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Springfield College Anxiety Disorder Discussion

Springfield College Anxiety Disorder Discussion.

I have to complete a a slide presentation on the paper you wrote. here is the information that needs to be in the slide presentation……I will complete the presentation portion. Cover the following areas in your presentation. Historical and current trends relating to your topic. Identify and briefly discuss key aspects of your paper to include: the biopsychosocial contributors, diagnostic process and standard treatment approaches (including assessments, interventions, psychopharmacology).Be precise and direct in your presentations. Each presentation should have a PowerPoint with no more than five slides total including references.
Springfield College Anxiety Disorder Discussion

Discussion – Debating Early Childhood Legislation It is not uncommon for early childhood professionals to have differing opinions about bills or legislation introduced to support young children and families. Some examples of controversial legislation include: Fingerprinting and background checks Common Core Standards For this discussion, identify a controversial piece of legislation that you feel strongly about. State your position regarding the matter and explain why you feel that way. Respond to your classmates’ statements based on your opinion. Provide research or data to support your responses.

SPC Wk 6 Medical Staff Organization and Malpractice in the US Discussion

SPC Wk 6 Medical Staff Organization and Malpractice in the US Discussion.

Chapters 10, 11, and 12 of the Pozgar text each address a different area of practice within the healthcare environment. Identify the chapter that most closely applies to your personal area of practice (current or aspirational), read that chapter, and be prepared to explore the legal and ethical issues in that practice area.

Chapter 10: Medical staff organization and malpractice
Chapter 11: Nursing and the law
Chapter 12: Hospital departments and allied professionals

Based on the chapter you selected, your personal experience, and a biblical worldview, write a Discussion thread identifying and analyzing the legal and ethical issues specific to your area of practice.
Your analysis must be supported by at least 4 scholarly sources, including the textbook chapter(s) and the Bible, cited in current APA format (note that this is a different requirement than the previous Discussion). Title your thread in the subject line with the area of practice that you analyzed.
reply 1
In the future, I would like to go into the field of healthcare administration and use the degree to become a licensed nursing home administrator. In the field of nursing home administration, one is responsible for many different departments including but not limited to, nursing, dietary, laundry, housekeeping, maintenance, etc. As the administrator, he/she oversees these departments and makes sure everyone is doing their job properly. According to Nelson et al. (2020), “nursing home administrator’s routinely monitor care and the environment, and also staff actions and morale in stigmatized settings.” The role of nursing home administrator comes with a large number of responsibilities. A few of these responsibilities include making sure everyone if doing things, the right way in order to satisfy the legal and ethical aspects of the nursing home.
Legal Issues in Healthcare Administration
There are many different legal issues that can arise in the setting of nursing homes. One example of a legal issue that might arise in a nursing home would be the hiring of qualified candidates (Neil, 2020). By not hiring qualified and properly educated healthcare professionals, the organization is at risk for legal issues in the form of malpractice lawsuits. This could be due to the risk that is being placed on the patient by having an untrained healthcare professional provide care. An untrained nurse for example, could potentially not provide proper care in the form of giving medication, not practicing good hand washing techniques, etc., which could cause injury to a patient leaving the organization open to a lawsuit. Upon more recent events, another example of legal issues that might arise in the nursing home setting is that of the COVID-19 pandemic. According to Neil (2020), healthcare staff was not as prepared as they could have been for the surge of COVID-19 related illness that were being seen across healthcare settings. This again, opens organizations up to malpractice lawsuit based on the fact that they were ill prepared and had no education on the virus. One way that an organization can help combat these legal issues is through education. By education staff on the virus and updating organization practices and procedures, an organization can potentially decrease their risk of legal issues related to the COVID-19 pandemic. An organization might also consider the licensing of its employees as part of their job qualification. Liberty University Custom: Pozgar, (2019) describes licensing as “the process by which a competent authority grants permission to a qualified individual or entity to perform certain restricted activities that would be illegal without a license” (p. 335). This would also help ensure that the job is being done correctly and again potentially limit the malpractice lawsuits that could come upon the organization.
Ethical Issues in Healthcare Administration
Along with legal issues that one might face in the field of healthcare and nursing home administration, there are also many ethical issues that can be faced as well. According to the article written by Preshaw et al. (2016), “Ethical issues are unavoidable in healthcare and can result in opportunities for improving work and care conditions; however, they are also associated with detrimental outcomes including staff burnout and moral distress.” Seeing that all healthcare professionals face ethical issues, it is important to evaluate how they might affect myself, as a future nursing home administrator. Preshaw et al. (2016) gives an example of an ethical issues that might be faced in the nursing home setting. The article states that those living in a nursing home should have autonomy (Preshaw et al., 2016). The ethical issues come into play when considering the level of autonomy that a resident of a nursing home has and if that level of autonomy could end up with the resident causing harm to themselves of others (Preshaw et al., 2016). Therefore, the ethical issues being addresses is what to do if the resident has that autonomy but could cause harm to themselves, should a healthcare worker step in and tell them not to do something? This could be seen a taking away their autonomy and poses an ethical dilemma for a healthcare professional. Another example of an ethical issues that can arise in a nursing home that an administrator would have to handle would be that of decision making. As an administrator in a nursing home, decision making is an important responsibility. When it comes to making decisions, for the residents in the organizations, the administrator must remember that the resident is still a person and may want to make their own decisions. Although they may want to make their own decisions, their cognitive conditions may impact their decision making. Therefore, the ethical issues come into play as to what to do in this type of situation.
The Bible and Ethics
In the article written by Rabens (2017), the writer address how one should live a Christian life and remain ethical. This article states that bible is the “operating instructions for life” (Rabens, 2017). This means that in every decision, conflict, or ethical dilemma that a Christian faces, they should consider the bible as a road map. The article states that the reasoning behind this thinking is that “‘God has created us, and he knows best how we should live” (Rabens, 2017). Therefore, we should follow his teaching in all aspects of life, including when facing legal and ethical issues in the workplace. A verse that is an example of this is “All scripture is inspired by God and useful for teaching, for reproof, for correction, and for training in righteousness, so that everyone who belongs to God may be proficient, equipped for every good work” 2 Timothy 3:16 (The Holy Bible, 2011). This verse, along with the article is an excellent example of how Christians should live their lives and make legal and ethical decisions in the healthcare profession.
Overall, in the healthcare profession, there are many decisions that a nursing home administrator would have to make in terms or legality and ethics. Legal considerations would include the quality of staffing and how well the healthcare professionals in the organization are performing their job. Ethical considerations would include decisions being made that could impact a resident’s autonomy and decision-making powers. When a healthcare professional is faced with legal and ethical decision it is important to remember your faith and beliefs and use the bible and teachings of the bible as a road map when faced with tough situations. 
reply 2
Nursing and the Law: The Legal and Ethical Issues of the Nurse Supervisor
The nurse supervisor’s (NS) role is to provide broad oversight and management of the hospital function during non-business hours. The primary responsibilities are to ensure patient and nurse safety and are often called to address various issues that arise after-hours, serving as the 411 and 911 call of most hospital staff. Facilitating a safe environment requires the nurse supervisor to ensure adequate staffing, appropriate and timely patient bed placement, safe quality nursing and medical care, and facilitate collaborative communication and teamwork (Bertino-Lapinsky, 2021). Purposeful rounding is instrumental in building effective communication, physician-nurse relationships, helps identify patient care needs, and promotes a zero-harm environment (Bertino-Lapinsky, 2021). In research by Weaver and Lindgren (2017), NS indicated that making physical rounding on each unit has the most significant impact on patient safety, a finding that correlates well with personal experience.
The supervisor offers guidance to the nursing staff, reinforces nursing practice guidelines and unit-specific policies, helps determine the appropriate level of patient care, addresses conflict issues, acts as a patient relations representative, provides crisis management, and responds to emergency codes (Weaver, 2016, p. 65). Additional responsibilities occur when working at a military facility with a medical residency program and a growing trauma center, with nurses of various skillsets and working guidelines.
The NS must promote a positive attitude, become familiar with the nurses and their skillset, and form a rapport of trust with the staff of all disciplines. The NS must also be aware of facility limitations and physicians’ credentials, determining if a patient is appropriate for admission or if transfer to another facility is optimal. The many decisions and interactions of an NS can lead to a high risk for legal and ethical challenges.
Legal Issues
Pozgar (2019) notes that each state has a Nurse Practice Act (NPA) which sets the legal aspects of nursing and outlines the authorized scope of practice to protect the citizens from unsafe care. A nurse may be licensed in one state but able to work in multiple states. The state board of nursing facilitates working in other states by establishing a Nursing Licensure Compact. The practicing nurse and nurse leaders must remain informed of the rules, regulations, and amendments that guide the professional practice to ensure compliance and be diligent when practicing in a new environment (Grant & Ballard, 2011).
Legal liability is an officially recognized obligation or responsibility and can be categorized as joint and several liabilities, strict liability, personal liability, and vicarious liability (Grant & Ballard, 2011). Liability for the NS is most often associated with the professional negligence of failure to perform supervisory duties, delegate appropriately, and ensure a staff member is adequately trained and oriented to an assigned area (Wilkinson, 2016). An example of failure to perform a duty is that the NS can be liable if they do not address concerns regarding a patient’s treatment or status and neglect to engage the chain of command if necessary to ensure prudent and acceptable patient care. In addition, when floating a staff member to another area, one must ensure the staff member is given a suitable assignment considering skillset, the scope of practice, and professional guidelines; and follow-up with staff to ensure patient safety and nurse safety. A crucial component in liability of a poor outcome is the amount of supervision required by a staff member and the amount provided (Wilkinson, 2016).
The elements of negligence are founded in standards of care and the legal duty to provide standard nursing care. The breach of these standards with proximate cause to an injury creates a situation of negligence and potential legal action (Grant & Ballard, 2011, p. 257).
The unit policies and procedures, facility-specific standards, and governing bodies such as the Joint Commission help guide the decisions of the NS and help the courts determine legal liability (Wilkinson, 2016). For example, guidelines such as the Association of Women’s Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses (AWHONN) provide some flexibility, whereas staff ratios determined by the Joint Commission are less flexible; both can be used to determine liability.
Ethical Issues
The American Nurses Association defines the ethical considerations of nursing in the Code of Ethics for Nurses and the Guide to the Code of Ethics for Nurses: Interpretation and application (Grant & Ballard, 2011). The focus is on the patient’s rights to autonomy, justice, fidelity, beneficence, nonmaleficence, veracity, and the best interest. For example, the patient has a right to active participation in care decisions, receive informed consent, refuse care, and self-determine code status (Grant & Ballard, 2011). The NS responds to all codes, rapid responses, and level one traumas, all situations that can lead to ethical dilemmas. One personal experience as a floor nurse was the resuscitation of an older man who had a do not resuscitate order. The wife demanded that the physician do everything possible to revive him. Unfortunately, he never regained consciousness and died a few days after resuscitation. The physician’s response paraphrased was, are you going to do what the family requests who are alive and ready to sue, or what the patient requested but is incapacitated and likely to die regardless? The demands of the wife drowned out the efforts of advocacy for the patient’s wishes. The wife had no complaints, but the nursing staff who had cared for the patient during multiple admissions to the oncology ward had complaints and ethical concerns.
Ensuring the confidentially of a mental health patient or staff member when admitted as a patient presents is a fragile line. Division officers need to know that a team member will not work, and the military needs to know the condition of their members and where they are located. The military commanding officer writes “fit for duty” reports and explains why the members will not be standing duty, and the information goes up the chain of command. The diagnosis can be sensitive and is privileged information, and a physician-to-medical officer conversation is recommended.
The general prevalence of a tighter budget and nursing shortage challenges all facilities to continue providing care with less staff and less experienced staff, thus increasing the risk of litigation (Banks, 2001). Facility-specific issues include sudden staffing shortages when military nurses and medical providers suddenly deploy in times of war and crisis and the need to borrow and activate reservists who are experienced but unfamiliar with the work environment. Knowing union and contract constraints are especially important, for not all employees can work mandatory overtime or float to cover nursing in other units. Military rank can be a barrier to optimal patient care. For example, when a lower-ranking officer hesitates to speak up or question the actions of a higher-ranking officer. When dealing with patient care, medical and nursing knowledge and standards guide the conversation, not rank.
The liability risk is unavoidable but can be reduced with diligent effort to stay informed and connect with the staff to provide meaningful leadership. Personal efforts to promote safety and reduce liability situations include creating a culture of mutual respect and employing frequent, open, transparent, intentional, and closed-looped communication. Huddling with the residents, charge nurse, and primary nurse regarding concerns and care changes that correlate with best practice and optimal outcomes. Remaining abreast of governing guidelines, legal constraints, changes in facility dynamics, and areas of concern permits patient-centered decisions and upholds the NS’s obligations.
Biblical World View
The biblical passage Psalms 78:72 speaks perfectly to leadership as a Christian; to be humble, lead with the proper motive and purpose, and lift others with knowledge and opportunity without hesitation (Kuzik, n.d.). God’s work is done by people who are not perfect but willing, using the knowledge and skills they have gained. Likewise, Philippians 2:3 instructs one to not act out of conflict or spite, nor for self-glory but to the betterment of others (Kuzik, n.d.). Collaboration and building solid teams come from seeking and sharing knowledge for collective growth. 
SPC Wk 6 Medical Staff Organization and Malpractice in the US Discussion

Participant Observation Social Desirability And Operational Definition Psychology Essay

best essay writers 1- Short notes on Participant Observation, Social desirability and operational Definition a- Participant Observation Participant Observation is a humanistic as well as a scientific method that produces a kind of experiential knowledge that allow a researcher talk convincingly. This method of fieldwork produces effective and positive knowledge and it involves getting very close to people and making them feel comfortable with researcher’s presence so that he can observe and record information about their lives (Bernard, p. 2006, p. 342). Participant observer is basically carrying out a naturalistic approach to conducting research and it seems to be a commitment that attempts to adopt the perspectives of studies shared in the day to day experiences. Participant observation has been described as an ongoing and intensive observing, listening and speaking with some explanations (Ely, 1991, p. 42). Many researchers use participant observation as an umbrella term for all qualitative data gathering and data handling. Participant observation includes going out or staying out in search for qualitative data gathering, and thus the observer may learn a new language in order to express the experiences about the lives of people that the researcher comes to know. With this type of research approach, the researcher is prompted to be immersing himself in a specific culture and also learning how he can get rid of the same immersion so that he will be able to intellectualize what he has seen and heard. He will express them in writing, speaking to others and will try to convince others (Bernard, p. 2006, p. 344). Participant observation is therefore more likely to be a fieldwork, but all fieldworks are in contrary not participant observation. Social Desirability Social desirability is a major source of response bias in conducting a survey research. Some times, participants in a survey research show social desirability bias as their answers reflect an attempt to enhance social desirable characteristics or attempt to minimize certain social undesirable characteristics. Social desirability has been defined as a tendency to give culturally sanctioned and socially approved answers for a survey research to provide socially desirable responses to describe oneself in terms judged as desirable and to present one-self favorably (Craighead and Nemeroff, 2002, p. 1557). Social desirability affects the accuracy of data to be gathered. It is mainly influenced by the way questions are prepared or asked. Many of survey research questions are more likely to create chances of social desirability so that respondents answer questions in a pre-made answer formats. Engel and Schutt (2005, p. 234) stressed that social desirability effects are more likely to occur when discussing issues that are of controversial in nature or when researcher expresses a view that is not popular or not widely accepted. When survey researcher or interviewer asks the participants with certain ready-made questions, especially when the questions have highly desirable answers, respondents feel conflicts between a desire to conform to the definition of good respondent behaviour and a desire to respond and appear to the interviewer to be in a socially desirable category. In surveys with pre-made multiple choice questions, social desirability is more likely to occur among the respondents. Operational Definition An operational definition, in the context of data collection and research, is an obvious, brief, complete and careful description of a measure. Social scientist uses operational definition as a measure to explain various conceptual terms (Sprague, Stuart and Bodary, 2008, p. 205). As different types of data were gathered, operational definition is very fundamental. The operational definition is a significant one in a situation at which the decision is to be taken about something regarding whether it is correct or not, or something having the confusion about its accuracy and usefulness. The data can be collected any time but it should be made clear that how to collect data and how it will be processed. Without processing the data, meaningful information may not be maintained. The ambiguity may arise while people viewing different opinions and it will negatively affect the data collection. Forming a detailed and consistent operational definition helps eliminate such ambiguity. If data are collected by comprising errors on it or about a product line, for instnace, it may lead to selecting a defective product and probably rejecting a good one. Similarly, when some accounting transactions or other business invoices are inspected to see errors among them, the data collection may not be treated as meaningful unless the term ‘error’ has not been made clear. Lewis (2010, p. 417) asserted that an operational definition is required in order to maintain almost same meaning and understanding of a problem mainly to get it solved. It is because, operational definition establishes a language that communicates same meaning to everyone involved in solving the issue. 2. Explain the hypothesis testing procedure, using an example. Developing and testing of hypothesis are critical steps in most researches. Hypothesis testing is a statistical procedure that helps a researcher use sample data to draw inferences about the population according to researcher’s interest. As far primary data collection is concerned, observing every individual in a population is practically impossible or difficult to be conducted and therefore most researchers depend on sample surveying and thus sample data are used to help answer specific research questions. Hypothesis testing has been defined as a process of deciding whether a null hypothesis is to be accepted or rejected in favor of an alternative hypothesis. In hypothesis testing, there won’t be any errors in decision making if the null hypothesis is rejected when it is false and also if it is accepted when it is true. Sample data being collected is the base for taking decision regarding whether to reject or accept the null hypothesis. The statistical hypothesis is an assumption about an unknown population parameter and hypothesis starts from an assumption that is termed as hypothesis. A hypothesis cannot be accepted or rejected on the basis of intuitions or on the basis of general assumptions that researchers have while conducting the research. Process of Hypothesis Testing In hypothesis testing, the researcher first assumes that the hypothesis is true. The researcher then collects data to test the hypothesis. Based on the data being collected, the researcher will calculate the confidence interval and probability for the hypothesis to become true. In this calculation and assessment, in the probability of hypothesis to be true is smaller than the pre-set level, the hypothesis will be rejected (Vaughan, 2001, p. 59). Though hypothesis testing can be different from situation from situation, or from project to project, the general process involved in hypothesis testing remains almost same. Hypothesis test is thus a statistical method that uses simple data to evaluate a hypothesis for studying a population. Following are the logics and steps involved in hypothesis testing: The researcher first states a hypothesis about a population. In general research contexts, the hypothesis concern the population values in parameter. Before the researcher selects a sample, the hypothesis will be used to predict the characteristics and specifications that the sample must have. The sample also requires being similar to the population and the researcher should always expect certain amounts and levels of errors. Next, the researcher obtains a random sample from the population. Finally, the researcher makes a comparison and analysis between the sample data obtained and the data that were predicted for the hypothesis. If this comparison shows that the sample mean is consistent with prediction, it will be concluded that the hypothesis is reasonable. Similarly, if it shows that there is big discrepancy between the sample data and prediction, then the hypothesis will be reckoned to be wrong (Gravetter and Wallnau, 2008, p. 189). Example for hypothesis Testing For instance, a researcher wants to find out knowledge and expertise of a university’s students in terms of their familiarity with university library and the amount of time they spend in library. Various journalism programs have been arranged to make students more aware of the library use and other relevant matters that are important to them. Do this journalism programs affect the amount of time that students spend in library? This is the main issue to be found out with the research. A random sample survey has been conducted from around 40 students in the number of hours they spend in the library in a week. As previously thought, students were spending around 5 hours per week in the library, but it is required to test whether students spend more than that after the journalism programs. This hypothesis testing includes following steps: a) Formulating two competing hypothesis, namely null hypothesis and alternative hypothesis, b) Calculating the test statistics by using the latest sample data being collected. c) Determining the probability that the null hypothesis is true based on the test statistics d) Comparing the pre-set value or pre-determined value with probability value (Vaughan, 2001, p. 59- 62). Briefly explain the following (i.e., what it is; what it’s used for, etc.). Null hypothesis There are various types of tests in statistics. In research and hypothesis testing in particular, null hypothesis plays very significant role. Hypothesis is statements that researchers, or decision makers or analysts believe to be true. This statement will be verified by using statistical tests. Practically, hypothesis is employed in pairs. Out of the two hypotheses, the first one is normally stated in negative forms, for instance, stating as ‘something is not true’, or the variable is not related etc. this negative form is termed as null hypothesis and the other is alternative hypothesis. Null hypothesis is represented by the symbol H0 and alternative hypothesis H1 or H2 (Downing and Clark, 2010, p. 66) The tested statement in statistics is called the null hypothesis because it is often in the form like ‘there is no relationship between a variable and b variable, or both x and y are not related etc. Before testing the measure, the researcher or statistician may draw only two probabilities, X = y and X ≠ y. When a statistician observes a result likely to be so, then that assumption is called alternative hypothesis, and the opposite assumption is called null hypothesis (Howell, 2007, p. 152). For instance, an investigation is required to know the average ability of students in a class (X standard) in the co-scholastic area. They assumed that it will be above 50. Then the x≥ 50 is an alternative hypothesis and x< 50 is null hypothesis. The test revealed that the average ability is 70, H0: m < 50 H1: m ≥50. 20 is therefore population standard deviation Replicability A research which has replicability is often considered to be more accurate. When a researcher adopts almost the same procedures with similar settings and systems of research and surveying used by another researcher and this helps him obtain similar findings, the research can be said to be replicable. To be replicable is also considered to be an important tenet of an effective scientific research as well (Holloway, 1997, p. 137). Langbein and Felbinger (2006, p. 33) noted, replicability of a research helps the researcher make empirical claims more defensible and clearly objective. If the research lacks replicability, the conclusion and claim would be considered to be personal opinion and causal observation. Replicability of a research thus makes conclusions more traceable. Qualitative research may not as replicable as quantitative mainly because the relationship between the researcher and the participant in the research seems to be unique and cannot be replicated. Moderator variable Normally, there are two main variables in a research; they are independent and dependent variables. But, some time, there can be a moderate variable, which is a special type of variable that the investigator has chosen to determine how the relationship between independent and dependent variables is affected (Brown, 1998, p. 11). In simple terms, moderate variable is a third variable that affects the relationship between independent and dependent variables. As moderator variable affects the relationship between the independent and dependent variables in a research, it takes form of or plays roles of expressions like specification, contingency, conditional and qualification etc. For example, Mr Joseph decides to study Chinese and the issue to be considered is his study of Chinese for one year and his expertise or proficiency in that language may vary for male and females. In this example, Joseph’s study of Chinese is independent variable, his proficiency in Chinese is dependent variable and there is one point to be debated, which is whether the proficiency will vary from male to females. Proficiency variation between male and female is arguably moderator variable. Cross-sectional study A cross sectional study is part of sampling or surveying involving observations of a sample of a population or phenomenon that are made at one point in a time. Both exploratory and descriptive research methodologies are often considered to be cross sectional study (Babbie, 2008, p. 111). In a cross sectional study, the researcher or the investigator would make all of his measurements and analysis on a single occasion or within relatively a short period of time. The researcher who makes cross sectional study draws from the population and searches variables distributions within the sample, often by designating and predicting the outcomes of variables based on information from other sources. Cross sectional study is very much suited to describing variables and their relative distributions patterns. This type of study never takes into account the temporal relationship between the factors that are already explored and this usually includes an evaluation of a cross section of a particular population in a given period of time (Rao and Richard, 2006, p. 205). 4. Compare and contrast each of the following, giving examples: Primary and Secondary Data Sources of data are basically two, either primary or secondary. Primary data comprise of those data that a researcher collects directly from a specific population through ways of sampling, survey or any other technique of data gathering. Primary data are raw data and are not already used or published in books, journals, newspaper or any other sources. When primary data are published through media and made available to the public, and later they are used by others for their purpose, the data becomes secondary and the source becomes secondary source of data. Primary sources of data are those where the researcher describes his or her own work and the process that has been employed to come to conclusion. Secondary sources are usually books, articles, journals, statistics published in them, and other publications that are written by people with only a passing or second hand knowledge of a specific subject (Guffey and Loewy, 2009, p. 259). Primary data includes information that are developed or gathered by the researcher specifically for a particular research at hand. Secondary data refers to those data that are previously been gathered by someone other than the researcher for some purpose other than the research project at hand. Primary data is raw-data where as secondary data are previously used by others and may not be very appropriate for the purpose of second users. A survey conducted by local government to know exact numbers of farmers and industrialist in its region gives primary data, but when this data is used by a newspaper for studying the same region’s financial strength, it becomes secondary data. Field study versus Comparative study A field study in research methodology refers to a method of data gathering based on direct observation from the population. For instance, a business organization may conduct a field study about its customers, their preferences, their specific requirements and their responses etc. in conducting field study, the researcher or the investigator directly observes users or the population they target, most probably taking notes on certain activities that their targeted people do indulge with, copying their activities clearly, and noting down the answers they give for specific questions. Comparative study is typically a qualitative analysis tool that attempts to figure out a specific issue or find out answers to specific issues by comparing two known variables or already studied areas of a given topic. An unknown fact may be explored by comparing its dimensions with an already known fact. For example, 50 Biology students in a university who are very fond of reading of library books were found to have scored more than 65 percent of marks. The relation between scoring marks and reading library books in known. In analyzing what factors led many students score high marks in business studies, the reading and high soring in biology can be compared. Bibliography and References Most researches, mainly literature review part, depend on literatures of published book or journals. The researcher may give direct quoting or parenthesizing in between texts and the details of these sources are required, according to almost all referencing formats like APA, MLA, Harvard etc, to show in detail at the end of the research paper on a separate title called references. References thus refers to those sources that are mentioned in text in a research, may be with or without the year of publishing or page numbers, but with last name of the author. Any specific idea that a researcher depends from a previous study and uses to develop his research must give its details in references. References thus indicate sources of specific ideas he parenthesized or quoted from another work. But, bibliography refers to the lists of books or journals or any other type of literature work that a researcher has read and used for his work, but not directly quoted an idea from them or not parenthesized from those sources. Researchers normally read several books and journals and they list them in bibliography to give readers an insight to further reading. Criterion and Predictor Variable In research methodology, criterion or criterion variable is the variable that measures the construct of interest to the researcher. Criterion variable is an outcome variable that can be predicted from one or more predictor variables, and it is often the main concentration in the study as it is the outcome variable mentioned in the research problem (Hatcher, 2003, p. 30). The predictor variable, in contrast, is a variable that is used to predict values on the criterion and it has a causal effect on criterion (Hatcher, 2003, p. 30).

Intro Speech Communication Homework Assignment. There is a Word document that will be attached below labeled “1311 SPCH HW Ch 4” with instructions for the assignment. Also, there will be Chapter 4 Word document of the book that will need to be used to complete the assignment. This assignment is DUE on Sunday January 30, 2022, at 11:59 PM.

There are questions that needs to be answered in its entirety. The questions are below: Chapter 4 covers the wonderful world of Nonverbal Communication. Answer the following questions. 1.LIST the 5 categories of Body Movement/Facial Expressions and DEFINE them and then give your OWN example of EACH one. 2.Explain to me an example of territoriality that you have committed and then explain me an example how it has happened to you. Each example should be at least a 6-sentence paragraph. 3. Explain Artifactual Communication in a 6-sentence paragraph, THEN give 5 separate examples that relate to yourself. 4. In a 6-sentence paragraph, explain the concept of paralinguistics. 5. List the term and give the definitions for ALL the nonverbal traits of the voice.

EDF Miami Dade College Educational Philosophy & Theories Essay

EDF Miami Dade College Educational Philosophy & Theories Essay.

Assignment # 2 Educational Philosophy EssayDirections: Each student will write a well-developed and thought out essay that discusses their personal philosophy of education and theorists that have influenced their philosophy. Students are to write an essay which includes the following: 1. Personal Information 2. Personal philosophy of education based on your educational experience, theorists, and the results of your philosophy survey. Include and cite a minimum of three theorists/philosophers in your discussion. 3. Use APA format in writing the essay and cite any references that are used. Essays should be no more than three (3) pages.
EDF Miami Dade College Educational Philosophy & Theories Essay