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Sociological and Psychological Theories of Crime

In this task I am going to be looking at different theories which involve criminology, once I have completed that I am going to research one sociological and one psychological theory. At the same time I am going to look at the normal factors that might influence crime. I am also going to be looking at what criminology is and lots of different aspects of crime. — Contents (Jump to): Biological Theories of Crime Nature vs nurture Sociological Theories of Crime Functionalism Merton’s strain theory Marxism Labelling Theory Chicago School Psychological Theories of Crime Psychoanalytical theory Social learning theory — Introduction What is criminology? Criminology is a subject which has a lot of different aspects to it. There are a lot of different areas why people turn to committing crime. The reasons are: Sociology Psychology Biology Geography Law Anthropology What is crime? My definition of crime would be that it is something that someone has done wrong, which is breaking the law. So should be punished for it. Another definition for crime would be crime is the breach of a rule or law for which some governing authority or force may ultimately prescribe a punishment. Right or wrong? We also had a class discussion about what is crime and what is right and wrong? The comments that came up are: An act that is punishable by law. Something that someone has done which is illegal. Behaviour which is contrary to the laws of society. I think that a right reason for breaking the law if there was one would be if someone was so poor and they didn’t have any money to get any food and they stole some food to keep them from starving to death. That isn’t as bad as some crimes and they are only committing the crime so they can stay alive. A wrong reason for committing a crime would be if someone murdered someone else. That is a wrong crime because there will never be a good enough reason for killing someone. Time and place Laws are brought in everyday and different parts of the country and also world. Some examples of different times and place laws have come in are, in 1908 incest was not regarded as a criminal offence in the UK. Everyone knew that it was wrong and that you shouldn’t do it but it wasn’t until 1908 that a law was brought in to stop people who do commit the crime. Another example of this was that it wasn’t illegal to rape within in marriage and that only changed in 1991, when it became illegal. An example of places when it comes to laws is that some laws are different in some country than others. An example of this would be, in the Netherlands they are legally allowed to have sex at the age of 12, but in England they are only legally allowed to have sex when they are 16. In a class discussion we had a look at what might be legal in five years and what is legal now but wouldn’t be legal in five years. A few examples of thing that might not be legal in five years are: Drinking age might have gone up to age of 21. Driving age might go up so there are will be fewer accidents involving young drivers. Children allowed in pubs. Having a drinking whilst eating a meal with parents. We also looked at laws that are illegal at the moment but they might be legal in five years. Examples of this would be: Smoking cannabis might be made legal for everyone not just people who need them for the medical reasons. They might have special licenses that mean people are allowed to smoke in pubs which have the license. Explanation of why do people commit crime? There are many reasons why people commit crime but they have been defined it into three categories. The three groups that they have been put into are biological or genetic, sociological and psychological. Biological or genetic: this is theory that people who have committed have inherited it from their parents. So they are basically born as a criminal. Sociological: this theory is that people will commit crime on depending on who they socialise with. They might do it because they are being pressured by the people they socialise with. Psychological: this is theory s that people will commit crimes all depending on what their personality is like. If there have a good personality they are less likely to commit crime. Biological Theories for Crime Underlying which is also known as distal. Something that effect someone their whole life and it is being held deep down might cause them to commit crime. This might be how they were brought up when they were younger. Immediate this is also known as proximal. Is where the surrounding of a person include the people they will be hanging around with, might effect if someone commits crime or not. Factors that might affect people to commit crime are: Cultural factors (learned social behaviour). This could be their family or even where they come from. It could relate their religion and what they are told they should and should not do. Power of peer group. This could be friends because they might feel pressured to commit crime because all of their mates are. They might want to fit in a group and to be in that group they may have to do something to show they are good enough. Media- the media can affect people in a lot of different ways. It can make people happy, sad or even angry. They have affect on people to do things might not normally do. Statistics Statistic is something where they will collect data and make averages and probabilities out of the results. One of many statistics is that men are twice more likely to commit a crime than women are. Another statistic is that 16
Your write-up should be 1 – 1.5 pages double-spaced. Please do not copy the questions in your answers. Just write the question number, then your answers. Use the terminologies you learned in this class as much as possible where approriate. Answer then following questions for both Study 1 and Study 2 1. What was the research question being studied? 2. What was the research method used? 3. Summarize in a few sentences how the research was conducted. 4. What was the independent variable? 5. What was the dependent variable? 6. What was/were the covariates? 7. What type of statistical analysis was conducted to analyze the results? 8. Why was the type of statistical analysis mentioned in question 7 chosen for this particular analysis? 9. Would you study this research question any other way? How?

How Motivational Theories Are Used In Asda

The main intention of this project is to explore how motivational theories applied in Asda to induce its staffs to carry out their best to the organization. The reason why I selected the above theme is, as an employer at the Asda sometimes I wonder how all the works are going well and smoothly. Then I found the answer for my question, which is all because of the motivational techniques used by the Asda. And the other reason is, I can able to collect use full primary data, from my Managers and colleagues, and from the customers via primary research and secondary data like company reports, articles and company journals directly. Since I had a limited time I thought it will be help full, if I selected the company where am working. Hypothesis: Since motivation is important in the productivity of employees, the importance of knowing what motivation theory is most effective and efficient that could generate higher productivity, commitment and satisfaction to employees is significant as a problem of this study. Literature Review: Motivation is a one word, which leads success for all the organization around the world. Many theorists talked many about this. Especially Mitchell (1982), who given common characteristics to motivation, Taylor, F. W, and Harper and Row (1947) supposed in financial desires in inspiration, but Motivation is the “driving force which fulfils needs” according to Lam

Create a argument for or against the provided quotations using the provided template

custom essay Create a argument for or against the provided quotations using the provided template. I’m trying to learn for my Philosophy class and I’m stuck. Can you help?

Here are the Quotes to use:

If you don’t like something, change it. If you can’t change it, change your attitude. -Maya Angelou

Most folks are about as happy as they make up their minds to be. -Abraham Lincoln

In this Assignment, you will analyze quotations and communicate your understanding of them. You will demonstrate how you can understand a complex concept and also convince others of your point of view. You will aim to persuade the reader to accept your interpretation and your argument by providing examples to support your perspective.
In our careers and lives, people want us to get right to our point, so learning how to create a short and specific argument will be useful. Narratives are also effective for communicating a message in a memorable way, so you will use these in the Assignment. There are a sample template and sample Assignment to show you how these elements can come together to create a persuasive argument on about one page.
You will select two quotations from the list provided and analyze them. One at a time, following the structure on the template, you will agree or disagree with the idea of the quotation, put the quotation into your own words, and then support your perspective and convince the reader to put the idea into practice in their own life through the use of examples. This is similar to creating a premises–conclusion format, but as in papers for class or presentations at work, you will put your conclusion first, and the premises will become “main points” with details to help support the conclusion.
Use the following structure for the Assignment. You can complete the work in the template provided. Offer specific ideas, examples, evidence, and narratives to help construct a persuasive argument in favor of your position. Each main point should be one paragraph of at least 5 sentences. Explain the example and connect this example back to your interpretation.
Student name:
Quotation 1: (Type your quotation and the author’s name here.)
Do you agree or disagree with the statement?
How do you interpret the statement?
(Aim to restate the quotation in 1–2 sentences. You can elaborate on this in the introduction.)
(What will you cover in this brief paper? What will the reader learn about this quotation? You should be encouraging readers to agree or disagree with the quotation as you have, through your interpretation. End with a specific, declarative thesis statement that gives the reader a sense of what you will aim to prove in the work.)
Main point 1:
(This should be at least 5 sentences. Give an example as evidence that helps to support your perspective. This could be a personal narrative, a celebrity, a figure from history, or a character in a book or film. Introduce the example and explain how this example demonstrates the truth of the quotation in your view.)
Main point 2:
(This should be at least 5 sentences. Give a counterexample that helps to support your perspective by showing how one can go off course if not following this advice. Again, this could be a personal narrative, a celebrity, a figure from history, or a character in a book or film. Introduce the person you will use as an example and explain how this person’s counterexample demonstrates the truth of the quotation on your view.)
Main point 3:
(This should be at least 5 sentences. This section is your call to action. How can the reader implement the ideas of this quotation in their life? Offer practical advice for school, work, community, daily practices, or other actions that can make this lesson valuable for the reader’s life.)
(This should be at least 4 sentences. Add a meaningful conclusion that summarizes the ideas and reinforces the thesis and interpretation of the quotation.)
Complete this format for analysis of one quotation, then complete it again for a second quotation

Create a argument for or against the provided quotations using the provided template

discussion forum should be 300 words minimum

discussion forum should be 300 words minimum.

“Change has a considerable psychological impact on the human mind. To the fearful it is threatening because it means that things may get worse. To the hopeful it is encouraging because things may get better. To the confident it is inspiring because the challenge exists to make things better.”- King Whitney, Jr.Whenever change occurs in organizations, families, or individuals, people react in different ways. People have a full spectrum of capacity to change, from highly resistant to change to enthusiastically embracing change and this capacity within each of us changes day-to-day. What change has occurred in your organization recently and what kinds of behavior did you observe from the individuals involved with the change?
discussion forum should be 300 words minimum

Racism And American History X Analysis Film Studies Essay

Racism is one of the most revolting things within the vicinity of humanity. In the world today, the globalization process happen around the world and people come together to exchange the culture, information, technology, education and knowledge, however another side of society always try to ignore other people with different color by violent, the unawareness, and their behavior. Recently, “15 Jan 2011 – ATHENS (Reuters) – Far-right protesters threw stones at a pro-migrant march in Athens on Saturday before being dispersed by bursts of teargas, police said, in the latest sign of tension over the capital’s growing immigrant population. Over 1,000 members of anti-racism groups, leftists and immigrants were marching in central Athens to protest against a controversial plan to build a fence at the border with Turkey to stop illegal immigrants from entering Greece. “Over 100 members of neo-Nazi groups and about 200 local residents attacked the leftists and other protesters with stones. The police used several rounds of teargas and flash grenades” a police official said”. According to Time magazine, from 2007 to 2009, in Australia, a series of brutal assaults and robbery happen to Indian students have sparked a wave of violence and protest group in Sydney and Melbourne. Violence is not the only one trouble that Australia concern, beside they are also struggling with a wave of extreme patriotism of a group of young Australia. The risk that the students from South Asian countries are faced not merely small attacks. There are some Neo-Nazi attacks around the world recently. ABOUT THE “AMERICAN HISTORY X” “American History X” is an American drama film which was named by Empire magazine in 2008 as one of the greatest movie of all the time (Wiki). The movie was a corporation of many talented people such as: Tony Kaye (the versatile director who won a Grammy Award), the film script was written by David McKenna; John Morrissey is the producer, music by Anne Dudley. This film was distributed by New Line Cinema. It is first debut in 1998. The 2-hour movie got a big number in cross revenue, $23,875,127. (Wiki) However, the movie was got an “R” because of many violence scenes with fighting, bad language (such as: f**k, what the hell, bullshit, etc . . . during the film). The background of it is Venice Beach in Los Angeles, California, USA with a strong actor force. ACTOR/ ACTRESS ROLE Edward Norton Derek Vinyard Edward Furlong Danny Vinyard Beverly DHYPERLINK “’Angelo”‘HYPERLINK “’Angelo”Angelo Doris Vinyard Avery Brooks Dr. Robert “Bob”Sweeney Stacy Keach Cameron Alexander Jennifer Lien Davina Vinyard Fairuza Balk Stacey Elliott Gould Murray Ethan Suplee Seth Ryan Guy Torry Lamont William Russ Dennis Vinyard Joseph Cortese Rasmussen Keram Malicki-Sánchez Chris Giuseppe Andrews Jason Christopher Masterson Daryl Dawson Paul Le Mat McMahon These actors and actress were working really hard to give a very successful movie about Neo-Nazi. Especially, Edward Norton got an Academy Award for Best Actor for his performance as Derek in “American History X”. (Wiki) SUMMARY The “American History X” is one of the greatest movies ever. Throughout the movie, the past and present are mixed together. The past was in black and white. And the present was in color. My summary will be arranged by time line. The movie told a story with two main characters: Derek and Danny Vinyard. Their father was a fireman who was working their current city. Mr Vinyard was killed by a black addicted guy while he was fighting a fire in a black neighborhood. After that accident, Derek was frustrated about black communication. Therefore, he joined the D.O.C, a Neo-Nazi gang. Derek was the leader of that group. He used to lead his group to destroy and demolish a shop in the town. Derek also won a game with black group at local basketball court to own the play place. One night, two black teen tried to steal Derek’s truck (which is given by his father). Derek used gun to shoot them and killed one of them. Danny looked at the terrible sense. Derek was judged to prison in 3 years. At this time, he met and was friends with a black inmate in the laundry room. And, he realized what he had done were absolutely wrong. He changed his mind and accepted black people. Danny tries to follow Derek’s mistakes. Danny joined the Neo-Nazi group. After backing home, Derek tried to pull his younger brother out of the dark marsh (the Neo-Nazi group). After existing of the Neo-Nazi group, the two brothers backed home and threw away all the D.O.C stuffs. In the end of the movie, Danny was killed by a black student before giving his assignment (the assignment is about Derek’s incarceration) at the restroom of Danny’s school. ANALYSIS In the first inaugural address, Abraham Lincoln said that: “We are not enemies, but friends. We must not be enemies. Though passion may have strained it must not break our bonds of affection. The mystic chords of memory will swell when again touched, as surely they will be, by the better angels of our nature.” This lesson can be learned from the “American History X” which contains the differences in culture origin and the human fear of the unknown. The following paragraph below will discuss main theme of the movie. In the film, the main conflict of the story occurs because of the two different types of culture. Actually, culture can be defined in many ways. However, it can be known in three main ways. Culture is the taste of art and humanities. ( Culture is human knowledge, belief, and behavior. ( Or, it is a set of attitudes, values, goals, and practices. ( Therefore, the different cultures can cause bad affect in communication. For example, Kissing on the cheeks of others is a kind action in western countries. However, in Vietnam, it is consider as an impolite type. During the two-hour of the movie, there are a lot of violence, dark, and terrible scenes. All of the main character’s actions come from propaganda. When Derek was a kid, his father used to talk about the black communication. This makes his mind to contain a bad image about the color people in the USA. After the death of his father, he became a Neo-Nazi (his father death was caused by a black addicted guy when he was fighting a fire in the black neighborhood). That is one of the reason Derek joined D.O.C group. The leader of the group scatters thoughts about the color people. One time, Derek led a Neo-Nazi group who were fueled by drugs, beer, tattoos, and heavy metal attacked a small super market in the town. The violent and poignant scene scored a very sad motion for the viewers. The discrimination, racism, prejudice of the Neo-Nazi was built on different culture origin. Their thought is ethnocentrism. Ethnocentrism is the belief that his/her culture is superior to others. In international business, it describes a company or individual so imbued with the belief that what worked at home should work abroad that it ignores societal differences (John, Lee H., and Daniel, 2007, International Business, 11th edition, Pearson, New Jersey – Article: “Charles Martin in Uganda”, pp. 72) In another the scene at the play yard, Derek had a basketball game. Derek was fighting with the black guys to own the yard. During the game, there are many collisions between the black and white. This scene seems to be usual in the real life. The disruption of one group with others happens every day. It can be economic class, color skin, education, or many things else. The difference of opinion between Derek and his family can cause violence, swear worlds, etc. . . . At that point of time, Derek’s attitude was totally different from his family. Therefore, he treated his family so badly. He heaped insults on his mother and her boyfriend. He blustered and hit his sister. The dinner was broken like the happiness of the family. The most terrible image of the “American History X” is the first scene. Derek shot the two black guys who tried to steal his truck in the night. After killing one of them, Derek was smile and satisfies. However, Danny who was standing behind felt wretched because of the Derek’s action. It seems the racism is in every cell of Derek’s body. The unknown of culture origin that make Derek and Danny cost a very high cost ever. Danny was shot by a black student in the end of the movie. The death of Danny will be the biggest lesson ever in the Derek life. THE CAUSES OF RACISM One of the causes for this event is stereotypes. Through media communication like television, radio, internet, book, movie, etc. which are the potential for mirror to build characteristics of the youth. When a person, especially one that is very young, is joined to stereotypes of a specific group for the first time, then that person will learn and get all knowledge by that way. Moreover, when a negative source is always displaying the perception of the youth about a particular race, then it will influence the thinking and opinions as well. Besides, Unfamiliarity is also the most common cause of racism. People concern what they do not know or understand. When people grow in one race of people, they will have a trend to join in the group of the same race or same color, because they don’t know about another race, they afraid of other color skin who maybe effect them or do something harm to them, so they try to avoid, deny, ignore them. Selfishness is another obvious cause of racism. In case Australia, Indian students speak their language and they get a trouble with the local students because they don’t speak English in public, besides the government also try to give more advantages for the local white skin students than the other skin, so they accidentally raise the racist in their community. Furthermore, the local citizen, especially white skin people, afraid of the position in society, job. They think the color skin people take their job, their money as well as their social position. They just want anything in their country belong to them. Family education is also a reason of racism. When parents and significant others have racism thinking, they almost express and teach it to their children, the child will incorporate those knowledge into their mind, cognitive, intellectual, emotional and frameworks of life. For that reason, children will grow up with the racism in mind and they never forget. Unless such the individual have experiences in living in many conditions living, spending time with many groups of race and understanding the difference of other race, they will change their mind like the content of film “American History X” below. Those are the 4 main reasons which cause racism. In general, racism is one of the most terrible things that will affect the characteristic of person and change the basic instinct of human. To avoid the happen of racism around the world, we must first solve the basic problems, which are: stereotypes, unfamiliarity, selfishness, and Family education. When we solve the problem, the racism will not appear anymore. CONCLUSION Racism happens in the world because of many reasons which are: stereotypes, unfamiliarity, selfishness, and Family education. They represent and fighting for their values, fear, norms and beliefs. Therefore, the most dangerous thing for mankind is a lack of knowledge. Address knowledge helps us understand the differences in culture, value, as well as beliefs. It is a premise to help us understand the different races of the world.

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