Hawthorne Contribution To Organisational Management Business Essay
Management and its practices have been in existence for a very long period of time and is not an unknown subject to human nature. Kings used management to rule over territories were they had to occupy as their kingdom and govern it in the best means possible. Success or failure of such kingdoms might be the result of good or bad management. Organisational behaviour can be termed as “the field of study concerned with the actions of people at work in an organisation” (Robins, 2006) The term “Hawthorne” is a term used within several behavioural management theories and is originally derived from the western electric company’s large factory complex named Hawthorne works. Starting in 1905 and operating until 1983, Hawthorne works had 45,000 employees and it produced a wide variety of consumer products, including telephone equipment, refrigerators and electric fans. As a result, Hawthorne works is well-known for its enormous output of telephone equipment and most importantly for its industrial experiments and studies carried out. Between 1924 and 1932, a series of experiments were carried out on the employees at the facility. The original purpose was to study the effect of lighting on workers’ productivity. The first illumination was conducted in three departments were illumination level in each department was increased at stated intervals. Puzzling results were obtained, production increased, though it did not correspond with the change in lighting level. The second illumination study utilized a test group and control group, where the test group had an increase in illumination and the control group at constant level. Results concluded that not only production increased in both groups but nearly at an identical rate. Another third illumination study used the same procedure but instead illumination was reduced. Still, efficiency in production of both groups increased until the lighting in the test group became so poor that the workers complained. From these studies conclusions were brought forward that employee output was not related to lighting conditions and that too many variables were not controlled hence findings could have been biased. Such behavioural results initiated an interest within Harvard university professors Elton Mayo, Fritz Roethlisberger and William J. Dickson. Using a study group other experiments were conducted to examine what effect of monotony and fatigue on productivity and how to control those using variables such as rest breaks, work hours and incentives. At normal conditions the work week was of 48 hours, including Saturdays, with no rest pauses. On the first experiment workers were put on piece-work salary where they were paid on each part they produced, as a result the output increased. On the second experiment the workers were given 2 rest pauses of 5 minutes each for 5 weeks and again output went up. The third experiment further increased the pauses to 10 min and the output went up sharply. For the fourth experiments a 6, 5 min breaks were given and output fell slightly as the workers complained that the work rhythm was broken. On the fifth experiments conditions for experiment three were repeated but this time a free hot meal was given by the company and output wen up again.at the sixth experiment, workers were dismissed at 4.30p.m. Instead of 5.00p.m were an output increase was recorded. The seventh experiment had the same results as experiments six even though the workers were dismissed at 4.00 p.m. on the eighth and final experiment, all improvements were taken away and workers returned to their original working conditions. Surprisingly, results concluded that output was the highest ever recorded! Another experiment was conducted by Mayo at the bank wiring room. The work involved a group of workers carrying out tasks such as wiring, soldering and inspection, which were all overseen by a single observer. At the first few days workers would not work freely as an outsider was present, but with time normal behaviour resumed which included talking, fighting and helping out each other. It was also noted that some employees tend to change their way of carrying out their task within time to time, in order to reduce task monotony. Upon concluding such experiments mayo commented that the obtained high productivity results may be affected due to the fact that workers have “the feeling of being studied” which led him to further investigation. In fact to his amusement, Mayo discovered that the general upward production trend is independent of any changes in work conditions and that response to productivity is non-linear. From the bank wiring room, mayo also stated that workers will scale back productivity to suit group norm and that organisations are social systems in which human interaction play a critical role. Being in a team, unlike on the normal factory floor, the selected workers together with their observer formed a social atmosphere which increased freedom and attitude towards work reducing the monotony of the task. (Mayo, 1927-1933) His study now contradicted Taylor’s theory that of high productivity is a result of longer working hours and using a single established procedure given by their managers. Through Hawthorne experiments mayo discovered the fundamental concept which seems obvious in today’s behavioural management theories. “Workplaces are social environments and within them, people are motivated by much more than economic self-interest” (Human Relations Contributors, 2012) hence, the following theories were applied: The first theory is based on psychological contrast were an unwritten understanding between the worker and employer of what is expected from them exists. Second theory states that a worker’s motivation can be enhanced by applying an interest in them as Mayo did through his experiments. Team work is the third theory, were worker’s motivation could be increased through it as it allows people to form strong working relationships and increases trust between the workers. Work groups are created formally by the employer but also occur informally as characters are attracted to each other. The forth theory concerns the Social aspect of work which workers are motivated through it, as demonstrated by the test group socialising during work and the subsequent increase in motivation. Recognition of workers also induces motivation, security and a sense of belonging which is said to be the fifth theory. Sixth and final theory is the communication between workers and management. This influences workers morale and productivity. Motivation is enhanced through a good working relationship with management. (Elton Mayo: Hawthorne Experiments) A new milestone in organisational behaviour was set and Mayo and his team found a way to improve productivity by creating a healthy team spirit environment between workers and supervisors labelling it as The Hawthorne Effect. Such theory has been broadened and the term Hawthorne Effect nowadays has several definitions. By time, the Hawthorne theory evolved within the management and organisation sector. Having illumination as the basis of the Hawthorne effect, “People will be more productive when appreciated” (Hawthorne Effect, 2012). The Hawthorne effect is a physiological phenomenon that produces an improvement in human behaviour or performance as a result of increased attention of superiors and colleagues. As a combined effort, the effect can enhance results by creating sense of teamwork and a common purpose. As in many ways the Hawthorne effect is interpreted, it generates new ideas concerning importance of work groups and leadership, communication, motivation and job design, which brought forward emphasis on personnel management and human relations. (Mullins, 2007) Although the Hawthorne effect tends to be an ideal contributor to organisational management, it contains a few flaws which such a study is criticized upon. Having the experiments being conducted in controlled environments, lack of validity may exist as the workers knew they were observed hence produced better performances. The human aspect in the Hawthorne experiments was given too much importance were it alone cannot improve production as other factors are a must. Group decision making might also evolve in a flaw as on occasions individual decision making is vital as it might be the way to prevent failures within a system. Another flaw contributes to the freedom given to the workers by the Hawthorne effect. The important constructive role of supervisors may be lost with excess informality within the groups and in fact such a flaw may result in lowering the performance and productivity. (Akrani, 2011) The Hawthorne experiments marked a significant step forward in human behaviour and are regarded as one of the most important social science investigations and said to be the foundations of relations approach to management and the development of organisational behaviour. Managers are to be aware of the criticism evolved through years on such a study before adopting it. In my opinion, the Hawthorne effect is a validated theory and could be applied within the organisation, though care is to be taken and a limit is to be set. The use of team groups is acceptable as it creates a caring factor between workers and competitively amongst other teams. Supervisors are to keep their role and limit socialising with staff on the shop floor to always keep their role and hence standards are always kept to the maximum. Team meeting are to be held which allows the worker to give out his opinion and feel important by contributing his ideas to the organisation. Whichever management structure an organisation is to adopt, regular reviews are to be carried out in order to keep a stable output and good standard in quality. Such a strategy will ensure continuous evolution of the organisational management and a successful organisation producing maximum efficiency in its produce.
Professor said i need use the file template “Signature Assignment – Topic Choice Template” within my term paper. making Essay
programming assignment help Professor said i need use the file template “Signature Assignment – Topic Choice Template” within my term paper. making Essay. Professor said i need use the file template “Signature Assignment – Topic Choice Template” within my term paper. making sure that everything in the term paper is answered using those questions. in the file i will also send what another write wrote in the “completed term paper”. professor said i was missing the ethical theory to support my stance. i feel like it needs to be reworked. This week you will submit the final draft of your term paper. Your term paper should: Discuss the technical aspects of your topic in general terms. Discuss the public policy debates relevant to the topic you choose. This section should cover arguments that favor and oppose the use of the techniques or products. Express your personal opinion regarding the topic’s importance and the validity of the pro and con arguments. Your submission must include: A title page The body of the paper, which includes 4–6 content pages of a professionally written text At least three references from textbooks, websites, and articles that provide adequate justification and support your claim Subheadings (technical aspects, public policy, and personal opinion/conclusion) Appropriate in-text citations throughout the paper A reference list with only the sources used in the body of the paper (All sources should be less than five years old unless recent research is not available, and at least one reference must be a peer-reviewed article from a professional journal. Do not use Wikipedia or an encyclopedia as they are not considered reliable academic sources and will not be accepted.) APA style formatting throughout your paperProfessor said i need use the file template “Signature Assignment – Topic Choice Template” within my term paper. making Essay
Stigma of Self-Harm in Healthcare Services
Stigma of Self-Harm in Healthcare Services. Self-harm – a deliberate attempt to self-poison or self-injure regardless of the incentive or suicidal intent – is a growing problem in the United Kingdom with a heavy burden on health-care systems. Despite this escalating crisis, attitudes from health professionals who treat self-harmers remain negative and the quality of care is deteriorating. The myths of why people self-harm play a substantial role in health professionals’ perceptions of self-harmers, which impacts on the efficacy of intervention and recovery rates; however, these myths are far from the reality. This article will reveal the stigma that self-harmers encounter from those at the front-line of our healthcare services and will seek to explain the real reasons behind self-harmful behaviour. By increasing public awareness and educating health professionals on the motives behind self-harmful behaviour, misconceptions and negative attitudes can be diminished. Studies show that self-harm is a common pattern among adolescents and young adults – 13-25% has reported a history of self-injury. Although many young people only engage in self-harm once or twice, others go on to become chronic self-harmers, with studies evidencing that 6% of the college population do chronically self-harm. Still, these figures may be underestimated as many self-harmers do not seek help. Due to the lack of knowledge and negative misconceptions, those who do seek help report unsatisfactory care from paramedics and emergency staff, who are often the first point of contact. Front-line professionals are in a rare position to interrupt the cycle of self-harm; however, with inadequate rapport between staff and patients, the cycle will continue to have devastating consequences on individuals in need of help. The following misconceptions are put forward. The first misconception of why people self-harm is the desire to end one’s life. In a systematic review of attitudes towards people who self harm, it was found that suicide-risk was a common reason for self-injury as agreed among most clinical staff groups (Saunders, Hawton, FortuneStigma of Self-Harm in Healthcare Services
An Introduction To Diabetes Mellitus
An Introduction To Diabetes Mellitus. Diabetes mellitus was recognized as early as 1500 B.C. by Egyptian Physicians, who described it as a disease associated with “the passage of much urine”. The term “diabetes” (the Greek for Siphon) was coined by the Greek Physician Aretaeus the Cappadocian around A.D.2. In 1674 a physician named Willis coined the term “Diabetes Mellitus” (from the Greek word for Honey).1, 2 Diabetes mellitus is a complex syndrome that affects multiple organ systems. It is now clear that diabetes is a heterogeneous group of disorders that are elicited secondary to various genetic predispositions and precipitating factors.3 Diabetes mellitus is a chronic disease that is characterized by disorders in carbohydrate, protein and lipid metabolism. Its central disturbance appears to involve an abnormality either in the secretion of or effects produced by insulin although other factors also may be involved.4 Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorder in which carbohydrate metabolism is reduced while that of proteins and lipids is increased.5 The external secretion of the pancreas is digestive in function and the intestinal secretions play a major role in the regulation of metabolism. The hormones which regulate the level of blood sugar are mainly two; glucagon from the alpha-cells and insulin from the beta-cells of the islets of langerhans.6 Glipizide is 200 times more potent than tolbutamide in evoking pancreatic secretion of insulin. It differs from other oral hypoglycemic drugs where in tolerance to this action apparently does not occur.9 It also upregulates insulin receptors in the periphery, which seems to be the primary action. It has a special status in the treatment of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus because it is effective in many cases which are resistant to all other oral hypoglycemic drugs. It differs from other oral hypoglycemic drugs ie more effective during eating than during fasting. Over the year controlled drug delivery technology has a wide advances. Due to its high potential a bioadhesive system place a major role in controlling drug release. Mucoadhesive system prolong the residence time of the dosage form at the site of application or absorption and facilitate an therapeutic performance of the drug. Recent interest has been expressed in the delivery of drug via mucus membrane by the use of adhesive materials on which studies are been intensively undertaken.58 Glipizide is an oral antidiabetic drug, belonging to the sulphonylurea group. Presently the drug is marketed in conventional dosage form of tablet in usual strength of 2.5 to 20 mg. When the drug is administered by this route, about 50% of drug is metabolized in the liver to the several inactive metabolites. Hence there is need of the alternative route administration to avoid first pass hepatic metabolism.7 More over the combination of anti-diabetic drugs with NSAIDS are not available in market. Physicochemical properties of this drug like small dose, lipophilicity, stability at buccal pH, odourlessness, tastelessness, low molecular weight etc. makes it an ideal candidate for administration by buccal route. For hydrophilic substances, the rate of absorption is a function of the molecular size. Small molecules (<75-100 Da.) appear to cross the mucosa rapidly, but permeability falls off rapidly as molecular size increases. Since permeability has been observed to decrease sharply as molar volume is increased beyond 80ml/mol, investigators have proposed ââ‚¬” two distinct polar routes. This relationship between size and permeability has not been demonstrated for lipophilic substances, although common sense suggests that such a relationship must exist. The degree of ionization of a permeant is a function of both its pka and the pH at the mucosal surface. For many weak acids and weak bases, only the unionized form possesses appreciable lipid solubility. The absorption of many compounds has been shown to be maximal at the pH at which they are mostly unionized, tailing off as the degree of ionization increases. Other studies, however, have failed to show this pattern. In common with drug transport across other epithelia, there are a number of possible permeation pathways across the oral mucosae. The classical distinction is between transcellular and paracellular permeation, referring to passage across the individual cells of the epithelium and passage between these cells, respectively. For transcellular permeation, the permeant must be capable of passing through pores in the cell membranes or diffusing through the lipid bi-layers of these membranes. Passage through membrane pore would probably be limited to small molecules, while diffusion across cell membranes would require appreciable aqueous and lipid solubilities. Paracelluler permeation requires the epithelium to have a sufficiently open matrix and requires the permeant to have an appreciable diffusivity in the intercellular milieu. It seems likely that large and/or highly polar permeants may be unable to pass through the epithelial cell membranes and might, therefore, follow the paracellular route. An alternative classification is into polar and non-polar routes, the former involving passage of water-soluble substances through aqueous channels in the mucosa and the latter involving partitioning of the drug into the lipid bilayer of the plasma membrane or into the lipid of the intercellular matrix and diffusion through these lipid elements. Almost all studies have shown that, for most permeants passage across the oral mucosae appears to be a first-order simple diffusion process. It has also been suggested, however that the oral mucosae contain active or carrier-mediated systems for small molecules such as monosaccharides and amino acids. However, these processes have not been fully characterized in terms of location, transport capacity or specificity. The kinetics of oral mucosal absorption have been studied by a number of workers. Some investigations have shown a slow onset of appearance of permeant in the systemic circulation and a depot-like behaviour of the oral mucosae which have been attributed to some form of binding within the mucosae. To date, however, this area has not been systematically investigated and remains for the most part poorly understood. Possible routes for drug transport across the oral mucosa: 16 The cellular structure of the oral mucosa suggests that there are two permeability barriers. The intercellular spaces and cytoplasm are essentially hydrophilic in character and become a transport barrier for lipophilic compounds mainly because the solubility of lipophilic compound in this environment is low. In contrast, the cell membrane is lipophilic and the penetration of a hydrophilic compound into the cell membrane is low due to a low partition coefficient. Thus, closely compacted cell membranes become obstacles that hydrophilic compounds have to move around. The coexistence of the hydrophilic and lipophilic regions in the oral mucosa suggests that there are two routes for drug transport, i.e., the paracellular and the transcellular routes (Diag.3). PERMEATION ENHANCEMENT: 14, 15 While the sublingual mucosa is sufficiently permeable to allow the therapeutic delivery of a number of small drug molecules, low mucosal permeability is perceived to be a significant obstacle to buccal delivery. Permeation enhancers are substances added to a pharmaceutical formulation in order to increase the membrane permeation rate or absorption rate of a co-administered drug. Attention is thus focused on some of the strategies that have been proposed for enhancing the permeability of the oral mucosae. A considerable number of agents have been proposed as penetration enhancers. The agents used have mostly been small hydrophilic molecules. E.g., dimethyl sulphoxide, dimethyl formamide, ethanol, propylene glycol, and the 2-pyrrolidones, long-chain amphiphathic molecules (decylmethyl sulphoxide, azone, sodium lauryl sulphate, oleic acid and the bile salts), and non-toxic surfactants (polysorbates). Although some are effective, either alone or in combination, their modes of action are not fully understood. An Introduction To Diabetes Mellitus