A. What parallels if any do you see between Islamic, Africa, Oceanic and the Americas Art? Post your discussion here by the due date and respond to 2 other students by the end of day.
150 words for A
B. Answer each of the following questions in a few complete sentences:
What are some community functions for art in Africa?
What basic belief about human origins is widely shared across Polynesia?
Which Native American art forms are traditionally reserved for women?
What cultural forms did the civilizations of pre-conquest Mexico share?
What must companies focus on in order to survive in today’s business environment?
What must companies focus on in order to survive in today’s business environment?.
I’m working on a information technology project and need support to help me study.
What must companies focus on in order to survive in today’s business environment? Use at least two unique references. Length: 4-5 paragraphs (at least 100 words per paragraph). Read the case: Prime Bank of Massachusetts. Develop a list of changes for the operations function that should be considered by the bank. Use at least one unique reference. Begin by identifying operations management decisions that would be involved in operating a bank, for example, layout of facility, staff, drive-through service. Then identify ways that they can be improved at Prime Bank in order to support the strategy focused on customer service. Use at least two unique references. Length: 4-5 paragraphs (at least 100 words per paragraph).In the product screening stage of new product development, what are some questions that may need to be explored by the operations function? By marketing? By finance? Use at least two unique references. Length: 4-5 paragraphs (at least 100 words per paragraph). Describe how consumers can use the Internet to shop in new ways. Use at least two unique references. Length: 4-5 paragraphs (at least 100 words per paragraph). APA format is required. References should be listed immediately after the question that is being answered. Each question lists a minimum number of unique scholarly references; the textbook is considered one unique reference (per question) regardless of how many times it is used. All references should be from the years 2007 to present day.
What must companies focus on in order to survive in today’s business environment?
The Relevance of Islamic Economics Essay
research paper help Table of Contents Summary Key Learning Points Relevant Statements to the Session Critical Analysis Practical Implications Learning Reflections References Summary The article refers to both Islamic and conventional economics. Conventional economics has been studied for a long time, unlike Islamic economics. As much as both forms of economics have very similar concepts, they also differ greatly. Some of the concepts that Chapra (2000) discusses in the article include vision, mechanism, worldview, and the method. The vision of Islamic economics is to study the allocation of resources in many of the Islamic based countries. There are a few countries that still govern using Sharia Law. Some of these countries are, however, not very strict on the Sharia Law given that they would like to fit in the other non-Muslim circles. This creates a difficulty in realizing the vision of the study. The mechanism, on the other hand, is defined as how the allocation of materials is done. There are three main factors to consider when discussing types of mechanisms. These are filtering motivation, and socio-economic restructuring. The role of the worldview is to give an individual their political perspective among other perspectives. For example, if Muslims believe that it is wrong to steal, they will also believe that cutting the hand of a thief so that he cannot steal again is acceptable. Key Learning Points When it comes to the history of Islamic economics, Chapra (2000) argues that there are very many scholars who have aided in expanding the subject. He mentions Shah Waliyullah and Abi Yusuf, among others, as some of the scholars who have contributed greatly to the study. According to these scholars, Islamic economics is very different from some of the conventional economics that are present in the world today.The key learning points are the vision, the relevance of Islamic economics, history, and the future of Islamic economics. The vision is what Islamic economics wants to achieve. Even though this presents a good challenge to all scholars, it is very difficult to study the exact impacts of Islamic economics because there are very few countries that use Islamic economics at the moment. The relevance of Islamic economics has also been debated over the years. Several scholars have explained that there is no relevance in studying Islamic economics since it is already categorized under the conventional economics of today’s world. Last, but not least, the learning point is the future prospects of the study. Many scholars believe that Islamic economics will not survive in the future. According to Chapra, Islamic economics has focused on explaining itself and how its concepts can change the current world economy for the better. It has not explained how different it is from the other known economies. The concepts involved in Islamic economics also entail the use of the Islamic religion. Most of the world’s population is not Muslim. This makes the future of Islamic economics very dim. Relevant Statements to the Session The relevant statements in the session include: Chapra (2000) mentions that “If well-being were to be defined in a purely material and hedonist sense, then it would be perfectly rational for economics to give prominence to the serving of self-interest and the maximization of wealth, bodily pleasures, and sensual satisfactions” (p. 23). “If the market, the family, the society, and the state all have a role to play in human well-being then the question is how to make them play their roles in a manner that complements and does not hinder the effective performance of their roles by others” (Chapra, 2000, p. 24). Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More “If the mechanisms chosen by economics are not in conformity with the desired concept of well being, or if the desired restructuring is not, or cannot be brought about, then that kind of well being can fail to be realized” (Chapra, 2000, p. 27). Critical Analysis Chapra’s argument supports Islamic economics in some ways. However, there are several things that go against this kind of economics. One of these reasons is that all religious economics are treated as conventional economics. Separating Islamic economics from other religious and conventional economics will, therefore, be impossible. He also argues that Islamic economics is very different from both Capitalist and Communist economies. The Capitalist economy has been known to encourage self-growth in terms of acquiring a lot of wealth and bodily pleasures. Islamic economics is against this. The communist economy, on the other hand, encourages social growth and selflessness. This is very similar to what Islamic economics encourages. This goes to show that Islamic economics borrows mostly from the Sharia Law and the other systems of economics. However, Chapra (2000) still argues that the two types of economics are different in other aspects. It can be argued that Islamic and conventional economics are not very different. Chapra (2000) explains that the Islamic worldview is almost similar to the worldview of the other religious entities in the world today. However, all these religious worldviews are different from conventional economics’ worldview. The argument presented is that the Islamic worldview does not encourage secularism, Darwinism, and materialist behaviors. These are all present in conventional economics, but the issue of whether conventional economics supports them is not conclusive. The Islamic worldview suggests that everyone is equal and everything on the earth is owned by God. Therefore, the allocation of resources should be done with this fact in mind. This worldview upholds the well-being of human beings. However, this is not practical in the real world today. Looking at the countries that support Sharia Law, there is still inequality in terms of the distribution of wealth and resources, despite the fact that most of the countries with Sharia Law also encourage Islamic economics (Azhar, 2010). Practical Implications Islamic economics would not have worked in a real business scenario in a cosmopolitan country. This argument is based on the fact that many clients today are not religious, yet Islamic economics revolves around the Muslim religion. However, some aspects of this type of economics can be used in a real business scenario. For example, one of the concepts of Islamic economics is the upholding of everyone’s well-being. This can be useful in any business setting as it allows the employer to make better decisions with regard to the welfare of the employees. Employing Islamic economics in such a scenario would result in better payments and better working conditions and encourage mutual respect among the employees. Learning Reflections I have learned that Islamic economics is a bit different from conventional economics. Islamic economics should, therefore, be studied as a different entity, instead of combining it with conventional economics. The future of Islamic economics is very bleak considering that the world gets more secular as the days go by. However, the relevance of Islamic economics should not be ignored. Islamic economics was very prominent in the past and it should, therefore, be studied further today. References Azhar, R. A. (2010). Economics of an Islamic economy. Leiden, The Netherlands: ICD Publishers. We will write a custom Essay on The Relevance of Islamic Economics specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Chapra, M. U. (2000). Is it necessary to have Islamic economics? Journal of Socio-Economics, 29, 21-37
Antibiotics for Treatment of Acute Otitis Media
The role of Antibiotics for Treatment of Acute Otitis Media in Prevention of Subsequent Development of Acute Mastoiditis in Children Introduction Acute otitis media (AOM) is considered to be one of the most common infections in children. Most of the time it is self-limiting disease without need for antibiotic therapy; however, some children have individual potential for serious complications such as mastoiditis. Acute mastoiditis is still the most common complication of acute Otitis media and is defined as an acute inflammation of the mastoid air cells which are contiguous with the middle ear cleft and arising as a result of spread of infection from acute otitis media beyond the middle ear. The incidence of acute mastoiditis was signiï¬cantly reduced following the antibiotic era and the overall incidence of mastoiditis as a complication of acute otitis media dropped to less than 1%.1,3. But some recent literature indicated an increase of the disease incidence especially in countries with less antibiotic prescription , while others reported that no increased incidence despite the national restriction guidelines of antibiotics prescription . Most recently published guidelines reported that acute otitis media should be treated initially with supportive therapy with discretionary clinical follow-up and antibiotic treatment is reserved for cases in children younger than 6 months, unresolving cases, or otherwise complicated cases. The aim of this study was to carry out a retrospective analysis of all children admitted with acute mastoiditis and to study the role of antibiotics prescribed for acute otitis media on development of acute mastoiditis. Patients and Methods The medical records of all children admitted, diagnosed and treated as acute mastoiditis in the Ear, Nose and Throat department in King Hussein Medical center, Amman- Jordan during the period 2002 to 2012 were studied retrospectively. Patients were divided into 2 groups: Group I: patients who received antibiotics for acute otitis media 2 weeks pre hospitalization. Group II: patients who did not receive antibiotics prior to hospitalization. The clinical criteria for the diagnosis of acute mastoiditis were based on the following: Clinical and Otomicroscopic evidence of acute otitis media on admission or recent episode of otitis media within 2 weeks before admission. Post-auricular inflammatory signs (swelling, erythema and tenderness). Anteroinferior displacement of the auricle. Exclusion criteria were: Patients with incomplete data or in which the diagnosis was not conclusive. Patients suspected to have cholesteatoma. Immune compromised patients. Patients with ventilation tubes in situ. Patients who had undergone prior ear surgeries. Data regarding the age, gender, and duration of pre hospitalization antibiotic therapy, the clinical and microbiological findings, treatment modality and the outcome of the disease were recorded. Results During the study period, a total number of 63 children were admitted with the diagnosis of acute mastoiditis (42 males and 21 females) aged from 7 months to 13 years with a mean age of 5.7 years. Out of 63 patients, 56 (88.9%) patients had post auricular inflammation only whereas the remainder 7 (11.1%) cases had a subperiosteal abscess. The preadmission history demonstrated that 52 (82.5%) patients had a history of antecedent acute otitis media within 2 weeks before admission. Before the development of acute mastoiditis, we recorded that 41(65.1%) children were taking oral antibiotics 2 weeks before admission prescribed for acute otitis media (Group I) with duration of therapy ranging between 1-13 days (mean duration 3.6 days). The most commonly prescribed antibiotic prior to hospitalization was amoxicillin–clavulanic acid (n=30) followed by amoxicillin (n = 6), and ï¬rst or second-generation cephalosporin (n = 5). On other hand 11 patients did not use any type of antibiotics before admission which was confirmed by the Parents of patients (Group II). The duration of illness before admission of patient was ranging between 1-14 days (mean 3.5 ± 3.1 days). Acute otitis media in the left side was reported to be more common than the right side (25 cases vs. 20 cases, respectively), Whereas 7 children were reported to have bilateral acute otitis media. None of our patients reported to have bilateral mastoiditis. The Clinical features of children with acute mastoiditis on admission are shown in table I. Computerized tomography of the Temporal bone was performed on admission in all patients and cloudiness of the mastoid was demonstrated in all the patients. In 7 cases there was destruction of cortex with subperiosteal abscess. Data regarding microbiological culture findings was recorded in 48 patients, of whom 25 (52%) cultures were taken from middle ear aspirate during myringotomy; culture of pus from the external auditory canal was obtained in 11 patients (23%), from subperiosteal abscess in 7 patients (14.6%) and from the mastoid cavity during mastoidectomy in 5 patients (10.4%). The most commonly isolated organisms were Streptococcus pneumonia, Streptococcus pyogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeroginosa, Proteus mirabilis and Haemophilus inï¬‚uenzae. On admission, all of the patients were treated with intravenous antibiotics and the most commonly used antibiotics were ceftriaxone, cefuroxime, Ceftazidime and Metronidazole. In addition to Intravenous antibiotics, some patients were underwent tympanostomy tube insertion, abscess drainage and cortical mastoidectomy. All patients in our study were recovered uneventfully with these treatment modalities and none of them developed recurrences of mastoiditis within a period of at least one year of clinical follow up. Discussion Although, in the literature the incidence of acute mastoiditis decreased in the last decades, there is some evidence that in recent years, this entity is rising, as Papournas and Kudo [6,9] have reported. However, our series includes 63 cases of acute mastoiditis in 10 years period. The demographic data collected in this study with regard to gender and age was consistent with other series [3, 7, 1 2]. Acute mastoiditis has been reported to be more predominant in boys as has been noted previously [11—14]. The use of broad spectrum antibiotics as initial treatment for acute otitis media, a rather common practice in our country, might play a role in selecting resistant microorganisms. In our study, in which 65.1% children were taking oral antibiotics for otitis media before admission provides evidence for the assumption that widespread use of antimicrobials in treatment of acute otitis media does not provide complete protection against acute mastoiditis. Furthermore, the symptoms of acute mastoiditis may be abated, in consequence of the treatment, requiring a high degree of awareness by contemporary clinicians to watch for manifestations. Therefore, antimicrobials should be used judiciously in treatment of acute otitis media, avoiding the employment of broad-spectrum drugs as an initial regimen. Yet, complete abstention from use of antibiotics in treatment of suppurative otitis media is not advisable, as this seems to increase the risk of complications in general and of acute mastoiditis in particular [15,16]. Recently, some authors observed that the number of children admitted to some hospitals with acute mastoiditis has risen [12-14]. However, Luntz et al  reported that the use of antibiotics is not a safe guard against acute mastoiditis and it may lead to a latent (masked) mastoiditis. Also, Kvaerner et al  – In their registry based study on 399 Norwegian children proved that the incidence of acute mastoiditis has not been increased in Norway despite the national restricted use of antibiotics in primary care. Findings in children with acute mastoiditis are well described in clinical studies. In agreement with our ï¬ndings the children are young, and present with retroauricular oedema, protrusion of the ear and abnormal tympanic membranes in addition to various degrees of general discomfort [1,5 – 9]. The most frequent symptom in our study was abnormal tympanic membrane with retroauricular erythema. During the last decade several reports show a decreasing rate of cortical mastoidectomy as the treatment of choice for acute mastoiditis. The rate of surgery varies greatly from 12 – 98% in different studies [1,4 – 8]. This may be due to different criteria for the diagnosis and may also reï¬‚ect the fact that an increasing portion of children are treated in pediatric wards. The increasing tendency for conservative treatment during the recent years may also reï¬‚ect an increasing availability of CT or MR scans to exclude complications. Microbiological culture findings were recorded in 48 patients in this study and Streptococcus pneumonia was the most commonly isolated organism. Similar results have been reported by other authors [2,6,12,15,16]. Other identiï¬ed organisms were Streptococcus pyogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeroginosa, Proteus mirabilis and Haemophilus inï¬‚uenzae. Our data do not support that general use of antibiotics in acute otitis media will prevent the subsequent development of acute mastoiditis. Neurological complications was reported in 5 – 20% in the literature [2,3,15], although recent publications show a lower rate of complications [6,12]. In our material none of the patients developed neurological complications. Conclusion References Table I Clinical features on admission of 63 children with Acute Mastoiditis Clinical Feature No. of patients (%) Otalgia 48 (76.2 %) Fever ( ≥38°C) 21 (33.3 %) Abnormal tympanic membrane 63 (100%) Otorrhea 26 (41.3 %) Retro-auricular swelling 58 (92 %) Retro-auricular erythema 63 (100 %) Retro auricular abscess 7 (11.1 %) Displaced pinna 59 (93.7 %) More than one sign 60 (95.2 %) History of antecedent acute otitis media 52 (82.5 %) Absence of previous acute otitis media 11 (17.5 %) History of Pre-admission antibiotic treatment 41 (65.1 %)
MDCPS Laboring Woman Biochemical Attack & the Emergency Department Journal Entry
MDCPS Laboring Woman Biochemical Attack & the Emergency Department Journal Entry.
Personal goals & objectives due.You are in the drive-up area of the emergency department helping to unload a laboring woman brought by private vehicle. As you are helping the woman into a wheelchair a bus pulls into the drive-up next to you. The driver stumbles out of the bus and collapses on the pavement. You notice that the bus is filled with people who are panicking and displaying signs of dyspnea.1. What is your immediate action?As you process the scene you realize that this bus may have been the target of a biochemical attack. The semi-conscious bus driver says someone threw a “smoking canister” through a bus window.2. What possible biochemicals could be responsible for the above scenario?The occupants of the bus begin to spill out of the door and enter the emergency department, screaming for help.3. What do you do now?It becomes apparent that a serious situation is occurring when a second bus pulls up to the emergency department with similarly affected people. You notice that hospital employees and visitors who have arrived to see what is happening now look sick as well.4. What special actions must be taken when a health care facility is at risk in a disaster?
MDCPS Laboring Woman Biochemical Attack & the Emergency Department Journal Entry
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