be time-consuming and thus it could be more costly. 3.4 Data Collection With regards to the methodology, the interview questions that were used for this research was not provided. As this was a semi-structured interview, it would have been useful if the author had provided general information on how the questions were formed, and the structure of the interview questions as this would provide an indication of the depth of the interviews, and hence the validity of the research design. For the sample, 25 representatives from academia, the business organisations, the non-government organisations, trade association, and government officials were identified. The response rate was 84%, in which 21 out of a total of 25 representatives of these organisations agreed to be interviewed. It was mentioned that the reason for such a high response rate, was that the author had contacted the interviewees on a one-to-one basis. Furthermore, the interviewees were also guaranteed anonymity. The sample, thus, appears to be extensive and is representative of the various stakeholders that are vital in the garment industry. 3.5 Alternative Method The intention was that the “findings would help in building consensus, strengthening the implementation and establishing the future CSR framework” (Tsoi, 2007:1). The author might have meant that having collected all the different views from these stakeholders, the author would be able to determine the consensus of how CSR should be developed and how CSR should be like in the future. However, it is doubtful that a consensus could have been obtained using this method of analysis. The interviewees, although were representative of the garment industry, each one a vital stakeholder, there was no real interaction between these stakeholders, and thus, the consensus that is meant is only based on the researchers’ understanding from the interviewee’s responses. Stakeholders are thought to be able to reach a better compromise through discourse, with different sides arguing for the validity of their point as well as ensuring that the interests of the group or association that they represent are taken account of (Bryman and Bell, 2007:511). While it is understandable, that there is a strong possibility that it could be costly to get all the interviewees to sit together through a discourse, nevertheless there are alternatives which might be more useful for the purpose of this investigation, given that the objective is to reach a consensus amongst the stakeholders. With this reasoning, the research design could improve by firstly conveying the findings of the interviews to all of the stakeholders interviewed, and follow up with another interview to see if there were changes to their views. Alternatively, the author could use the method of focus group interviews. With this method, Merton et al. (1956) (in Bryman and Bell, 2007:511) stated that the “accent is upon interaction within the group and the joint construction of meaning”. Focus group interviews could provide a platform for the interviewees to interact and to establish a joint construction of what it means to strengthen CSR and also determine what future scenarios should and could be like. With regards to selecting a suitable size for the focus group, it is recommended by Bryman and Bell (2007:517) that the typical group size should be six to ten members, whilst Sekaran (2003:220) recommends a size of eight to twelve members. The reason that the focus group interview method was recommended was that the interviewees would be encouraged to express their opinions argumentatively, which would then allow the researcher to gauge the degree of importance of certain issues and how much flexibility the interviewees might have to reach a compromise with others. There are of course possible pitfalls using the focus group method, in that some interviewees might be dominant over others, and thus the opinions of those less dominant might not be heard, but these effects can be reduced to a minimum level by having a good moderator (in Bryman and Bell, 2007:511). The one-to-one interview method could still be more advantageous compared with the focus group interview, as the time and monetary costs of conducting a one-to-one interview would probably be considerably less and thus be more manageable especially if there was only one researcher, as was with this case study. In this case study, it seemed that a quantitative design would actually be difficult to apply, and it would also be inappropriate for an investigation on the perception of CSR as a business concern. Taking the example of using a questionnaire survey with closed-ended questions, it is very likely that the respondents would answer that they are very concerned about CSR, as that might be perceived as the correct response, thus creating social desirability bias to the results. Furthermore, with a questionnaire survey, the researcher would not be able to pin-point all the various future scenarios for CSR in Hong Kong and Mainland China, even if it was possible, the list of future scenarios might be too long to be practically manageable. Another issue would be that in making assumptions of the future scenarios that are deemed significant to the stakeholders, it would be problematic as the researcher might risk missing out relevant information. Therefore, it would be difficult, from these reasons, that a quantitative design would not be suitable for such a case study. Chapter 4 Conclusions In summary, the two papers reflect significant differences in their research approach. This was seen through the objectives of the research, the underlying assumptions of the research philosophy and the conceptualisation of research design and the data collection. There is certainly much to learn from these two research papers, both had given valuable information on the differences between quantitative and qualitative methods, as well as offer guidance on the selection of research method and how to go about utilising these methods. The research designs, as shown in these papers, are dependent of the research objectives and the designs are also influenced by the epistemological and ontological assumptions made. Even though the philosophical positions of the researchers were not made explicit, however, the likely positions can be assumed. These papers have also shown that the advantages and the disadvantages of the different methods of investigation, and they need to be considered to ensure that the best method is chosen for the purpose of the research. In these two papers, the method of investigation is distinct, one was a qualitative study and the other was a quantitative study, however, this does not necessarily mean that a mixed method of investigation can not be used. In fact, (Bryman and Bell, 2007:646) suggested that triangulation can be applied, in which “the results of an investigation employing a method associated with one research strategy are cross-checked against the results of using a method associated with the other research strategy”.

Assessing the Effects of the Asteroid on Dinosaurs

The most widely accepted cause for the extinction of non-avian dinosaurs, at the end of the Cretaceous period, is the asteroid impact. The theory suggests that the impact of a giant asteroid, over 65 million years ago, wiped out the land roaming dinosaurs that inhabited the Earth for the entirety of the Mesozoic period (Alvarez and Asaro, 1990). The impact of this giant asteroid had many catastrophic effects on life, habitats, environments, sunlight, and temperature, proving to be devastating on the life of dinosaurs (Alvarez and Asaro, 1990). However, which of the impacts of this asteroid was most devastating to non-avian dinosaur life remains a question. An examination of several effects of the asteroid, will help us determine which factors proved to be most troublesome to dinosaurs, which effects could have been adapted and overcome, and which would pull out a critical peg in the food chain, thereby forcing the ecosystem’s stability to become unbalanced and dysfunctional. So, the asteroid at the end of the cretaceous period was destructive and disastrous, but what factors made it so detrimental to dinosaurian life? Firstly, why is the asteroid the most widely accepted theory as the cause of the dinosaur extinction? What evidence do we have that makes it convincing? The first piece of evidence that points towards an asteroid impact is the fossils of single-celled marine animals. Their fossil accumulation is fairly large, and their extinction appeared to be incredibly abrupt (Alvarez and Asaro,1990). This revelation is also evident in medium sized animals, as their extinctions also appear to be unusually abrupt (Alvarez and Asaro, 1990). This abruptness suggests a sudden catastrophic event to be the cause of the extinction, rather than a gradual decline. Coupled with this, through study of strata by Jan Smith and Isabella Premoli, we see that the extinction could have been as short as 50-1000 years (Alvarez and Asaro, 1990). But why is the cause of this rapid change an asteroid? The answer is in iridium. Iridium is an element that is quite rare in the earth’s crust, however it is quite abundant in primitive stony meteorites. And upon studying the data from the time frame of the extinction, there appears to be drastically more iridium than in other time periods (Alvarez and Asaro, 1990). About 95 sites throughout the world have confirmed remarkably high levels of iridium in the limestone sediments from that period (Alvarez and Asaro, 1990). These elevated levels of iridium provide clear evidence for an extraterrestrial impact. The minerals apparent in this time frame are also indicative of an asteroid. Mineral spherules were found chemically altered in the KT boundary clay. These spherules started as basaltic rock (Alvarez, 1990). Now, an asteroid with this level of lethal power would most certainly leave its mark on the Earth. It is believed that this mark is the Chicxulub Crater in Mexico, a massive 180 km crater (Hildebrand, 1992). Knowing the magnitude of this mark will then help us determine what the effects were, and, ultimately, what were some of the most detrimental towards dinosaurian life. Before we assess the factors, however, we must first confirm that dinosaurian life was not gradually declining, or in the process of extinction, before this abrupt impact. For, if dinosaurian life was already in the downswing, then the asteroid impact may be regarded as less important, less detrimental, and no longer synonymous with the extinction of dinosaurs. While some studies seem to suggest that dinosaurian life was in a decline during the late Cretaceous period, one study in particular seems to suggest otherwise. The article, “Dinosaur Morphological Diversity and the end-Cretaceous extinction” explains how, in most clades, the disparity remained relatively consistent during the late Cretaceous (Brusatte, Butler, Preto-Marquez, Norell, 2012). It demonstrates how the carnivorous theropod, and small-medium sized, herbivorous dinosaur disparity was consistent throughout the period, showing no major changes in diversity (Brusatte et al. 2012). Also, the large sauropod dinosaurs without advanced chewing capabilities may have even seen an increase in disparity, while the ones with the advanced chewing abilities were showing a decrease (Brusatte et al. 2012). This suggests more of an evolutionary change rather than a trend towards extinction. The studies from the Hell Creek Formation that seemed to represent a decline in dinosaurian diversity before the end of the Cretaceous, may, then be perceived as a unique, local anomaly, rather than a representation of global diversity (Brusatte et al. 2012). For, it appeared that the diversity of species could differ based on geographical location, and one data set would not be an accurate representation of the period as a whole (Brusatte et al. 2012). Thus, the study confirms that the variability in dinosaurian morphology was, “both clade and region specific” (Brusatte et al. 2012), further exemplifying that the decline was not apparent throughout the globe. This information allows us to then make the assumption that dinosaurs were still, in fact, thriving at the time of the asteroid impact. Making the consequences that followed an unwarranted and unfair ending to a fascinating era in history. First consider the direct effects of the asteroid impact. The most immediate impacts of the asteroid would be devastating to the dinosaurs who found themselves unlucky enough to be near where it landed. An asteroid that was, theoretically, 10 km long, due to the kinetic energy, would create an explosion 10,000 times that of the entire worlds supply of nuclear power (Alvarez and Asaro, 1990). The impact alone had the ability to create winds as fast as 1000 km/h near where the asteroid hit (Kring, 2007). This high wind speed would have the ability to create local fires, and wipe out vegetation and animal life in the area (Kring, 2007). These local fires had the energy to spread, likely, from 1500 km-4000 km from where the impact occurred (Kring, 2007). The mushroom cloud of this explosion would be approximately 10 kilometres high, have a temperature of up to 10 000 degrees Celsius, and would wipe out anything within sight of the fireball (Alvarez and Asaro, 1990) (Kring, 2007). It is also estimated that the dust in the air would be so dense that one would be unable to see their hand for several months after the explosion (Alvarez and Asaro, 1990). This dust would cause major respiratory problems for any dinosaur near the explosion, and would likely render them unable to breathe. However, the only problem wasn’t airborne, it was in water as well. Another detrimental effect created by the initial impact of the asteroid was tsunamis. Tsunamis enveloped the entire coastline of the Gulf of Mexico, reaching North America in the process (Matsui et al., 2002). The tsunamis were truly massive, extending to a height of 200 m and stretching along 300 km of coastline (Matsui et al., 2002). The tsunamis would first collapse onto the coast, a distance of 150 m inland, before receding powerfully back to the water (Matsui et al., 2002). These tsunamis would be catastrophic to coastal vegetation and dinosaurian life; however, the damage would have had more of a regional effect rather than a global one. The tsunamis were also present for little more than a day, making it not a recurring, long-term issue, but a short-term effect (Kring, 2007). While most inland dinosaurs were likely spared from these tsunamis, they did not, however, find themselves in the clear. Plant life, the vegetation that allows animals to breathe, thrives on the process of photosynthesis. Photosynthesis, in turn, relies on sunlight. The significant levels of dust in the atmosphere would have spread rapidly throughout the planet, blocking out the sun, causing darkness and an “impact winter” (Alvarez and Asaro, 1990). This blocking of sunlight was predicted to have killed anywhere from 57-80% of North America’s vegetation (Archibald, 2012). This kind of catastrophic massacre of vegetation would have been undoubtedly impactful on the herbivorous dinosaurs (Archibald, 2012). Especially, one might assume, large sauropods that required substantial levels of nutrients and energy to survive. And, according to the food chain, a loss of herbivorous dinosaurs would prove costly to the carnivorous theropods that fed on them. The dust from the impact also created atmospheric cooling, however, just how cold it made Earth is still in question (Kring, 2007). This surface cooling, however, didn’t last long, and was eventually replaced by extreme temperature increases. These extreme temperature increases, once the dust subsided, were a result of the ozone destruction in the atmosphere. “Ozone destroying Cl and Br can be produced from the vaporized projectile, vaporized target lithologies, and biomass burning” (Kring, 2007), showing that lethal changes in nitrogen chemistry, created by the asteroid, leaked into the atmosphere. Over five times more chlorine that is required to destroy our current ozone layer was dispersed throughout the stratosphere at this time (Kring, 2007). A greenhouse gas that we have become so acquainted with in today’s society, was also working with the same diligence after the asteroid impact. Water and carbon dioxide were released after the impact of the asteroid, and once the dust settled, the impact winter shifted into global warming (Alvarez and Asaro, 1990). Carbon dioxide would have lasted longer than the dust from the impact, so its association in this sequence of natural disasters seems logically accurate (Kring, 2007). Based on evidence from carbon dioxide that was added to the atmosphere, it is projected that it would increase the global temperature anywhere from 1-7.5 degrees Celsius (Kring, 2007). Despite this evidence, it is unclear how large of an impact this global warming had on the dinosaurs, for the destruction of vegetation caused by the dust in the atmosphere appears to be the driving force behind the extinction (Archibald, 2012). But was the sunlight blocking mechanism of the dust the only damage inflicted by the aerosols? Dust had the capability to attack in a vertical, gravity driven onslaught on the helpless dinosaurs. Evidence shows that the impact of the asteroid can create nitric acid rain in the atmosphere (Kring, 2007). This acid rain would surely be devastating to any dinosaur that found itself under this caustic weather. It was even described as, “an acid rain with a vengeance” (Alvarez and Asaro, 1990), only reiterating the devastating effect the acid rain could have produced. Now, this acid rain may have not lasted long, for it is predicted that it only fell anywhere from a couple months to a few years (Kring, 2007). Nitric acid was not alone in its onslaught. It is believed it was coupled with sulfuric acid rain (Kring, 2007). The sulfuric acid rain emerged as nitric acid’s accomplice because the Chicxulub region was abundant in anhydrite (Kring, 2007). This deadly combination certainly sounds imposing, but much like the global warming, the magnitude of its impact on the non-avian dinosaur extinction is questionable. This is because acid rain is generally most effective against aquatic organisms, but aquatic organisms survived quite well through the K/T boundary (Archibald, 2012). Their survival serves to diminish the effectiveness of the acid rain. This is not to say that the acid rain was underwhelming, though, only that it was limited in its ability to cause a major extinction. One result of the impact that contributed to the dust was global wildfires. The severity, location, and longevity of these fires is, however, uncertain (Kring, 2007). The global abundance of soot suggests that the fires were almost everywhere. However, soot has the ability to travel through air, enabling it to settle in the ground where there wasn’t a fire (Kring, 2007). Some model calculations also seem to suggest that the temperatures on the surface of the earth may have been hot enough to spark into a fire almost randomly (Kring, 2007). Our ability to predict the vastness of the global fires relies on our understanding of the mass of the ejecta, how easily the vegetation lights, and the rate in which it can spread (Kring, 2007). Depending on these factors, the wildfires may have been limited to more of a local fire, rather than a global one (Kring, 2007). The speculation surrounding the impact of global wildfires appears to be unpredictable and baseless, including the prediction of it destroying 25% of all biomass (Archibald, 2012). Overall, it seems the lack of evidence found in the minimal amounts of charcoal, and a limited fossil record, outweigh the theories of a devastating global wildfire (Archibald, 2012). These sources display that a wildfire was almost certainly local, but unlikely to be global. With all of these factors, now compiled, that followed the asteroid’s impact, can we come to a claim as to which was the most destructive? The dinosaurs extinction most certainly hinged on several factors, however, it appears that one in particular proved to be the most effective. The factor that most sufficiently damaged the survival of the thriving dinosaurians was, through the evidence above, the dust and aerosols that served to block out the sunlight. The loss of vegetation, sunlight, and heat directly drilled a fatal hole in the food chain. Losing vegetation, then herbivores, then carnivores, appeared to not only cause the ecosystem to dwindle, but caused it to be rid from non-avian dinosaurian life. The impact itself was an imposing warning, the dust was the main force of destruction, and the acid rain, global warming, wildfires, and loss of ozone were supplementary, inconclusive forces. Although this unimaginable series of events is approached with mostly scientific fascination and curiosity, and perhaps melancholy for the loss of dinosaurs, it could also be viewed as a notable and necessary precursor to the introduction of other lifeforms on Earth. For, without this dinosaur extinction, the tiny mammals that occupied the earth would be restricted in their evolution, ruled over, and unable to transition into vast abundance (Alvarez and Asaro, 1990). Highly intelligent humans stemmed from the survival of these mammals, and, in turn, stemmed from the impact of that fatal asteroid 65 million years ago. List of Works Cited Alvarez, W.,