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Spirituality And Mental Illness Psychology Essay

Spirituality is a part of human experience. It often stands as one integral aspect of ones cultural or religious orientation. Likewise, spirituality may also represent one’s individual choice, belief, and behavior. Both in terms of traditional and conventional healthcare, there are three aspects of human well-being that should be taken care of: physical, mental, and spiritual health. Physical is for the body, mental is for the mind, and psychic health is for the spirit (Jeitschko et al., 2005). However, in the present idea of healthcare, the thrust of healthcare efforts is given to physical health. However, the other two components also play integral roles in the achievement of human’s overall (external and internal) well-being. Oftentimes, these two are overlooked. Although courses of religion and spirituality are common in most medical schools and pastoral care is provided in some hospitals, health policies and insurance in mental healthcare is severely restricted in ways that physical healthcare is not and moreover, to emphasize, very little healthcare is provided for the spiritual healthcare (Jeitschko et al., 2005). Yet, Jeitschko et al (2005) claimed that spiritual claim has repeatedly observed to be an important factor and correlated for the health of both body and mind’s health. In this paper, we look into the importance of spiritual health as a prerequisite towards mental health improvement and maintenance- to prevent and to treat mental illnesses. First, we describe a brief overview of the situation concerning mental disorders and illnesses as a global phenomenon. Third, we define and contextualize spirituality as a prerequisite to overall spiritual health. Lastly, we discuss how spirituality has been used to 1) prevent a vast array of mental illnesses and 2) treat various cases of mental disability and other psychiatric ability. Mental Illness: A Situation Overview While each is a separate aspect, spirituality and mental well-being are viewed as closely-related, if not dependent to each other. This may be because both are internal mechanisms that may not be measured by medical apparatuses, may not diagnosed via single medical procedure, and cannot be treated by measurable doses of medicine. Rather, these are brought about by internal mechanisms that exist along a continuum of attitudes and behavior. Mental health and mental illness exist along a continuum of attitude and behavior. This covers a wide array of mental diagnostic categories, from mild conditions like depression to more serious cases such as schizophrenic disorders (O’Brien, 2003). The main components of looking into mental disorder are: internal psychological dysfunctions, unexpected response to a social phenomenon, and differentiation from deviant behavior. Nonetheless, the universal component of mental illness is the dysfunction of some internal psychological mechanism. Examples of these dysfunctions occur in systems of cognition, thinking, perception, motivation, emotion, language, and memory (Horwitz, 2002). Millions of people all over the world suffer from mental illnesses and adverse mental health. As of 2002, 154 million suffer from depression, 50 million from epilepsy, 25 million from schizophrenia, and 24 million people suffer from Alzheimer and other dementias. It was also observed that 25% visiting healthcare services suffer from mental, neurological and behavioral disorders but most of these cases are not diagnosed and treated. Moreover, people with these disorders are oftentimes subjected to social isolation, decreased quality of life, and increased mortality (WHO, 2010). Barriers of effective mental treatment can be traced into two factors: 1) lack of recognition of the seriousness of mental illnesses among patients, and 2) lack of understanding about the benefits of having cost-effective mental illness treatment. This alleviated by the fact that in most middle and low income countries devote less than 1% of their budget to mental health (WHO, 2010). Defining Spirituality Before going farther in this paper, it is necessary to first define spirituality and to bring forth its importance. Spirituality is defined first by differentiating the concept with that of religion. Religion is strictly linked to formal religious institutions. On the other hand, spirituality does not depend on formal institutions but comes from initiatives of an individual. The similarities of spirituality and religion both focus on belief, sacred, divine entities, and the resulting behaviors and practices and spiritual consciousness. However, this arbitrary definition does not provide comprehensive delineation of the two concepts (George, 2000). National Institute of Healthcare Research (NIHR) defined spirituality as the “feelings, thoughts, experiences, and behaviors that arise from search for the sacred.” In this definition, search encompasses identifying, transforming, and maintaining. Terms such as “knowing,” “understanding,” and “embodying” can be used as synonyms to search based on this context. Sacred refers to divine being, higher power, and ultimate truth as perceived by the individual collective reinforcement and identity. Hence, from this definition of spirituality, the distinctive characteristic of religion is collective reinforcement and identity (George, 2010). Another comprehensive definition of spirituality came from Murray and Zenter (1989): “…spirituality dimension, a quality that goes beyond religious affiliation that strives for inspiration, reverence, awe, meaning and purpose, even in those who do not believe in God… comes essentially into focus in times of emotional stress, physical and mental illness, loss, bereavement and death.” From these definitions, spirituality can be summarized in three elements: comes from within an individual and not collective affiliations; goal-oriented: search, inspiration, well-being, and embodiment of belief; come in times of emotional stress and mental distress. Spiritual Healthcare The idea that spirituality is an initiative of an individual comes with the expectation that there is a wide array of spiritual healthcare procedures depending on how individuals perceive its importance and the procedures encompassing it. Hence, to take care of spiritual health, the individual should be able to have the following skills: being able to create peaceful state of mind, ability to stay alert, attentive, and mentally focused in present circumstances, develop above average empathy and to grieve appropriately and then let go afterwards. Moreover, spiritual values include kindness, compassion, generosity, tolerance, creativity, wisdom, honesty, humility, and patience (Culliford, 2002). Some of the elements of spiritual care include: environment of purposeful activity; feelings of safety and security, dignity, belonging and acceptance; having opportunities and encouragement to express feelings and thoughts; and to receive permission, encouragement to develop relationship with God or Absolute and to receive place and privacy for prayers worship, and spiritual education; and to derive meaning from illness experiences (Culliford, 2006). Spirituality for Prevention and Cure of Mental Illness Throughout history, mental illness was closely related to religious faith, demonic possessions and magical enchantments. In a very long time in history, mental illness was misunderstood and misinterpreted and people suspected to have mental disorders were subjected to cruel procedures. In prehistory mental illness perceived to come from supernatural and magical spirits that disrupt minds. Shamans tried to cure mental illness through performing rituals, casting spells, and using mind-altering drugs. Trepanning, or drilling a hole on patient’s skull to release or exorcise bad spirits. However, fossils show that new bones grew to cover the holes and high survival rates were observed (Thomson, 2007). Ancient Egyptians were the first to implement a form of mental healthcare and the first to cure a patient identified to have mental illness. Temples and temple complexes served as mental hospitals. Mental treatment procedures include: psychiatric texts, rites, rituals and prayers. Egyptians were also able to decipher that mental illness that time was caused by loss of money and status; hence, they suggested that talk therapy will be an effective treatment procedure (Thomson, 2007). However, due to advances in technology, rapid evolution of the society and paradigm shifts in terms of mental illnesses, spirituality becomes a “forgotten” dimension of mental healthcare (Culliford, 2002). Spirituality, as prevention and treatment for mental illness, was included in the identified misunderstanding of ancient people towards mental disorders. Spirituality was forgotten as an important tool for physical and mental health and spiritual health was also overlooked as a part of overall human well-being. This neglect is attributed to secularization and science-based discipline of psychiatry (Culliford, 2007). Now, importance of spirituality is gradually being rediscovered because of two reasons. First, mental illness patients report spirituality; spiritual beliefs and practices are their major sources of personal strength. Second, there is increased attention in academic and scientific research and psychiatric treatment and practices (George, 2000). In the field of psychiatry, a trending practice is to achieve first, spiritual history of the patients before addressing their mental needs. Spiritual history includes details of the patient’s religious antecedents, practices, beliefs or the lack or absence of these. Reasons for taking spiritual history include (Culiford, 2007): The field recognizes that nature of spirituality as a source of validity, motivation, and sense of belonging and acceptance which are beneficial for the patients. There is a also a long historical relationship between spiritual healthcare and medicine. Spirituality is oftentimes part of patient’s needs and wishes. The influence of spirituality and religion to the attitudes and decisions of the staff. Moreover, spirituality is now recognized as an integrating force for various dimensions of human life including physical, biological, psychological, and psychosocial. Although it is acknowledged that spirituality may also have negative effects on mental well-being, there is a growing confidence for mental, and even physical health of spiritual belief and practices. In a wide review of researches on spirituality and mental health, 20% showed negative effects while 80% observed positive results (Culliford, 2007). Some of the negative accounts on spirituality as a beneficial tool for curing mental illness include the studies cited by Fallot (2003). In terms of diagnosis and psychiatric rehabilitation programs, DSM-IV diagnosis involves assessment of spiritual experiences. In a symptom-oriented nosological system, the focus is directed to spiritual or religious behavior of the patient. In DSM-IV, two scenarios may occur: First, spiritual concerns may be problematic and may also be attributable to the actual mental disorder. In cases of severe mental disorder, psychiatric disorder is considered primary while spiritual expression is secondary. There are cases when spiritual experiences disappear, the primary or psychiatric disorder is treated adequately. Second, spiritual issue is problematic but may not be attributed to the mental disease. Patients with severe mental illness are still capable of spiritual activities such as struggles for searching meaning in life, conflicting and confusing relationships with the sacred, and challenges to long-hel beliefs. These further leads to prolonged psychiatric difficulties, problems in understanding religious experiences, loss of hope and demoralization However, Fallot (2003) argued that there is positive spiritual coping that will be beneficial for mental illness patients. Still on a lager scale, patients tend to turn unto religion not just as a significant resource but also as a coping mechanism that is helpful. Spirituality and religion can serve as possible mechanisms with positive impacts of mental health and rarely are the cases in which both pose negative impacts on mental health (Fallot, 2003). Specifically, spiritual well-being is associated to reduce likelihood of anxiety disorders, depression, and substance abuse that lead to addiction and other mental disorders. Likewise, there is also positive association between spirituality undertaking and recovery from mental disorders such as depression and substance abuse (George, 2002). Mental Healthcare Practices Involving Spirituality This section discusses some mental healthcare treatment practices that are used to emphasize the role of spirituality to mental health (Fallot, 2003). Spiritual Assessment. This refers to understanding of content and the functions of a patient’s spiritual beliefs and practice. This approach is useful on a diverse religious experiences and cultures. The definition of spirituality can both be broad and inclusive. This approach goes beyond symptom-oriented orientation but rather explore potential significance of spirituality to the patient and his recovery. Spiritually informed groups. The group provides therapeutic context of examination of consumer’s religious beliefs and traditions. The role of this group is to provide a positive connection between spirituality and the present conditions of the patients. In spite of religious diversity, patients may find it helpful to share and listen to other’s search for meaning and purpose of life. It will not exacerbate symptoms of mental health but will rather support and clarify one’s purpose in life which shall give sense of worth, value, and trust to themselves. Individual psychotherapy. Psychotherapeutic approaches coming from a wide variety of religious beliefs such as Christianity, Judaism, Islam and others attuned the present approaches for individual psychotherapy. Aside from overview of religious interventions, this approach can also be used to specify roles of meditation and mindfulness, prayer, and other spiritually and cognitive-behavioral techniques. This approach is also integrated in counseling relationship. Relationships with faith communities. One important factor for treating mental illness is to restore social supports and relationships. Religious or faith communities can offer empowerment, sense of acceptance and belonging to the patients. However, it should be taken into consideration that the patient shall not feel any sense of rejection from the community. How Does Spirituality Prevent and Treat Mental Illness Empirical analysis regarding the effects spirituality to mental health is continuously studied. Researchers and mental health practitioners continue to seek means by which spirituality will prevent and facilitate treatment, if not completely treat mental illnesses. Nonetheless, for the present studies, the following two mechanisms were attributed as the factors by which spirituality is helpful to mental health: First is the ability to establish social support. Spiritual participation may be one major avenue for developing social bonds and other social support. People with high religious participation have larger social networks, higher interaction with social network, receive more assistance from others, and have higher levels of satisfaction of the social support they receive. This is important as rejection is one of the major causes of disturbed mental health and acceptance is one of the best recovery apparatus. Second is the coherence spirituality offers. Through coherence within the group, patients tend to understand their role in life, their purpose, and to develop courage to face sufferings. Moreover, coherence with others is also an effective buffer to stress on mental health. As a conclusion, it can be acknowledged that in spite of the gaps between the benefits of spirituality and mental health, it can still be safely implemented as a tool to prevent and facilitate cure of mental illnesses through the approaches and because of the mechanisms mentioned in the later part of the paper.
UMD Developing a Strategic Competitive Advantage Chick Fil a Case Study.

I’m working on a management project and need support to help me learn.

At least 600 words per answer please provide direct evidence from the cases including supporting financials.Strategy is often thought of as a firm’s theory about how to gain competitive advantage. If this is true, then the Strategic Management Process reflects the steps a firm takes to achieve that competitive advantage – to create more economic value than its competitors.However, Michael Porter argues that operational effectiveness, although necessary for superior performance, is not sufficient to achieve it, because its techniques are easy to imitate. For him, the essence of strategy is choosing a unique and valuable position in the market which is rooted in systems of activities that are much more difficult to match or imitate. Which of these alternatives would give Chick-fil-A the best chance of developing a strategic competitive advantage? How? Cost Leadership, one of two generic strategy concepts identified by Michael Porter, is a result of company efficiency, size, scale, scope and accumulated experience (the learning curve). However, other strategists believe Cost Leadership is more than driving your costs below that of your competitors. They believe it is also about delivering a cost footprint that is appropriate to an organization’s financial performance, value proposition and competitive landscape.Which of these two concepts of Cost Leadership most closely fits Trader Joe’s strategy? How has it been successfully implemented?A company’s Business Model usually exhibits a cost leadership strategy, a differentiation strategy or some fuzzy combination of both. Compare the Business Models of Trader Joe’s and Chick-fil-A, and (1) identify which strategy they are using and (2) what might be preventing them from achieving a sustainable competitive advantage?
UMD Developing a Strategic Competitive Advantage Chick Fil a Case Study

PU Human Resource Management & Information System Employer Performance Discussion.

Based on the article and Chapter 12 in the textbook, please respond to the following:M. J. Kavanagh. 2018. Human Resource Information Systems: Basics, Applications, and Future Directions (4th ed.). SAGE Publications, Inc.Read the article, “What Is Performance Management? Definition, Key Features, and Future.”Explain your previous or current organization’s performance management, compensation, benefits, and payroll system. Can these systems be accessed via one HRIS, or does your organization use multiple systems? Explain.Do you think your organization’s performance management, compensation, benefits, and payroll systems are effective? Why or why not? What recommendations would you make to improve those systems?
PU Human Resource Management & Information System Employer Performance Discussion

C-TPAT Program for Import Activities Report

C-TPAT Program for Import Activities Report.

First part- Prepare a small “word” report of at least7 pages(including graphics and references; single space, font 14 (Arial) about: C-TPAT Program for Import Activities, and DataSecond part- Include as an attachment a copy of the “recent” monthly data (last 20 years) related the related to the “C-TPAT Program for Import Activities” (an EXCEL format is preferred) and their sources or references. This 2nd part may appear at the end of your report as Appendix Data, or as another attached file named: Points per criteria403010100If report includes recent dataIf report does not include recent dataIf report meets or exceeds the requested componentsIf report does not meet the requested componentsIf report is absentIf conclusions are presentIf conclusions are absentIf report meets the requested formatIf report does not meet the requested formatIf the references are includedIf the references are not includedNote: “Word” documents with single space, Arial font, and 14 size in one of the two standard formats (MLA or APA) are acceptable.MLA: Modern Language Association; APA: American Psychological AssociationTask Report Components 1. Clear and concise title 2. Executive Summary 3. Introduction(objectives, precedents, contribution) 4. Background or antecedents 5. Datadescription(information description, variables, Target population,Sampling units). 6. Methodology(calculations, statistical procedures, etc.) 7. Results 8. Discussion of results 9. Limitations 10.Conclusions11. Recommendations12. Appendix (survey, additional results, etc.)13.References(bibliography and e-sites)14.Data in Excel format (this is another file)Although all components are important, not all of them may be present in the report, but the components written in bold faceshould show up in the task report.
C-TPAT Program for Import Activities Report

SNHU Social Work Skills Gained in Field Work Experience Discussion

i need help writing an essay SNHU Social Work Skills Gained in Field Work Experience Discussion.

I’m working on a social science discussion question and need support to help me learn.

By Day 3Post a blog post that includes:An explanation of the social work practice skills you have gained by participating in your field education experienceBy Day 4Respond to the blog post of three colleagues in one or more of the following ways:Validate an idea in your colleague’s post with your own experience.Share an insight from having read your colleague’s posting.Expand on your colleague’s post.Colleague 1: Amber M The social work practice skill I have used is boundaries and selfcare. I work at my placement which can be a good thing and a bad thing. I already know the patients and did not need any official orientation to the field placement, but I was constantly bombarded with responsibilities that were from my job. I also had to focus on my scholastic goals and set boundaries with the type of work I did. I was there to learn not be the help because they were short staffed which happened a lot during my first quarter. I work in a high stress environment and coming to work everyday no matter what scope of practice I was in started to wear on me. The placement is going under an ownership change which caused major shifts in my career and in the department of my placement, the changes and stress of school and work was getting to me. It was hard to adjust, which made me have to me must concentrate on self-care. I started getting burned out and was disgruntled and upset. But it all stemmed from the lack of selfcare. Going forward I will also be aware of the relationships I have with my coworkers and supervisors outside of work because I noticed when the therapists on the team would not perform according to the standard, my supervisor would not reprimand them and which affected the department as a whole. I am aware the dual relationships can be problematic, if personal problems may arise or if receiving constructive criticism(Garthwait,2017p37).Garthwait, C. L. (2016). Social work practicum: a guide and workbook for students. Pearson.Colleague 2: Stacia I have been in the social worker field for the last ten years. From working with social workers at DSS, to case management to again working with social workers in a psychiatric and jail facility. To my knowledge, I thought I was using all the social worker’s skills there was. Social worker skills are so much more than just showing empathy to clients and providing a listening ear. While working with domestic violence victims, you not only have to listen actively, but you also have to be willing to adapt to the circumstances and pay attention to silence. Henry (2020) discussed one of the things that makes a good practitioner is being able to “read the room” and being able to respond at the moment or when the time is right (p. 3). With domestic violence victims, their needs are always different. I have learned to think critically, be more patient and understanding, advocate and be an excellent listener and time management. During intakes, we follow a series of assessment paperwork. However, I tend to ask a question and allow the client to talk more, and before you know it, we are in a three-hour intake assessment meeting. One social worker skill I am grateful for my supervisor helping me implement is self-care. I have always been a ‘complete notes, speak with clients after hours’ kind of worker. I have learned that problems will exist tomorrow and that our job is to help if we can with imminent issues and then move forward or going home and resting our minds. I have learned so much that I feel I can implement in the future and will be able to take with me to future jobs and internships.ReferenceHenry, L. (2020). Communication and Interpersonal Skills in Social Work, 5th Edition, (Transforming Social Work Practice Series). Scottish Journal of Residential Child Care, 19(3), 1–4.Colleague 3: Jacqueline An Explanation of the Social Work Practice Skills You Have Gained by Participating in Your Field Education ExperienceHaving the opportunity to conduct my field hours at The Methodist Home has been priceless to gaining social work practice skills. I have worked in the social services arena for about four years at the domestic violence shelter and thought I knew all there was to know about social work services. Boy was I wrong. Having the opportunity to intern at the group home has opened my eyes to a whole other perspective of social work and the values and dynamics involved. I learned so much invaluable information during this time and feel so much more prepared to enter this field. I have learned an abundance of skills working with the faculty and youth at the group home. I have also had the pleasure of working under a field instructor that is extremely knowledgeable as it pertains to social work and holds me to a high standard. Having an effective field instructor is important to the field experience. Some of the behaviors that I have tried my best to exhibit, and that field instructors are impressed by, are dependability, being punctual, the ability to handle conflicts, organization, self-awareness, and receptivity to learn (Garthwait, 2017). These qualities will last throughout my career as a social worker and I have learned to hold them to a higher regard working with this agency. I have also had the ability to gain social work skill including effective communication, active listening, time management, and self awareness. Working with adolescents with behavioral issues is, and has always been a passion of mine, and doing so has taught me how to communicate effectively and listen actively in a way I have never had to do before. In addition, I had to learn how to run a 24/7 dv shelter, intern and complete the tasks for two classes simultaneously which required more time management skills than I have ever been challenged to have in the past. I have also gained self-awareness by realizing how my own experiences and perceptions influence my ability to work with this demographic. I realized that I need to do a lot more work in my ow therapy to avoid triggers and underlying issues coming up while working with them. It has definitely been a priceless experience that I could not have gained without getting out there and doing it in my field experience.Garthwait, C. L. (2017). The social work practicum: A guide and workbook for students (7th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson.
SNHU Social Work Skills Gained in Field Work Experience Discussion

Literature Review of the Industrial Wireless

Industrial wireless infrastructure goes beyond a hand full of WSN in the field sending back information to a localised host system, the broader picture of a truly industrial wireless infrastructure envisages a system where the entire oil and gas facility is integrated wirelessly and all arms of the organisation can wirelessly access data from approved wireless devices from any location in the world. This provides a wireless platform for more efficient management, operation and maintenance of the oil and gas facility. This review focuses on WSN in the oil and gas industry, WSN resides in level zero of the ISA 95.01 hierarchy model. The oil and gas industry have utilised WSN for a number of years, up until the release of industry specific wireless technologies i.e. Wireless HART and ISA 100.11a, all of the oil and gas WSN install base were based on vendor proprietary technology, as a result there several operability issues with other vendors device and host systems [13]. Oil and gas facility operators and maintenance teams found themselves requiring multiple vendor devices and systems to meet the process application needs, resulting in high maintenance and operational costs defeating the purpose for having WSNs. The vast majority of the first generation WSN were based on basic office wireless technologies, as a result the first generation WSN where plagued with a number of issues namely; signal reliability, power usage, device processing capabilities, coverage area, suitability for use in hazardous areas, security and data latency issues. All these issues were a cause of major concern in the oil and gas industry towards the deployment of WSN. [14] Communication in the oil and gas industry demands the selected technology provides high availability, reliability, can coexistence with other networks on the plant, conform to an international standard, can operate in hazardous area, can transmit data in real time, is easily interoperable and is secure to outside intrusion and is cost effective [25]. All these requirements plus the ever changing RF environment and high levels electromagnetic noise from heavy duty machinery on an oil and gas facility has made it difficult over the years for WSN to prove successful and be considered the norm when considering communication technologies. The release of process industry specific WSN technologies like WirelessHART and ISA 100.11a, has significantly increased the interest in WSN in the oil and gas industry, it is estimated that investment in wireless infrastructure in the oil and gas industry will more than double from 1.2 million devices to over 3 million device between 2009 to 2015 [30]. With the advances in WSN technology, the potential of WSN to deliver a reduced CAPEX and OPEX cost savings, and possible health and safety and environmental benefits [25], is proving too attractive to be overlooked by oil and gas industry looking to reduce cost and improve plant safety. WSN are primarily based on the IEEE 802.15 family of technologies, which are designated as WPAN, WPAN typically consist of low data rates and a short coverage area [17]. WSN utilise a range of frequencies in the ISM band of frequencies i.e. 900 MHz, 2.4 GHz and 5.8 GHz, these frequencies propagate through office cubicles, drywall, wood and other materials found in homes and offices but tend to bounce of large object like steel and concrete. Due to the high density of steel structures in an oil and gas facility, the first generation of WSN where plague by signal echo or multi path fading , high levels of signal echo and multipath fading lead to transmissions been cancelled [14]. Some of the wireless technologies used in Industrial applications include; Bluetooth, ZigBee, WirelessHART, ISA 100.11a etc. IEEE 802.15.1 AKA Bluetooth is a short range radio technology which operates in 2.4 GHz ISM frequency band; it was first introduced by the telecom vendor Ericsson in 1994 as a wireless alternative for RS232 communication [18]. Bluetooth is relatively low-power, low-rate wireless network technology, intended for point-to-point communications [19]. Bluetooth operates with three different classes of devices namely Class 1 devices which have a range of about 100meters, class 2 devices which have a range of about 10 meters, and class 3 devices with a range of 1m [20]. Bluetooth operates based on the features of Adaptive Frequency Hopping (AFH) and Forward Error Correction (FEC), AFH detects the potential for channel interference and blacklists channels found to have interference, to handle temporary interference the scheme re-tries the blacklisted channels and if the interference is no longer present channel can be used [31]. For security and authentication purposes an acknowledgement is sent by the receiver to the transmitter before a connection can be made between devices, Bluetooth also uses FHSS which adds an inherent level of security, the hop sequence switches channels 1,600 times per second making capturing a single hop extremely difficult. Data transmitted using Bluetooth is encoded before transmission increasing the security of the transmission also password protection ensures only devices with identical passwords can participate on the network. Bluetooth also utilises a controlled device pairing process to determine which products can communicate, making devices invincible so they cannot be discovered by other devices [22]. Bluetooth is limited to eight devices per network and also has a limitation on the packet sizes [21]. This limitation in the number of device per network makes the Bluetooth technology an impractical solution for WSN in the Oil and gas industry. Typically the quantity of nodes in an oil and gas application would be in the hundreds which would mean have several Bluetooth networks on the facility. ZigBee is based on the IEEE 802.15.4 and originally developed for home automation. It is a low-cost, low-power, short range, wireless, mesh network technology which operates in the 2.4 GHz ISM band and uses DSSS modulation. All nodes in a ZigBee network share the same channel and frequency hopping is not permitted, at start-up of a ZigBee network scans are carried to establish a channel with little or no interference, this channel is then used for its data transmission [23]. A ZigBee network is capable of supporting hundreds of devices, the network architecture can be star, tree or mesh topologies. The technology uses three different types of devices namely ZigBee end devices, ZigBee router and a ZigBee coordinator. ZigBee supports both non beacon and beacon enabled networks, non-beacon networks are allowed to transmit any time that the radio channel is open and idle. This creates a ‘free-for-all’ environment in which collisions occur regularly when two or more devices try to transmit at the same time. In this mode, the co-ordinator and routers must be active at all times, and so it is best suited to mains powered devices [24]. A beacon enabled network can transmit only in its designated time slot; this regulates transmissions making collisions less likely. All nodes in the network are expected to synchronize their on-board clocks to this frame. Each node is allocated a specific time-slot within this super-frame during which it, and only it, is allowed to transmit and receive its data [24]. ZigBee utilizes the security mechanisms defined by IEEE 802.15.4, it using counter with cipher block chaining message authentication code (CCM) and AES-128 encryption, giving the option to use encryption-only or integrity-only [23]. The technology permits the use of three keys namely Network key, Link key and Master key. To join the network the master key is required, for end-to-end data encryption the link key is required and provides the highest level of security, the network key is shared between all devices on the network and provides a lower level of security [23]. ZigBee networks offer no diversity in frequency since the whole network shares a single static channel, this makes the network highly susceptible to signal jamming. Frequency selective fading due to the high density of concrete and steel structures present in an oil and gas facility is also a major concern as this can stop all ZigBee communication. The use of a single static channel increases the chance of interference from other systems and increases delay as the network size grows. In non-beacon enabled networks collisions forces retransmissions and this increase latency time making the technology unsuitable for critical monitor or control applications [23]. ZigBee has existed for some time now and has been updated a number of times to improve features like reliability, latency and security which are of uttermost importance but ZigBee has still not been able to cope with the stringent requirements needed for reliable and secure data transmission on an oil and gas facility. Wireless HART is one of only two released open wireless technology specific for process measurement and control applications [25]. It is modelled on the OSI model with its physical layer bases on the IEEE 802.15.4 for low rate WPAN, it operates in the 2.4 GHz ISM frequency band. The application layer is based on the oil and gas industry wide accepted HART protocol. The technology was released in 2007, and was developed on a set of fundamental requirements namely: it must be easy to use and deploy, it should be a self- organising and self- healing network and it should be scalable, reliable and secure [23]. Wireless HART employs TDMA where all devices on the network are time synchronised and communicate in a prescheduled 10ms fixed time slot, this reduces data collision on the network and also reduces the power consumption of network devices [23]. The Wireless HART network is made up of different devices which include field devices, network gateways which include network and security managers. Field devices are organized in either mesh or star topology with the gateway acting as a bridge between the field device network and the host system [20]. Mechanisms like DSSS, FHSS, CSMA/CA, channel hopping, channel black listing are adopted by the technology to improve coexistence with other wireless networks in the environs. WirelessHART adopts two routing mechanisms to ensure data reliability and availability these routing mechanisms are called graph and source routing. During graph routing the network manager establishes the different routes which form the graph, each device on the network stores these routes and uses the predefined routes to identify the next device to forward data to during data transmission. During source routing a definitive list of the devices from the source device through to the destination which the data is to be routed is included the data packet header [20]. Graph routing gives the WirelessHART the ability to self-heal if predetermined routes on the graph is unavailable an alternate route can be taken. WirelessHART adopts a mandatory security requirement, both the sending device and receiving device uses counter with cipher block chaining message authentication code (CCM) together with AES-128 as the underlining encryption methods. Session keys, joint keys and network keys are generated by the security manager and network manager to prevent intrusion and attacks against the network [23]. WirelessHART since its release has proven to be a reliable technology, it is well researched in both the academic and industrial fields with reputable instrumentation suppliers investing heavily the production and continued research and development of devices operating on the technology. The features and capabilities of the technology are addressed in more detail in section 4.1 of this report. ISA100.11a is the second of the two open wireless technology’s specific for process measurement and control applications, ISA 100.11a is a Low data rate wireless mesh network technology operating in the 2.4 GHz ISM frequency band, it is modelled on the OSI model and adopts IEEE 802. 15.4 as its Physical layer. The technology was released in 2009 and is suitable for process applications where delays of up to 100ms can be tolerated [27]. ISA 100.11a technology aims to deliver Low energy consumption devices, easy scalable networks, interoperability with legacy infrastructure and applications, a secure and robust wireless network which is capable of coexisting with other wireless devices in the industrial work space [29]. An ISA-100.11a network is made up of non-routing and routing field devices, a system manager, a security manager, backbone routers and gateways. Non-routing devices are the field sensors / actuators, while routing devices could also act as field sensor/actuator or a router. Routing devices are important in the mesh network, data is transmitted from the source to the destination through a number of hops, with the routers responsible for routing the data to the right destination. They can also use alternative paths to improve reliability similar to WirelessHART network. Data packets are routed from one subnet over the backbone network to its destination, the backbone router is responsible for this routing function, the routing destination can be another subnet or the gateway. Thegatewayis the physical interface between the field network and the plant host network. The system manager is responsible for the administrative functions and communication configuration of the network [29]. ISA 100.11a supports frequency hopping and channel blacklisting, this eliminates faulty frequency bands and improves robustness against interference. The technology also uses DSSS modulation technique which divides the signal into small fragments and spreads it over the available frequency channels, this disguises the signal making it appear as noise to the other wireless technologies with in the range as a result overcoming interference and increasing communication reliability [28]. ISA.100.11a is a very robust technology, in addition to DSSS, the technology utilises three different diversity techniques, namely space diversity, frequency diversity and time diversity [28]. ISA100.11a utilises integrity checks and optional encryption to guarantee the security of the network, the technology also utilises AES-128 bits, message authentication and encryption codes. In addition to this a shared global key, a private symmetric key or certificate are required in order a for a sensor node to be permitted to join an ISA100.11a network [28]. The technology provides a synchronizing sampling mechanism, this mechanism provides reduction of reporting rates and transmissions can be configured to take place when the rate of change of the measured data exceeds a certain defined threshold. Adaptive transmission power control is also adopted by ISA 100.11a devices, this provides field devices the ability to dynamically select a transmit power level, thereby optimizing the power used by the device. Finally the routing capability of field devices can be turned on or off depending on the location of a device here by reducing the power demands of the device to suit the design requirements [28]. The application layer of ISA 100.11a is flexible and has tunnelling capabilities, this permits the user to maintain compatibility with oil and gas facility legacy protocols like Fieldbus Foundation, HART, Profibus, Modbus, and others [29]. ISA.100.11a adopts 6LoWPAN protocol for its network and transport layers, this offers interoperability with internet based hosts and sensor nodes in other WSN networks with IPv6 compatibility [20]. ISA 100.11a has proven to be a reliable WSN in the oil and gas industry, monitoring and alerting, asset management, predictive maintenance, condition monitoring are the application areas which have specific requirements and performance characteristics that can be covered by ISA.100.11a technology. ZigBee and Bluetooth are some of the technologies which have not really been accepted by the oil and gas industry as a means of wireless communication for process monitoring due to some shortfalls such as, ZigBee cannot provide the required QoS support for handling latency and message flow determinism required by industrial applications, ZigBee only utilizes DSSS hence its performance can easily degrade in case of continuous noise in the environs. Bluetooth on the other hand, isn’t sufficiently scalable to handle the vast number of measuring points on an oil and gas facility. However, WirelessHART and ISA100.11a technologies have been adopted for industrial applications due to their ability to deterministic data transmission, reliability, security, reduced data latency and low-cost features. WirelessHART does not support multiple protocols as ISA100.11a does, the transmission of HART messages are the only information specified and supported by WirelessHART while ISA 100.11a support most of the oil and gas legacy communication protocols like Foundation fieldbus, MODBUS, Profibus, HART etc. [28]. The extreme environments experienced on an oil and gas facility i.e. high temperatures, high level of EMI, large steel and concrete structures and constant movement of heavy machinery makes wireless communication highly unreliable in this environment. The release of industry specific technologies i.e. Wireless HART and ISA 100.11a has somewhat addressed the concerns over reliability, security, signal latency of a WSN, compliancy to the standards by wireless device vendors has also lead to operability across multiple vendor devices. Confidence has grown in the use of WSN since the release of industry specific technologies with a hand full of vendors and end users championing the way on WSN. The install base of WSN is continually increasing and this will aid the industry gain a better understand the technology. Till date majority of the install base are on purely monitoring only points due to latency concerns with WSN, further academic and industry based research is required in the use of WSN for fast acting closed loop control and safety critical applications with the aim resolving the latency issues associated with WSN.

MCPHS Wk 3 Integrative Therapies & Alternative Medicine Article Reading Discussion

MCPHS Wk 3 Integrative Therapies & Alternative Medicine Article Reading Discussion.

this is the questions and I will send the reading (1) How would you explain to a friend that you are taking a course in ‘Integrative Therapies’ rather than one in ‘Alternative Medicine’?(2) One of the sources in the PPT lecture is Groden, Woodward, Chatter, & Taylor (2017). Find this source within this week’s materials, and then cite this source in APA publication style as it would appear on a reference list.(3) Before this course, did you know that there are integrative medicine centers at both Dana Farber and Brigham & Women’s Hospitals?If so, what did you know?(4) What did you find interesting as you explored the website for the Zakim Center at Dana Farber?(5) What did you find interesting as you explored the website for the Osher Center at BWH?(6) Look up a health topic at the NCCIH website. Which one did you explore, and what did you learn?As you read Ross et al (2017), respond to the following:(7) How is bias inherent in this report? (8) Given what you learned about terms in the NCCIH reading, what do you think of the title, which refers to ‘alternative’ therapies rather than ‘complementary’?(9) What do you think of the authors stating that these therapies are ‘unproven’. Do they describe what they mean by that?(10) This was written in 2017. How might this article be different now, since more research, such as Nguyen & Lavretsky (2020) has been published on these therapies?
MCPHS Wk 3 Integrative Therapies & Alternative Medicine Article Reading Discussion