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“Spy Novels” and Intelligence Studies Research Paper

Table of Contents Introduction/Thesis statement Body of the paper Conclusion Reference List Introduction/Thesis statement It will not be much of an exaggeration to suggest that the thematic conventions of the ‘spy novel’ genre continue to have a great effect on the formation of many public discourses in the West, as we know them. The validity of this suggestion can be illustrated with respect to Hillary Clinton’s recent claim that the hacking of her email box was organised by the Russian secret service FSB. Hollywood did contribute rather substantially towards bringing about such a state of affairs. Nevertheless, when subjected to analytical inquiry, many themes and motifs explored in the famous works of spy fiction, as well as the ‘technical’ accounts of what it means being a spy contained in spy novels, will appear having very little to do with today’s reality of intelligence operations. After all, the classical conventions of the ‘spy novel’ genre derive from the Cold War era, associated with the geopolitical confrontation between the US and USSR. The qualitative aspects of how secret services operate nowadays, on the other hand, are defined by the process of globalisation – something that presupposes the eventual privatisation of the formerly governmental domain in the West (at least this was the case until the 2014 outbreak of yet another ‘Cold War’ between Russia and the US). The exponential progress in the field of IT, which began in the late eighties, is another factor that continues to contribute heavily towards widening a gap between the fictional accounts of intelligence operations and what these operations are in reality. In my paper, I will aim to substantiate the validity of this suggestion at length while referring to some of the most well-known exemplifications of the literary genre in question, such as the spy novels by Ian Fleming and John le Carré. Body of the paper The literary genre ‘spy novel’ emerged in Britain prior to the beginning of the WW1, which in turn explains why in a classical spy novel the protagonist’s intelligence-gathering activities are usually described as nothing short of a ‘gentleman’s pursuit’, in the sense of being both utterly dangerous and yet highly enjoyable. Ian Fleming’s novels about James Bond (Agent 007) exemplify the validity of this statement perfectly well. The reason for this is apparent – after having been exposed to them, one will be likely to conclude that there is nothing too challenging about being employed by the British Secret Intelligence Service (M16). In fact, these novels imply that being a British intelligence officer is nothing short of indulging in the bellyful idleness while enjoying plenty of sex with married women. Here is how Fleming describes Bond’s daily routine in Moonraker, It was only two or three times a year that an assignment came along requiring his particular abilities. For the rest of the year he had the duties of an easy-going senior civil servant – elastic office hours from around ten to six; lunch, generally in the canteen; evenings spent playing cards in the company of a few close friends… or making love, with rather cold passion, to one of three similarly disposed married women; weekends playing golf for high stakes at one of the clubs near London (2012, p. 11). Such an outlook on the lifestyle of a typical spy, however, is strongly misleading. Contrary to Fleming’s conceptualization of a British spy as a ‘womanizer’ who is obsessed with driving expensive sports cars, a person employed by M16 (or any other secret service) is the officer on active duty, which presupposes his willingness to apply a continual effort to be promoted through the career ranks. In its turn, this requires the individual to work on attaining ever more professional skills and competencies – hence, leaving him with very little time to idle. Another notable characteristic of the literary genre in question is that, despite its pre-WW1 origins, the genre’s classical canons came into being through the 20th century’s second half, marked by the Cold War. Throughout the period, the collective West never ceased promoting the values of ‘free living’ (Capitalism), which explains why it represents a commonplace practice for the protagonist in many spy novels to act as these values’ actual embodiment. The character of James Bond will again come in quite illustrative in this respect. As Burnett (2014) noted, “James Bond… represented the power of Western individuality against an enemy sworn to the doctrine of collectivism” (p. 176). This explains the reason why in Fleming’s novels, this character is represented at the top of what can be referred to as ‘food chain’ within the Intelligence. Apparently, the author implies that the very functioning of M16 is solely dedicated to making sure that its agent 007 is well equipped and that he gets plenty of assistance while on the mission of preventing yet another ‘Dr. Evil’ from being able to destroy the world. Consequently, readers are encouraged to assume that to be valid, intelligence information gathered by a secret agent must necessarily be highly secretive and illegal. Moreover, Bond’s exploits presuppose that British Intelligence is primarily concerned with trying to make the world a better place as something that has the value of a ‘thing in itself’. However, such a literary account of what British Intelligence is all about does not hold much water, whatsoever – especially given the globalisation-induced transformation of the intelligence paradigm in the West, mentioned earlier. Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The fact that this is indeed the case can be shown, regarding the main contemporary aspects of intelligence gathering, as the primary function of just about every secret service organisation in today’s world. The transforming nature of these organisations’ operational/tactical objectives is also suggestive that Fleming’s novels cannot possibly be considered a very credible source of information about the reality of intelligence operations. In this respect, we can mention the following: Intelligence gathering is a highly collective pursuit. In reality, what Bond accomplishes singlehandedly is being accomplished by the team of ‘Bonds’ – each specialised in its own ‘field of excellence’, such as providing remote surveillance, shooting guns, ‘womanising’, etc. Moreover, even though some officers are indeed required to conduct high-risk operations while gathering intelligence, this practice has been consistently falling out of favour with secret services. As of now, at least 80% of intelligence information is obtained from the open sources. As Aldrich (2009) pointed out, “Open source intelligence now rivals the state agencies, since vast amounts of detailed information is now freely available about countries, commercial entities and individuals via web sites or e-mail. Where this is not available from open sources it is offered for sale” (p. 894). Therefore, one’s effectiveness as a potential spy is now being measured in close conjunction with what happened to be his or her investigative abilities, rather than with how good the concerned person is in hand-to-hand combat. Edward Snowden stands out as a good example, in this regard. Contrary to how it is shown in Fleming’s novels, there is no good reason to assume that the ongoing confrontation between the Western-based secret services, on one hand, and the ‘international ‘terrorists’, ‘evil Russians’, ‘drug mafia’, etc., on the other, should be discussed in terms of good vs. evil. The logic behind this suggestion has to do with the fact that up until comparatively recently, the Westphalian paradigm of international relations, in general, and the concept of a nation-state, in particular, continued to be undermined by the discourse of Globalisation/Neoliberalism. In its turn, this brought about the increased ‘corporatisation’ of secret services – the development that consequently resulted in increasing the number of such services in the West, intensifying the degree of intra-institutional rivalry between them, and establishing the objective precondition for them to act on behalf of non-state parties. For example, there are now sixteen different secret services in the US alone – most of them with the history of having helped to ‘lobby’ the commercial interests of at least one American-based transnational corporation abroad. What this means is that as time goes on, the functioning of secret services will become increasingly affiliated with the ‘money has no smell’ principle. Therefore, there is a very little sense in continuing to assess the outcomes of the secret services’ activities in conjunction with the presumably applicable value-based provisions of conventional ethics, as does the author of Bond novels. Nevertheless, it is not only the discursive inconsistency of these novels with the realities of a post-industrial living that causes the former to provide a rather distorted view on what spying is all about. After all, it will not prove too difficult to find a number of purely ‘technical’ inconsistencies in Fleming’s novels as well. For example, as it can be seen in them, James Bond often takes advantage of his possession of at least a few foreign passports. What this means is that many of the character’s assignments in the past had to do with him having been ordered to act in the ‘deep-cover’ (or ‘illegal’) mode for a long time. As an ‘illegal’, however, James Bond would have proven highly unlikely – all due to his good looks, his taste for flamboyancy, and his tendency to lead a luxurious lifestyle. His single status would alone disqualify him from being considered as a potential candidate for an ‘illegal’. Therefore, it will be much more appropriate referring to Fleming’s Bond novels as the ‘spy-themed’ literary extrapolations of the author’s creative genius, which have very little in common with the realities of spying. As compared to Fleming’s spy novels, the ones by John le Carré will definitely appear much more credible, as the fictitious and yet methodologically accurate accounts of espionage. In le Carré’s novels, the protagonist is usually presented as a socially withdrawn/introverted professional, who nevertheless takes it close to his heart trying to protect the society from the foreign-based threats. The character of George Smiley featured in most of le Carré’s novels exemplifies the psychological phenotype in question – even though Smiley is in the position to handle the matters of national security, he does not have any of Bond’s ‘machismos’. This explains a common tendency among literary critics to refer to this particular character as ‘anti-Bond’. What is especially notable about the protagonist is that even though he does consider his work morally justified, Smiley is nevertheless aware that the confrontation between the Capitalist West and Socialist East cannot be described in terms of ‘black’ and ‘white’ alone and that there is also the area of ‘grey’ between the two. As Goodwin (2010) aptly observed, “(Smiley) strives to distinguish himself from those who are constrained by what he views as ‘ideology’. In Smiley’s sense, ‘ideology’ refers to strict adherence to doctrine instead of a flexible and transcendent humanist viewpoint” (p. 105). It is understood, of course, that being a psychologically ‘multidimensional’ character, Smiley does make more sense as a modern spy, as compared to James Bond. This, however, does not mean that le Carré’s conceptualisation of secret services is much more plausible than that of Fleming. Apparently, just as it was the case with Fleming, le Carré did allow his unconscious anxieties, as to what a ‘proper intelligence service’ should be all about, to have a strong effect on the actual content of his spy novels. For example, in many of this author’s novels (such as the Call for the Dead, A Murder of Quality, and The Spy Who Came in from the Cold), the intelligence community is described as the club of intellectuals, many of whom happened to be ‘nerdish’ enough to experience difficulties while trying to cope with even some basic challenges of their daily living. As one can infer from these novels, nothing pleases British secret agents more than being able to spend hours chitchatting with each other on the subjects of art, philosophy, and literature. As a part of addressing a particular intelligence task, these agents are shown taking much time to analyse just about every qualitative aspect of it. What adds even more plausibility to le Carré’s view on intelligence gathering is that it appears discursively consistent with what used to be the geopolitical realities on this planet during the Cold War’s final phases. The reason for this is that le Carré’s preoccupation with ‘intellectual matters’ and his club-like conceptualisation of British Intelligence reflect the assumption that the USSR was indeed a powerful adversary – something that presupposed that the West’s eventual victory over the Soviets could only be achieved if the former proved itself intellectually superior to the latter. However, after the end of the Cold War, the West found itself in the position of being able to afford relaxing the standards of excellence within its intelligence communities – a thoroughly logical development, given the fact that the West’s most powerful adversary had ceased to exist on its own in 1991. As a result, it became no longer necessary for intelligence officers to be supreme analysts. Nowadays, it is specifically those belonging to the ‘enforcer’ or ‘bureaucrat (rather than ‘analyst’)’ types of a special agent who are most likely to have good career prospects in Intelligence. The rationale behind this suggestion has to do with the earlier mentioned conversion of the secret services’ operational objectives, as one of the societal effects of the process of globalisation, which alters the very axiomatic structure of international relations. As Price (1996) argued, “As the world approaches the end of the second millennium… there are many who argue that the architecture is changing from a nation-state system into something else as yet not well formed” (p. 88). The focus of secret services has been effectively shifted from intelligence gathering per se to helping the US (and its allies) to ‘fix’ things beyond the Western sphere of geopolitical dominance while formally remaining within the boundaries of international law. According to Aldrich (2009), “Once intelligence used to be a support activity that was largely focused on estimating intentions and capabilities, but… this has changed. Intelligence is now inherently more operational” (p. 897). Therefore, just as it is the case with Fleming’s novels about James Bond, the ones written by le Carré cannot be regarded very credible – at least for as long as the themes and motifs of these novels are assessed within the discursive framework of the ‘global governance’ concept. After all, up until two years ago, most political scientists used to find this concept thoroughly viable. We will write a custom Research Paper on “Spy Novels” and Intelligence Studies specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Contrary to how it is being seen in le Carré’s novels, today’s Intelligence is not a club of freethinking intellectuals who experience much emotional angst because of being required to act immortally under certain circumstances. Nowadays, it will make much more sense conceptualising Intelligence as the room filled with technicians who tab into people’s phones and exercise control over the Internet traffic for data mining. The Intelligence’s objectives concerned with ‘fixing’ things also do not require those in charge of achieving them to be particularly analytical. After all, as time goes on, more and more intelligence hit-and-run operations are being conducted remotely with the help of flying drones. This trend was initiated ten years ago, “In 2006, a US Navy Seal team reportedly raided a compound of suspected militants in the Bajaur region of Pakistan. This was watched in real time at the CIA headquarters in Langley, since the mission was captured by the video camera of a Predator drone aircraft” (Shiraz
Adv420 final project.

TaskPart A :The Video Pitch Now it’s time to pitch your brand on the digital campaign you’ve assembled throughout class. Video requirements:5-minutes maximum video in a M4P format Must be edited (see editing tutorials on D2L)The video should have at least 4 images or stock videos (cite sources at the end)May include powerpoint slides to explain complicated conceptsMust be creative and engaging Include at least 30-seconds of you on screen (talking-head). (see D2L for talking-head samples)Must have audio (we recommend writing out a script).Part B:The Pitch: Your video pitch should include scripted out content about: (PowerPoint)Brand Name & OverviewCampaign Big ideaTarget AudienceGoals & KPIsSocial Media StrategyPaid Ads StrategyInbound StrategySample content (3 samples)Campaign Budget BreakdownClosing Slide / Summary link is all my blog post for this course You only need to help me to finish the Part B (PPT) after you go through all the blog I posted (No1 food market) All the content information you can find on the blog and you need view the blog from bottom to top And I need to read the PowerPoint you did for my video post Send me back a PowerPointThanks !
Adv420 final project

Answer the following English activity and general English case study

Answer the following English activity and general English case study.

2 questions from part 1 and case study in part 2, please give 100 to 150 words per answer.Instructions Read the statement below carefully.Read the case study below carefully.Provide answers to all the questions that follow.International students working in Australia often find the culture at work quite different from their own country. It is important to familiarise yourself with the cultural practices in Australia in order for you to be competitive in finding work and in performing well once employed. Background Some of the most cultural characteristics of the Australian workplace are listed below: Communications Hierarchy and Leadership Styles Work structure and Protocols Diversity Small Talk Using the criteria above research how the Australian Workplace implements each criteria in the workplace.Consider your own culture and identify how it differs from these practices Communications Hierarchy and Leadership Styles Work structure and Protocols Diversity Small Talk Communications Hierarchy and Leadership Styles Work structure and Protocols Diversity Small Talk Task : Case Study Deborah Burt says we’re no longer a nation of bludgers. Australian workers are shedding their reputation of being a bunch of laid-back bludgers hanging out for beer o’clock. These days, we’re ambitious and we don’t brown nose to the boss. A new survey challenges the stereotypical Aussie reputation that we’re a bunch of laid-back workers that like to bludge when the boss isn’t watching. Aussie workers actually prefer to work for managers who will push their limits and support them in their professional endeavours. The 2013 Kronos Boss’s Day Survey also found that 77 per cent of Australian workers who have managers have not dished out compliments to get on the good side of their bosses if they don’t mean it, meaning we’re not brown noses. The online study, commissioned by the Workforce Institute at Kronos Incorporated, also found we have strong career ambitions. Given the choice between a manager who is a high-achiever but demanding and a manager who is nice but ineffective, 71 per cent of employees want to work for the high-achiever. In other feedback, Aussie workers rate honesty (76 per cent) as among the most important attributes of a good manager. Overall, the majority of employees who believe their manager demonstrates honesty alongside other attributes such as ethics, collaboration, creativity, empowerment, innovation, dedication and trustworthiness (89 per cent) believe their manager does this on a regular basis. “The results from this survey challenge the stereotypical Aussie reputation of being a ‘relaxed’ nation. Results indicate most Aussies actually prefer managers who will push their limits,” Peter Harte, vice president, Asia-Pacific, Kronos says. But managers that use an office jargon frustrate Aussie workers. As long suspected, staff hate it when managers use phrases such as “I don’t care, just get it done”, “think outside the box”, “at the end of the day” or “I need you to be more proactive”. “It’s fantastic to see the majority of employees view their manager as honest, collaborative and dedicated – all very positive workplace behaviours. But it comes as no great surprise that the common phrases we use at work really don’t establish rapport between co-workers; in fact, they create tension. Employees want to work with people who can achieve great results, even if their management skills are a little rough around the edges,” Harte says. Aussies workers may have been pigeonholed as bludgers in the past, but that label is completely undeserved in modern workplaces, says Deborah Burt, chair of the Execution Connection. Burt has held HR roles across various industries and says the conversation around the water cooler in Australian offices is very much about what makes a good boss and what makes a bad boss. “My experience tells me that respect isn’t something you automatically get just because you’re in charge. You have to earn the respect of Aussie workers,” Burt says. We care about doing decent work and we expect managers to support our growth and development, she says. “I also know that salary is not the most important part of a job for many workers. They actually want to get more growth and knowledge out of their workplace and make a bigger contribution where they can. Workers also want to get a feeling of motivation and drive from their manager,” Burt says. In terms of recognition, 45 per cent of employees prefer individual praise from their manager to their face, while 28 per cent would prefer to be praised in front of their peers, while 27 per cent want praise to come from their manager’s manager. When asked whether they’d prefer a manager who invests in their professional development or one who invests in programs to make the work environment more fun, Aussies are more balanced in their response, with 56 per cent opting for professional development programs, while 44 per cent want more fun. Interestingly, once we’ve clocked off, we don’t necessarily want to talk to the boss. If we see our boss outside of work, 34 per cent of young employees (18-24 years) will avoid them, compared to just 8 per cent of mature workers. The survey was conducted online in Australia by Harris Interactive on behalf of Kronos between September 24-30 among 1041 adults aged 18-64, among whom 583 are employed and have a manager. What does the expression “brown nose” mean?Do you think Aussie workers are “laid back and like to bludge”, in your experience?What are the most important qualities of a manager, according to workers?Do Aussies have the reputation of being “relaxed” (lazy) workers? Does this survey match this reputation?What are some examples of “management speak” that managers use, and do workers like it?Do Aussie workers automatically give respect to managers?What do many workers find most important in a job?What is more important to workers, professional development programs or a fun workplace?Who conducted the study? Is it comprehensive?Does the information in this article match your experience of work and managers in the Australian workplace?
Answer the following English activity and general English case study

Gone with the Wind (1939) and Dr. Zhivago (2002) Research Paper

online homework help Table of Contents Introduction Romance Nature of Relationships Revolutions Slavery Conclusion Bibliography Footnotes Introduction Conventionally, movies underscore common issues that touch on the society and thus they share common themes because they present issues that affect people in society. For instance, romance movies integrate several other themes into the romantic scenes, which allow them to focus on other pertinent societal issues such as wealth, violence, and politics among others. In essence, movies do not only have a major theme, which makes them unique, but they also have minor themes that are essential in reflecting the state of society under which the actors operate. Minor themes are important because they provide background information about the movie and its characters. The popular themes in movies are social class, gender roles, hedonism, politics, romance, and warfare among others.[1] In the aspect of romance, movies examine themes such obsessive love, passionate love, and destructive love amongst other themes that fascinate viewers. In spite of generational changes, movies focus on same themes, which make them similar to past movies of about a half a century ago. Thus, this essay compares the two movies, viz. Gone with the Wind (1939) and Dr. Zhivago (2002). The movies share similar themes like romance, revolution, and slavery in their setting and plot. Romance Romance is a common theme in both movies. The movie Gone with the Wind (1939) depicts romantic experiences of Scarlett O’Hara, the protagonist. Scarlett is a daughter of a plantation owner in the Clayton County, Georgia, and since she has a poor background, she uses all means at her disposal to loosen the chains of poverty that have entangled her lie for a decidedly long time. In the process of searching for a lover, she realizes that Ashley Wilkes is wooing her cousin, Melanie Hamilton, and wants to marry soon. This realization prompts Scarlett to devise ways of winning Wilkes to her side. Hence, Scarlett makes advances and convinces Wilkes that she loves him very much.[2] Moreover, Scarlett begins to date Rhett Butler, but he realizes that she is also dating Wilkes. When Scarlett sees that both Wilkes and Butler do not like her anymore, she acts desperately by deciding to date Charles Hamilton, brother to Melanie Hamilton. Unfortunately, Charles Hamilton dies after impregnating her and she becomes a widow at an early age of 16 years. Hence, it is evident that the movie Gone with the Wind (1939) is a romantic movie. Likewise, Dr. Zhivago (2002) is a romantic movie that portrays life and love experiences of Yury Zhivago. He is a young man living with his aunt and uncle because his father committed suicide following corrupt business deals. As Zhivago grows up, he undergoes a series of relationships in search of a true lover. Eventually, he finds Lara Guishar, whom he loves passionately courtesy of overwhelming infatuations. Incidentally, Lara Guishar’s mother is the lover of Komarosky, the man who made his father die.[3] Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More When Zhivago realizes this, he opts to marry his cousin, Tonya. Although Zhivago marries Tonya, he later changes his mind after meeting Lara; unfortunately, when Lara’s husband returns from combat and becomes a powerful leader in the Soviet regime, he reunites with Lara, his former wife. Therefore, it suffices to say that both movies deal with romantic experiences of the protagonists. Nature of Relationships Both movies show the same nature of relationships surrounding the protagonists. In Gone with the Wind (1939), Wilkes is dating his cousin, Melanie Hamilton. When Scarlett realizes this, she attempts to prevent them from wedding by dating Charles Hamilton, brother to Melanie Hamilton. Eventually, Wilkes is unable to marry his cousin because Scarlett manages to break their relationship. Hence, the movie Gone with the Wind (1939) illustrates how relatives can influence the development of relationships in the society. Comparatively, the movie of Doctor Zhivago also illustrates how relatives influence relationships. Like Wilkes in Gone with the Wind (1939), Zhivago falls in love with his cousin, Tonya, and is ready to marry her. When he realizes that Tonya’s mother is the lover of the man behind his father’s unfortunate death, Zhivago retreats from the relationship.[4] However, Zhivago later reunites with Tonya after bumping into each other in a hospital. Thus, both movies show intrigues of relationships as Wilkes and Zhivago try to marry their cousins. Moreover, the two movies are similar in the way characters make and break their relationships. What is common in the movies is that Wilkes and Zhivago, the two protagonists in both movies start dating their cousins. In the case of Wilkes, he starts dating his cousin, Melanie Hamilton, but Scarlett manages to break their relationships by dating Charles Hamilton and conceiving his child.[5] After Charles Hamilton dies, he leaves Scarlett to struggle alone to feed the family. As Scarlett is busy going rounds in a hospital and helping wounded Confederate Army combatants, she meets Butler, the man he had dated earlier before marrying Charles Hamilton. The two start dating again and they fall in love immediately. Similarly, in the movie of Doctor Zhivago (2002), Zhivago finds himself in the world of love when he meets Tonya, his cousin. During World War I, Zhivago meets Lara, a young woman whose husband has gone to war, but has never come back. As Lara decides to look for his husband by working as a combat nurse in the Russian army, Zhivago starts making advances to her. The two fall in love and begin dating for a while after which Lara’s husband returns from war. We will write a custom Research Paper on Gone with the Wind (1939) and Dr. Zhivago (2002) specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Revolutions Revolution is also common in both movies. In Gone with the Wind (1939), the scene occurs amidst the America Civil War. In the movie, the Civil War occurs in Tara plantation where people fight for the confederacy. The characters in the movie are caught in the upheavals that rock the plantation and thus start fleeing for safety in the neighboring states. As Scarlett is nursing wounds of the wounded confederate soldiers, the Yankees’ attacks force her to flee home and take care of her mother.[6] Comparatively, the movie Doctor Zhivago (2002) happens during the Soviet revolution and the Russian civil war. During the revolution, Zhivago does not only battle with his two lovers, Lara and Tonya, but he also struggles to protect them from the armies leading the revolution in Russia. Although he manages to move his family into the Ural Mountains to protect them, the army captures and compels him to be their doctor.[7] Hence, revolutions are common scenes in the two movies. Slavery The theme of slavery is present in both movies; for instance, in the Tara plantations, Yankees are enslaving Americans, but the latter become rebellious. The revolution provides means through which Americans manage to free themselves from the bondage of slavery.[8] The struggles of the plantation workers lead to the revolution that changes their posterity in the United States. Similarly, the revolution in the Doctor Zhivago (2002) movie indicates some forms of slavery as Soviet soldiers capture individuals and compel them to join the war. For instance, while Zhivago is trying to escape with his family, the soldiers capture and force him to be their medic during war.[9] Thus, slavery is a common theme in the two movies. Conclusion Despite the fact that the two movies, Gone with the Wind (1939) and Doctor Zhivago (2002) are over 60 years apart with regard to the time of their production, they seem to focus on similar themes under same scenes. The two movies explore romantic themes coupled with relationship intrigues and revolutions. Scarlett and Zhivago are the two main characters in their respective movies and they advance the theme of romance and relationship intrigues. Although Gone with the Wind (1939) happens in United States and Doctor Zhivago occurs in Russian, these scenes are very similar such that viewers can confuse them. Therefore, the two movies have major similarities that range from the plot and characters to scenes. Bibliography Alessandra, Stanley. “Television Review: ‘Zhivago’ without Hollywood.” New York Times, Nov. 1, 2003. Mitchell, Margaret. Gone with the wind. London: Simon and Schuster Publisher, 2007. Not sure if you can write a paper on Gone with the Wind (1939) and Dr. Zhivago (2002) by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Paludi, Michele. The psychology of love. New York: ABC-CLIO, 2012. Pasternak, Boris, Richard Pevear, and Larissa Volokhonsky. Doctor Zhivago. London: Randon House Incorporated, 2011. Footnotes Michele Paludi, The psychology of love (New York: ABC-CLIO, 2012), 9 Margaret Mitchell, Gone with the wind (London: Simon and Schuster Publisher, 2007), 22. Boris Pasternak, Boris, Richard Pevear, and Larissa Volokhonsky, Doctor Zhivago (London: Randon House Incorporated, 2011), 31. Pasternak, Pevear, and Volokhonsky, 45. Mitchell, 34. Pasternak, Pevear, and Volokhonsky, 111. Stanley Alessandra, “Television Review: ‘Zhivago’ without Hollywood,” New York Times, Nov. 1, 2003. Mitchell, 28. Pasternak, Pevear, and Volokhonsky, 123.

An Infants Innate Proximity Seeking Behaviour Psychology Essay

An Infants Innate Proximity Seeking Behaviour Psychology Essay. Bowlby’s classical attachment theory (1969/ 1982, 1973) is an ethological theory emphasising the regulatory functions of an infant’s innate proximity-seeking behaviours directed towards their primary caregiver. Fundamentally, it classifies the infant-caregiver relationship as the foundation of an infant’s future social development and further ability to form relationships. Bowlby believed that a child’s attachment with its caregiver governs the development of internal working models (or mental representations) which the child subsequently applies to relationships with other people and in general, the social world. In turn he proposed that by determining the nature of an infant’s attachment with their caregiver (considered primarily to be the mother in this case), an infant’s future social behaviour patterns could be predicted i.e. certain attachment types would lead to certain behaviour types as a result of these internal working models (1973). Attachment types were formally assessed via the “Strange Situation” experiment (Ainsworth et al. 1978), out of which three basic types were discerned: the “secure” and the “insecure: anxious/ambivalent” and “insecure: avoidant”. A fourth attachment style – “insecure: disorganised” was later included, encompassing an insecure attachment style which couldn’t reliably be characterised as either anxious or avoidant (Van Ijzendoorn et al.; 1999). Attachment theory is intrinsically relevant to psychoanalysis; being characterised as an attempt to update classical psychoanalysis (otherwise lacking empirical evidence; Kihlstrom, 1999), in light of advancements in evolutionary biology and cognition (Ainsworth et al. 1978, SchoreAn Infants Innate Proximity Seeking Behaviour Psychology Essay


The purpose of this study programme is to determine if students from the elementary level of Hin Hua High School (Chinese Independent School) improved in their ability to write in English after having studied specifically developed curriculum. The 7-hour remedial programme is to be conducted once the academic department releases the final assessment grades. Fifteen students with the lowest score were selected using the criterion method to undergo the remedial programme. the importance of all six major aspects of writing measured in the English Test which comprises mainly punctuation, grammar and usage, sentence structure, strategy, organization, and style. It is believed by attending the remedial programme selected students would be able to show the ability to make and articulate judgments by taking position on an issue or problem. Besides sustaining a position by focusing on the topic throughout the writing. They are alson expected to develop a position by presenting support or evidence using specific details and make inferences based on support or evidence. Most importantly, they should be able to organize and present ideas in a logical way by logically grouping and sequencing ideas. Hence communicate clearly by using language effectively and by observing the conventions of standard written English INTRODUCTION As a language teacher, I often select writing tasks from language textbooks to help students improve their writing ability. Behaviorists, communicative, cognitive, and discourse theories could influence writing approaches in language textbooks. Each theoretical framework has provided us with a better understanding of the multiple dimensions and purposes of teaching writing. A review of the developments in writing pedagogy leads us to conclude that we could teach writing as a means to improve linguistic, rhetorical and communicative competence or as a discovery and cognitive process. The writing tasks that we select from language textbooks and assign to students could reflect one or some of these pedagogical purposes. As teachers, we need to question and understand the pedagogical assumptions of textbook writing tasks so that we can select tasks that will help our students become confident writers and independent thinkers. Primary students entering the secondary school level (high School) are challenged not only to learn new content in the disciplines but also to communicate this. A significant number of students will not have adequate academic literacy levels to be able to do this successfully (Jones and Bonanno, 1995 (1). Atlhough traditionally students were expected to develop academic literacy skills without any explicit teaching of these skills, schools now recognize the increasingly diverse backgrounds of their student populations and have put in place mechanisms for helping students develop their academic literacy. These have included the establishment of literacy and learning units as well as the requirement for school curricula to address the teaching of writing skills including communication skills. English Learning Centre of Hin Hua High School Klang, like other literacy and learning units, has been involved in a number of collaborative projects with teachers involved in teaching Junior One to integrate the teaching of communication skills into the curriculum (Webb et al, 1995, Taylor and Drury, 1996). These initiatives have resulted in the development of new teaching materials and approaches as well as new practices of assessment and feedback. However, as subject area curricula are being adapted to computer-based forms of learning, it is also necessary to consider how the teaching of communication skills can be integrated into these programs or how the teaching of communication skills can be contextualized within the learning of subject area knowledge. With the current demand for propheciuency in English Language great importance has been given to developing programs to instill good writing modes to the elementary learners which aims to help students become successful editors of their own writing. 1.1 LITERATURE REVIEW Writing skills have been identified as to improve students’ thinking. Moffett and a few others have developed cognitively sequenced curricula for elementary and secondary writing, college composition, when it is sequenced at all, tends to rely on structural or rhetorical arrangements, which are neither sequential nor cumulative. Progressions from word to sentence to paragraph to theme confuse quantitative with qualitative growth, while rhetorical sequences confront students with cognitive problems of different but equal complexity. In short, from a cognitive perspective, most writing instruction in higher education is consistent with that in secondary education: what Stephen Judy described as “Advanced Hodgepodge” in high school gives way to “Arrogant Hodgepodge” in college. A large and growing body of research, however, shows that cognitive development follows a hierarchical sequence of stages and suggests that a curriculum can be sequentially organized to promote cognitive development. Bloom’s Taxonomy of Educational Objectives provides some essential connections between the cognitive abilities we expect of college students and a curriculum that can stimulate those abilities Bloom’s Taxonomy is one solution to the cognitive hodgepodge of the writing curriculum. It allows us to sequence instruction and assignments in ways that speak directly to students’ developmental needs. From least to most complex, For writing instruction the taxonomy provides a flexible model of what happens cognitively in the learning process Bloom described a six stage sequence: Knowledge, Comprehension, Application, Analysis, Synthesis, and Evaluation. (See Figure 1) Figure 1.0 The flow chart of Bloom’s Taxonomy At each new level, thought processes build on and encompass previous levels. Implicit in this structure is the assumption of an ascending scale of difficulty and comprehensiveness. Thinking at the comprehension level is more demanding than at the knowledge level; cognitive problems requiring synthesis or evaluation encompass all the preceding levels. A review of Bloom’s definitions for each taxonomic level suggests what such a cognitively-based writing course might entail. Although the focus of each level is cognitive, rhetorical issues of audience and purpose are equally appropriate and can be specified for any assignment. Most of all, the taxonomy allows us to contemplate the value and feasibility of a cognition-based curriculum in writing. Such a curriculum would reflect the hierarchical relations of the various thought processes and would help to control for cognitive complexity in writing and thinking about distorting natural discourse. In this form, writing or writing-intensive courses would systematically develop students’ thinking skills rather than leaving them to chance or, worse, blunting the writer’s still-developing ability to explore and express ideas. In short, a cognition-based curriculum ensures that students participate fully in using writing as a mode of learning. 2.0 INTENDED PURPOSE The remedial programme is targeted for the elementary learners who are in the process of upgrading their writing skills to the pre -intermediate level. A total of 15 students are selected from the age group of 13 years old based on the final semester examination results. The examination basically structured in accordance to the textbook currently used in the school curriculum ,New Opportunities (Pearson Longman-Cambridge). Basically the (Stiggins to highlight achievement differences between and among students to produce a , 1994). School systems might want to classify students in this way so that they can be enhance their competency level even further. The major reason for using a norm-referenced test (NRT) is to classify students. NRTs are designed on dependable rank order of students across a continuum of achievement from high achievers to low achievers be properly placed in remedial or gifted programs. These types of tests are also used to help teachers select students for different ability level reading or mathematics instructional groups. As the selected students fall under the below average group in Paper 1(Writing Assessment) whereby there are two parts that the had to complete here: SECTION A Notes Expansion and SECTION B Continuous Writing (Choose one topic out of five given) From the academic analysis it was found that majority students failed in Section B where it consists of 25% of the total marks of 40% of the Writing paper. Thus they are required to attend a 7 hour remedial programme to improve their writing skills by at least 85%. 3.0 PURPOSE OF REMEDIAL WRITING PROGRAMME The reasons for the remedial program to be initiated is to better the learners in their writing skills and strengthen it so that they have all capabilities to be promoted to the next level but due to certain minute factors they fail to adhere to the standards of the pre-intermediate level. Thus these students are carefully selected using the criterion method to undergo the 7 hour remedial programme. In order to drill and motivate these students in the remedial programme an enriching lesson plan is formulated to create a positive outcome at the end of the the 7 hour remedial programme. The purposes for emphasizing writing skills are to produce who can comprehend teaching and learning in a positive mental attributes. There is a wide body of research suggesting that assessing students’ written performance is a valuable undertaking. Not only is an instructor able to help a student’s progress, but also the instructor can facilitate the learning process and the learning outcomes by being aware of student performance throughout the academic session. Figure 2.0: The Purpose for Teaching Writing Undeniably, 3R skills are important and necessary in daily living. They are also needed to support the development of a knowledge-based economy. Recognizing these needs, the school has initiated and implemented programmes to identify students who have not mastered the 3Rs. These programmes are designed to specifically address and overcome the inability of students to master the 3Rs. This is in line with the essentialism which instills students with academic knowledge and character development. Among the programmes that have been implemented in schools are the Early Inter­vention Reading and Writing Class, Basic Skills for Reading, Writing and Counting Programme and the Literacy and Numeracy Programme at Level One. 3.1 Sub-skills of Writing Besides drilling and enriching the remedial learners with the core writing skills , there are also exposed to the importance of sub-skills in their learning such as: I Manipulating the script of the language: handwriting, spelling and punctuation. II Expressing grammatical [syntactic and morphological] relationships at the sentence level III Expressing information or knowledge in writing: explicitly implicitly IV Enrichment of Vocabulary PART B 4.0 Objectives of the 7-hour remedial programme The main aim in introducing and implementing the remedial programme particularly in the aspect of writing skills is to mainly: to develop competencies in writing skills among learners to move from a teacher-centered didactic model to a student-centered constructivist model to acquire the ability to write in a more clear, concise and acceptable manner 5.0 Instructional Design : Using the ADDIE Model to Build Writing Competency Among Remedial Learners Table 2.0 ADDIE’s Model 5.1 Framework The generic term for the five-phase instructional design model consisting of Analysis,Design,Development, Implementation, and Evaluation. Each step has an outcome that feeds into the next step in the sequence. There are probably over 100 different variations of the generic ADDIE model. Instructional design aim for a learner -centered rather than a traditional teacher-centered approach to instruction, so that effective learning can take place. This means that every component of the instruction is governed by the learning outcomes, which have been determined after a thorough analysis of the learners’ needs. This phases sometimes overlap and can be interrelated; however they provide a dynamic, flexible guideline for developing effective and efficient instruction. Figure 3.0 Instructional Design: Using the ADDIE Model 5.2 ADDIE’S Theory The ADDIE instruction model for this desin is outlined by Smith and Ragan(1995) in their book entitiled Instructional design. The focus is n 5 points Analysis, Design, Development, Implementation and Evaluation. From this theory the analysis has proved that there was a need to conduct remedial programme for the elementary low scorers where an opportunty was given to learn and develop basic essay writing skills. 6.0 Remedial Education Programme In Malaysia, the importance of remedial education gained attention in the 1960s. Results of a pilot project in nine schools between 1967 and 1970 showed a need for remedial education, especially for pupils in rural areas. This paved the way for remedial education programmes in primary schools. The pioneers in the field attended a two-year intensive course on remedial education in the United Kingdom. Subsequently, a national series of seminars and workshops on remedial teaching were organized. With the exception of small schools or under-enrolled schools, every school is allocated one remedial education teacher. At the school level, a Remedial Education Committee is formed, comprising the headmaster, remedial education teacher, class teacher, subject teacher, resource centre coordinator, and other teachers as members. The introduction of a new curriculum for primary schools in 1983 implied a return to the basics in education. The ultimate goal was to ensure that no pupil is illiterate by the year 2000. The implementation of the remedial education programme for children in Primary 1-3 is to ensure that they master the 3Rs. Children who have been recommended for remedial education are required to attend remedial classes. As of 1999, 54,000 primary school children have undergone the intervention programme. In addition to improving and enhancing teacher development, the Malaysian government also works towards improving the curriculum at school to meet the changing needs of the economy. During the Fourth Malaysia Plan, the primary school curriculum was revised with the aim of providing and establishing a firm education in reading, writing, and arithmetic. This led to the development of a new curriculum emphasizing the 3Rs. Studies looking at the returns to education in Malaysia have found positive results in those who have had some form of formal education, thereby providing support to the government guidelines on the primary curriculum which emphasizes the acquisition of basic skills.Education in Malaysia , changing very rapidly responding to the emerging focus of lifelong learning; the growing emphasis on learning; as opposed to reaching and the development of the new delivery systems 6.1 The Educational, Philosophical and Psychological foundation Elementary education shall aim to develop the spiritual, moral, mental and physical capabilities of the child, provide him with experiences in the democratic way of life, and inculcate ideas and attitude necessary for enlightened, patriotic, upright and useful citizenship. To achieve these objectives, elementary education curriculum shall provide for the: inculcation of spiritual and civic values and the development of a good citizen based on an abiding faith in God and genuine love of country; training of the young citizen in his rights, duties and responsibilities in a democratic society for active participation, in a progressive and productive home and community life; development of basic understanding about Malaysian culture, the desirable tradition and virtues of our people as essential requisites in attaining national consciousness and solidarity; teaching of basic health knowledge and the formation of desirable health habits and practices; development of functional literacy in English as basic tools for further learning; and acquisition of fundamental knowledge, attitudes, habits, and skills in science, civics, culture, history, geography, mathematics, arts, and home economics and livelihood education and their intelligent application in appropriate life situations. The Elementary Basic Education Curriculum focuses on the tool learning areas for an adequate development of competencies for learning how to learn. The goal of Instructional design is to support the cognitive processes that result in learning (McGriff). The expected outcome of instructional design is to provide knowledge and skills to people. The three major learning theories are Constructivism, Behaviorism, and Cognitive. Instructional Design is based on constructivist principles. Instructional design is associated with instructional systems development (Leshin et al, 1992). An Instructional System is the “arrangement of resources and procedures to promote learning” (Berger and Kam). 6.2 Programme Design: ADDIE Model ADDIE is a general-purpose model, which can be used to create instructional products and program design. ADDIE is the acronym for Analyze, Design, Develop, Implement and Evaluate and summarizes the five steps in the Instructional Design process. The instructional designer makes decisions critical to ensuring the effectiveness of the educational experience in each phase of the process. In accordance with the process improvement model, the five phases are a “loop,” with the improvement of learning outcomes as the goal. Dick and Carey and Kemp (Kemp, et .al, 1998) expanded the ADDIE Model into nine elements. The Dick and Carey Model uses a Reductionist approach in breaking instruction down into smaller segments targeting sub skills. The learner is required to master of sub skills, which are aggregated to achieve overall skill mastery and learned behavior. It provides a systematic approach to curriculum and program design. Teaching is essentially a philosophical endeavor and therefore educational activity can be conceived within the context of a philosophy or worldview. The curricukum refelects the art and craft of teaching. Educational technology can provide diversity of thinking regarding curriculum and instruction which would be curriculum theorizing. 6.2.1 Analysis Basically the nature of the students whom the remedial programme to be conducted are students who learn English Language as a second language. They are originally from Chinese speaking families with a minimum exposure to English Language. Due to the expectation of the school and the educational needs in adhering English as one of the core subjects in school these students are required to have in depth knowledge and skill in it. All of them have been educated in the Chinese primary school education system. Based on the final semester examination results 15 students are selected to undergo remedial programme as they fall in the border line cases .The students acquire poor writing skills, while being able to construct sentences fairly well, they seem to have great difficulty in organizing and developing their ideas into the form of an essay that has an introduction, body and conclusion. In order to promote these students to the next level that is the pre-intermediate phase from their origin elementary level the English Language Department found it vital for them to attend a 7-hour remedial programme in order to find solution to this situation. All of them need to further develop their writing skills in term of cohesion and coherence; time and practice. 6.2.2 Design The main design goal for our programme would be on the cognitive strategies of being able to develop an idea for writing since all of them com e from a very similar background and have basic sentence writing skills. Besides the development of language in the mechanics of sentence construction such as syntax, grammar, structure, etc given priority. R.Gagne(1965) divided learning into 5 categories: Verbal or declarative knowledge, intellectual skills, cognitive strategies, attitudes and psychomotor skills. The learning goals are also in connection to these categories to try to put educational value behind our goals. At the same time the goal also reflects competences outlines by Benjamin Bloom (Bloom,1956). These include: Knowledge, Conprehension , Application, Analysis, Synthesis an Evaluation. These give our goals validity whereby competencies are incorporated in bringing about concrete task for learners that we assign in order to achieve their goals. Hence in the evaluation phase, we can use this aspect to find out the validity and the accomplishment of the learners in implementing the programme. Learning Goals and Type of Learning OBJECTIVE STANDARD GAGNE’S DOMAIN BLOOM’S TAXANOMY Learners will identify an essay topic and 3 sub-topics Criteria established by Hin Hua High School, English Language Department Cognitive strategies Synthesis Learners will be able to write a 3 paragraph essay with an introduction, 2 sub topics to include their opinions, ideas and conclusion Criteria established by Hin Hua High School, English Language Department Declaration Knowledge Intellectual Skills Synthesis Evaluation Application Learners will be able to use the library and Handouts to research printed information on their topics Criteria established by Hin Hua High School, English Language Department Procedural knowledge (declaration knowledge) Knowledge Learners will be able to use proper mechanics of grammar syntax Criteria established by Hin Hua High School, English Language Department Intellectual Skills Application Learners will be able to present their topics in class Criteria established by Hin Hua High School, English Language Department Declaration knowledge Comprehension Table 3.0 Learning Goals and Type of Learning 6.2.3 Development In order to establish a approachable remedial programme for the elementary learners , we English teachers have developed a remedial programme which will undertake a 7 hour learning process. The teachers from the same level have brainstormed and come up with a course content for the 7-hour teaching and learning programme. The teachers from the same teaching level are the best person to create the lesson as they deal with the same competency level of students all the time and are considered experts in their area. Besides this, they will be able to make he printed and computer materials and added step of getting the right content for the level. On top of that since they have already been teaching in the same scope so they will be undoubtedly familiar in the process of teaching and guiding the learners in order to make the remedial programme a success. 6.2.3.(1) Procedure The remedial programme would be in the English medium since the main objective is to improve writing skills among elementary learners. The programme consists of 6 regular sessions and followed by a review and a test day. Each hour is scheduled to be conducted for 60 minutes ***Details on the whole programme given on Part D 6.2.4 Implementation Further to the development to the development the teachers would be equipped with intact course content for he programme. The module would be prepared in balance with the time frame allotted for the programme. Any teacher who is selected for this task should be ready to undertake the teaching process based on the scheme that has been prepared. Al l 15 students will be instructed to attend the programme for 7 hours. These are the various aspect of implementation emphasized in the learning process: Table 4.0 Learning Process Implementation 6.2.5 Evaluation The evaluation phase consists of two parts: formative and summative. Formative evaluation is present in each stage of the ADDIE process. Summative evaluation consists of tests designed for domain specific criterion-related referenced items and providing opportunities for feedback from the users. Primarily the evaluation is done in two parts. The first phase will be the evaluation of student work based on the objectives in the “Learning goals and type of learning” listed above. Students will be rated by their teacher based on the A,B,C,F criteria set by the English Department. An A is excellent work, B is average, and C will mean student needs improvement. An F would mean that student failed the writing assessment with below 60% of mark. Students will be evaluated at each stage of the course. The department will use this evaluation in order to find out how they might need to modify the programme in the future. A summative evaluation will be conducted as outlined by Smith and Ragan(1999,p.352). Those authors explain that in order to evaluate the effectiveness, appeal, and efficiency of instruction, a collection, analysis and summary of data on students ia essential. In our designed programme an exam is built to access students of their mastery on the abilities taught during the programme.Students are to show their capabilities in their understanding and knowledge taught to them by completing the set of homework targeted to them. Students will be graded on from 1 to 5 for their abilities in each of the following sections: Student name Student able to choose a topic n sub-topics Student able to use handouts information Student able to complete the essay Score dated from 1 to 5 1 : poor 2 : Able to understand the writing concept with some guidance 3 : Able to complete the task with help and support 4 : Able to understand the concept and complete the task individually A pre-test and post-test can measure how well learners achieved the learning objectives. However, it usually takes more time and effort to measure things such as whether the learners will use their training. This evaluation phase can extend for months. Upon completion of the programme the students’ feedback will be collected to further gauge the success of the programme. Questions are also answered on a scale of 1 to 5. 1 is low and 5 is high. The standard questions constructed are as below: Were you satisfied with the content of this course? Were you able to understand the teacher’s explanation? Were you able to put into practice elements that you learnt? Did you fond the course interesting? On a scale of 1 to 5, what is your general feeling about the course? PART C 7.0 REVIEWER’S COMMENTS Below is the summary of the feedback received from two of the Senior Teachers from the English Language Department of Hin Hua High School regarding the 7hour remedial programme on writing skills. Reviewer 1: Mdm Annaletchumy Reviewer 2: Ms Sastina The strengths and weaknesses of the newly developed Remedial Programme for Elementary Students Strengths 1. Learning by actively participating in group discussion 2. Encouraging students to construct their own ideas and knowledge of the topic 3. Student-centered rather than teacher or subject-centered 4. Teaching aid contributed to student’s visualization on the topic given 5. Suitable to student’s development level 6. Group work enables students to self – express, to be self-confident and self- awareness 7. Encourage teacher to develop student’s creative thinking abilities 8. Emphasizing the concept of group work and peer evaluation where no student Is left behind 9. Encouraging the co-operation among students and teacher positively 10. Enables student to have a positive mindset in creative writing Weaknesses 1. Unsuitability of activities for crowded room 2. Lack of materials used as aid for pre-writing task 3. Lack of teacher’s evaluation on the first phase of writing 4. Certain task may take more time than the planned time 5. Peer evaluation on writing inappropriate approach for elementary learners 8.0 Summary of Review Summarized below are some of the accomplishments and challenges I personally went through in construction the remedial programme: 8.1 Strengths 8.1.1 Improved students attitude and motivation Students are mentally prepared to participate in the programme because students agree to a particular pace, workload, and learning environment from the beginning. 8.1.2 Creating Learning Communities: Classes function as teach communities both teacher and their students benefit – in both social and academic areas – from working with each other over a entire programme. 8.1.3 Eliminating Stigma of Dependency: The concept group work and peer evaluation removed the stigma of being too dependent on the teacher Writing materials. 8.2 Weaknesses 8.2.1 Students participation Some learners will not contribute in due to the lack of interest or proficiency 8.2.2 Stipulated Time The period allotted might not be sufficient for certain task. Thus this will delay or sometimes interrupt the whole programme structure. 8.2.3 Genuinely in peer marking Some learners will not adhere by the rules set in peer marking when it comes to assessment. Favoritisms and self -centered will influence the observation 9.0 Conclusion It is expected that by attending this model of English remedial instruction it will be beneficial to low English achievers. Students will gain substantially in grammar and vocabulary and they will also gradually improve in their overall English competence. Based on the comments from the reviewers it can be concluded that learners will be effectively improve their English writing skills through the prepared course module for the remedial programme. A well-designed course will definitely give them encouragement and support to elevate their English proficiency and be prepared for the next level , pre=intermediate. 10.0 PART D 7 HOUR LESSON PLAN REMEDIAL PROGRAMME – ENGLISH LANGUAGE LEVEL: ELEMENTARY LENGTH:420m LESSON TYPE: WRITING SKILLS Aim: by the end of my lesson, students will be able to write a full-length essay on Endangered Species and improve their approach of writing strategies. Subsidiary aim: students will be able to improve their use of linking words in controlled and less controlled writing activities on Endangered Species Evidence: (How will I know I have achieved the aim?) Students will be able to complete gist and short writing strat