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Society Reflected in X-Men First Class

X-men: First Class is an action-filled sci-fi movie that tells a story of a group of mutants trying to survive in a world where humans consider them a serious threat to the society. The movie is part of the X-men series and this installment is about the history of two mutant leaders who were once good friends, but will eventually become mortal enemies. Before they were known as Professor X and Magneto among the mutant community, Charles Xavier and Eric Lensherr were working together to stop the threat against their kind and the worldwide threat that humans brought into this world: an impending nuclear war which the United States and Communist Russia demonstrated during the Cuban missile crisis in 1962. The real life events depicted in the film make the story even more relatable and in a way give viewers an alternate reality where the problems we are facing in our real world can be fixed by heroes. Failure to deliver the expectation from the government makes them look useless and incompetent. People look up to other sources for relief, fiction or reality. Thus, we indulge ourselves to the different fantasies made available for us to see if it can appease our anxieties and fear. Looking up to superheroes became the measurement of the status of the social issues and problems, and the initiator of the needed change when the government and other authorities continue to fail their roles as the liberator of the marginalized members of the society. 2011: The Year that Was ​The movie was released in June 2011, a year when America was going through a lot of financial reforms after the 2009 Great Recession. Financial matters and national budgets became the main agenda in legislative assemblies that is being addressed among other national issues. National leaders also have to contend with the implementation of the federal Affordable Care Act, reforming the state pensions, worsening unemployment rate, immigration and illegal aliens, foreclosures of homes due to delinquent mortgage payments and jobs for American workers. These national issues are on top of the world crisis brought about by the European debt crisis, the narcotic war in Mexico, the nuclear threats being instigated between Pakistan and India in the Kashmir region, and the concern of the United Nation and the World Bank that the dollar was losing its value as a world currency. Many of these problems and crisis happening around the world were an influence to the plot of the film’s story. Movie goers would have been aware of the film’s storyline, mostly influenced by what they have been going through in real life, from the financial crisis at home to the overshadowing nuclear threat happening on the other side of the world. Basically the director and writers of the film would highlight some of the current issues in the society to put credit on the plot of the movie. The Superheroes and the Society ​Reading fiction is a wish-fulfilling fantasy that makes us follow the stories of individuals who secretly held superhuman powers going around the city to keep it safe. We see these superheroes as champions of the poor and the marginalized who are always seen as the disadvantage and the powerless members of the society. They are the bringer of justice to those who are discriminated and unjustly treated. Superheroes or any individuals with superhuman capabilities are always depicted to act outside the rule of law and they can deliver peace or revolution, by force or by diplomacy, when the government and the concerned society cannot. They are seen as scapegoats and a motivation to rise above the anxieties and fear of the society when people have started to lose their trust in their government. People will look for other ways to fight these oppositions. Watching a hero defeat a villain who characterized those fears and anxieties allow the movie viewers a liberating experience that the challenges in life can be overcome. Basically, a subliminal feel-good experience after the movie is what is worth it before reality again sets in. ​The movie X-men: First Class is a clash between two groups of mutants who have the same objective to save their kind from human aggression. They are locked in a battle of survival where humans are meant to destroy their kind as they are different and are considered a threat to the world. They were also experimenting to find out what exactly are their powers and if they can be used as a weapon to fight enemies in battle. This was highlighted at the start of the movie where it shows a Jewish concentration camp during World War II. The holocaust was an event depicted by the extermination of the Jewish race has moved the world to ensure that this experience shall never occur again. Despite the horrible experience and the commitment, the movie is telling us that humankind has never gotten over that behavior and is doomed to repeat it. The mutants, considered as an evolutionary freak of nature, but is actually a genetic advancement that needs to be understood is the main plot of the X-men series. Superior than their human counterparts, they still have to struggle for their survival. Their battle for survival was led in two fronts by two prominent mutants: Professor Charles Xavier, or Professor X to his students, and Erik Lensherr, also known as Magneto. One group, Magneto’s Brotherhood, takes an aggressive approach against humans whose objective is to destroy them in order to survive. The other group is led by Professor X, who wished to make the humans understand that their genetic mutation needs to be understood and that they are not a threat to mankind. His group, the X-men, is the protagonist in the film and they are the depiction of superheroes who seek justice for those who are in need. These two leaders arose from different background, thus creating different behaviors when they need to deal with aggression. The mutant who would be known as Magneto grew up from a harsh environment during World War II. A Jewish who, as a child, survived the Nazi’s concentration camp and experimentation of his power, He also witnessed the death of his mother at the hands of the Nazis. His past life experience led him to be violent in front of any aggression. On the other hand, his best friend, Professor X who eventually became his arch nemesis in the X-men franchise grew up from a rich family who have supported and taught him well. He was a product of a society whose environment encourages education as a foundation of one’s intellect. He understood collaboration, relationship, and decision making based on a higher level of moral standard. He produced a group of mutants reared with good education and a friendly environment. These two sets of contradictory mindset became the focus at the end of the movie by which an individual is free to choose on what they wanted to be. Good versus Evil ​ Understanding the relationship of X-men and the society we live in today is a depiction of social difference in a multicultural environment. This was inherent in the 60s and 70s in the American society, of which is the same time when the X-men superheroes in the comic books were conceived. The movie was released in 2011, but still carried the same social issue of national identity. The film was produced to explore how it was suitable to look into the topics of identity and belief as the world was fighting a war on terror. The terror in the movie was the nuclear war between the U.S. and the Soviet Union, but in the real world, our society is fighting the war on terror brought about by religion which was about identity and belief. It was about recognition and survival. This became inherent after 9/11 where the rise of Islamic fundamentalism and terrorism threatened the American society. This new development created a new kind of anxiety and fear in the American consciousness and is translated into the creation of superhero films fighting basically the same kind of terror. ​In another perspective, a superhero, or a villain for that matter can signify a “god-like” status, able to make decisions without following any rule of law or any moral and social considerations that needs to be approved by the government or a moral organization (97). These institutions are considered irrelevant and useless and we look up to these superheroes as empowered individuals. The X-men in the movie carried a spiritual symbolism, much more divinity, as they mutated beyond the scientific knowledge we knew of. They are obviously more superior to an average human being, carrying American values, considering that this is an American movie production. American movie viewers would be seeing themselves as a more superior citizen and has the ascendancy to instill good among humankind. On the other hand, there are those who will depict themselves as the marginalized members of the society, but yet capable to undermine the interest of superheroes. The antagonists in the film represented that idea. They were nurtured and educated in a different manner, underwent a different experience growing up thus, they perceive things differently. This behavior divided them, especially the relationship between Magneto and Professor X as well as common allies like Raven, who decided to side with Magneto instead of Professor X at the end of the movie. ​One of the reasons why we enjoyed watching superheroes on film was our familiarity of their characters since we grew up with them, reading their adventures in comic books. They also relate to us that their superpowers help them overcome evil and they are there to keep everyone safe. In as much as we are entertained and actually enjoy the action-filled fantasy, it has allowed us to immerse with the fact that we come out fulfilled after watching these films. This is true when we can relate to the story, especially if there are social issues involved or events that have somehow affected or influence a part of our life. The film X-men: First Class touched several of these issues that are close to our culture and belief. Humanity, discrimination, loneliness, multiculturalism, indifferences, nurtures were prominent in the story. There is also the nuclear threat event and the prosecution of the Jews that remind us so much that it built up to our anxiety and fear when we were growing up. All these are social issues and problems that are real and unfortunately, continued to exist for decades. It has not abated and we gave up expecting our government to come and fix it. Subsequently, we find solace in entertainment films. Superheroes became the solution to our perennial problems. Work Cited “The Superhero Reader”, edited by Charles Hatfield, Jeet Heer,
MBA 640 University of Maryland Global Campus Consumer Buying Behavior Research.

Project 1: Researching Consumer Buying BehaviorStep 2: Attend Meeting with ACMEMonday morning, you meet with Jillian in her office. “We are so glad that you have come back to help us grow at Maryland Creative Solutions,” Jillian says. “As you know, with shifting markets, I have decided to reposition the company to focus more on clients with branding and digital strategy consulting needs. I feel that your long-term knowledge of our company and global mindset are perfect for leading the way on some of our new projects.”To get you started, we have just signed on with ACME. I would like you to meet with their leadership: Tarek Fahmy, the company’s head of new-product innovation, and ACME’s CEO, Erik Knops, to finalize the details of their request. Again, it is a pleasure to be working with you. I am really looking forward to seeing your creative approaches in our partnerships.”Calendar Invite: Startup Meeting with ACMEClient Name:Meeting Organizer: Jillian BestAttendees: You, Erik Knops, Tarek FahmyClick to attend the ACME meeting After the meeting, proceed to Step 3 to enhance your knowledge about concepts relevant to ACME’s request.Step 3: Review Marketing Information on Consumer Buying BehaviorAs you read through the following materials, begin to think about how this information will apply to the report you will prepare for Erik and Tarek. To successfully complete the report, you’ll need an understanding of marketing. You’ll also benefit from a keen understanding of digital marketing, consumer buying behavior, and evaluating business attractiveness.As you conduct your analysis of ACME’s consumer environment, remember that there are two types of market research: primary and secondary research. Both types of research are required in real-life, and each of them has its pros and cons. However, for this Project, only secondary research is required.Finally, to fully understand ACME’s position, read about offerings—what a company provides its customers, be it a product, a service, or a mix of both. Also consider the differences between a product and a service. You know that a product can be more than just a physical good, it can be a service attached to a physical product, a “pure” service, an idea, a place, an organization, or even a person.After you have read these materials, proceed to the next step, where you will begin your analysis of the specified consumer marketsStep 4: Conduct a Consumer Buying Behavior StudyINBOX: 1 New MessageFrom: Tarek Fahmy, Head of New Product Innovation, ACMETo: YouHow are things going?As previously mentioned, I would like you to conduct an analysis of the consumers in our main markets. Your analysis should consider both current and potential product users and should address the following questions:What needs are being met by the product purchase? What are the benefits to the consumers? Make sure that you differentiate between features and benefits; go beyond manifest motives and consider latent motives.Who is involved in the purchase process? Who are the influencers? Who are the buyers? Who are the end users?Where are the products sold, and what are the distribution channels?How often are the products purchased? Is there seasonality to sales?Deliverable: By the end of Week 1, I need you to produce a six-page preliminary consumer buying behavior report (excluding cover page, reference list, tables, graphs, and exhibits) explaining your findings on consumer needs, wants, and preferences in these markets. Make sure that your report is specific to consumers of ACME’s potential product and not to consumers in general.Support your work with the course readings and at least two scholarly sources and eight reliable nonscholarly sources, such as Reuters, Bloomberg, Yahoo! Finance,,, Money, Forbes, Fortune, the Financial Times, the Wall Street Journal, and the Harvard Business Review, as well as the UMUC Library databases, such as Hoover’s and ABI/INFORM. All sources need to be cited using APA formatting, both within the text and in the reference list. The report should be organized using headings and subheadings to improve its readability.Expecting your best efforts on this,Tarek
MBA 640 University of Maryland Global Campus Consumer Buying Behavior Research

CRJS 435 American InterContinental United States Prison Laws Essay.

I’m working on a research & summaries multi-part question and need support to help me learn.

I’m working on a research & summaries multi-part question and need support to help me study.Prisoner rights in America are based largely on the provisions of the Bill of Rights. In this assignment, research and explain the primary amendments that have had, and still carry, an impact on prison law.Referencing at least 2 credible sources and using proper American Psychological Association (APA) format and guidelines, address the following points in a 3–4-page Word document:Identify and explain the following amendments:First AmendmentFourth AmendmentFifth AmendmentEight Amendment14th AmendmentExplain why prisoners have diminished constitutional rights.Explain the limitations of these amendments as applied by correctional facilities.Discuss how case law related to the aforementioned amendments have significantly impacted prisoner rights and corrections.For each amendment, provide at least 1 example of case law.When pursuing a redress of grievances against the government, what are the 2 major avenues of relief utilized by prisoners?Requirements:
CRJS 435 American InterContinental United States Prison Laws Essay

Chapter 16: Therapy and Treatment “The Problem with the Solution” by Invisibilia

Chapter 16: Therapy and Treatment “The Problem with the Solution” by Invisibilia.

Psychology Podcast Papers writing a 2-3-page paper relating the podcast to information covered in the course (lecture and textbook). You do not need to summarize the podcast; rather, you should discuss how the material in the podcast compares to what we learned in class. It is encouraged that you connect the podcast and course material to your own experiences. A sample of a podcast paper assignment is available on D2L. Each paper must be between 2 and 3 pages in length with double-spaced Times New Roman font (size 12) and 1-inch margins. Each paper is worth 2 extra credit points (5 papers maximum) and must be uploaded to the designated D2L drop box prior to due dates. These papers will be due as subjects are covered in class, therefore, please check D2L regularly. Late submissions will not be awarded points. There are 12 podcast options assigned to various chapters and lectures. You may complete 5 podcast papers for extra credit. Podcast papers are due one week after we cover the chapter to which the podcast relates. Again, late submissions will not be accepted. Below is a list of possible podcasts, the chapter to which it relates, and due date. Podcasts can be listened to on a computer or smart phone. On iPhones, the podcasts can be downloaded for free on your device in the “Podcast” app. On Android devices, you may use PRX or Stitcher. Some podcasts have transcripts available if listening is not an option for you, and links to transcripts have been pasted below as well. However, if possible, it is recommended that you listen to the podcasts for the full experience. Chapter 16: Therapy and Treatment “The Problem with the Solution” by Invisibilia… ((Please make sure that you are listening to the podcasts assigned on the podcast and make sure to talk about the podcast in the papers))
Chapter 16: Therapy and Treatment “The Problem with the Solution” by Invisibilia

Childhood Obesity and Nutrition Analytical Essay

essay writing service free Childhood Obesity and Nutrition Analytical Essay. Introduction The prevalence of childhood obesity in schools can be compared to an epidemic of a virulent disease on a global scale. Research statistics have shown that on average 15.5% of children aged between five to fifteen in school have body mass indexes reaching 30 or higher, far above the norm of 25 or below. In total, nearly 25 million children around the world can be considered overweight, obese or morbidly obese. In the U.S. and U.K. populations alone the sheer rate of childhood obesity has caused an upsurge in cases associated with diabetes, high blood pressure, heart problems and other maladies associated with being overweight. The source of these problems is threefold namely: eating habits, the sedentary lifestyle of children in the modern era and the lack of proper education on the future problems associated with being overweight. Reduction in Eating Junk Food The current problem with current approaches in creating an effective intervention in reducing childhood obesity in schools is that there is actually no effective method to prevent a child from eating unhealthy foods. Various interventions enacted in the past have included healthy food options to be utilized in school cafeterias, the addition of caloric and nutritional guidelines on various types of food, restricting certain types of food marketing to children as well as the reduction of ingredients multinational corporations use in the types of food they create which have been connected to obesity. Unfortunately though these intervention initiatives were enacted years ago in various school districts, the fact remains that the prevalence of childhood obesity continues to grow. At a national level there is a distinct lack of regular monitoring and, as a result, childhood obesity has been allowed to run rampant. An examination of various obesity prevention programs enacted on the local level within various schools have shown relatively limited success in actually sustaining an effective program that curbs the growing rate of childhood obesity in local and urban areas. It must be noted though that the reason such efforts are failing is due to the fact that commercial influences in the form of popular culture and the media are just more popular among children and adults as compared to the policies enacted by school directors. The problem really is not due to ineffective intervention policies but rather a cultural one where commercial influences and convenience have created the problem that various schools in the U.S. now face. Various studies on the prevalence of childhood obesity state that effective policy making for this particular problem is still in its infancy and that given time an adequate solution will present itself. What these initiatives fail to take note of is that society is currently in the “junk food era” where the convenience and prevalence of fast food establishments, grocery stores and mini marts have made the availability of calorie rich easy to eat food all too prevalent. The fact is there is no policy that can be effectively enacted that can prevent a manufacturer from selling a type of food that is safe for consumption, albeit high in calories, to the general public. Companies such as Hershey’s, McDonalds, Dairy Queen, Coca Cola and various other companies are all clear evidence of the ineffectiveness of policies aimed at preventing childhood obesity when the products that cause them cannot be prevented from going on the market. The manufacturer is not at fault should a consumer eat more than what is necessary, there is always the defense that it was the consumers fault for eating so much and that the manufacturer did not force them to eat such large amounts. Continued policy initiatives to prevent childhood obesity will continue to fail unless the cultural aspect of the causes behind obesity is taken into consideration when creating methods of intervention. Goal Setting and Goal Striving When students enter into the camp they will all be asked to join a competition that the camp holds every time the camp has a brand new batch of students. This pledge involves setting a series of goals for the children during the 3 week period. This exercise is an extrinsic activity with the end goal of students reaching a particular plateau being eligible to win a prize such as a Nintendo Wii, a Sony PS3 or other prizes of similar worth. When they are in camp junk food will be prominently placed in numerous areas within the camp and students are free to get them, however, if they try to get junk food they are immediately ineligible to win a prize. This activity also encompasses goals related to amount of weight lost, the number of physical activities joined and the types of healthy food that a particular child eats. By utilizing an extrinsic goal, such as an expensive toy that children really want to get, this encourages them to stick to particular goals so that they can win the prize. Even if in they do not win the prize in the end the attitudes they developed during the goal setting stage of the exercise should enable them to resist the temptation of junk food and thus result in continued weight loss in the years to come. Resolving the Issue of an Unhealthy Diet Based on the research of Rick (2009) it was seen that children tend to have a habit of unconscious mimicry in social situations which can take the form of either physical forms of mimicry (i.e. using the same gestures, moving in the same manner and other forms of physical imitation) or verbal mimicry (i.e. pronouncing words in the same manner and with the same intonation or other such similar methods of verbal communication (Rick, 2009). It is assumed by StephanieChildhood Obesity and Nutrition Analytical Essay

Bio Mechanical Analysis Of Throwing Techniques

The game of cricket is believed to have been played in organized form hundreds of years ago. Cricket was introduced to North America via the English colonies in the 17th century (Bowen., 1970), probably before it had even reached the north of England. In the 18th century it arrived in other parts of the globe. It was introduced to the West Indies by colonists (Bowen., 1970), and to India by British East India Company mariners in the first half of the century (Altham.1962). It arrived in Australia almost as soon as colonization began in 1788. New Zealand and South Africa followed in the early years of the 19th century (Altham., 1962). The origins of cricket are very vague, and many theories have been put forward suggesting its origins. The pupils of Royal Grammar School, Guildford, recorded the first evidence of cricket being played in the year 1550. In the year 1611 it is reported that two young men from Sussex were punished for playing cricket instead of going to the church. The first match is recorded to have been played at Coxheath in Kent in the year 1646 (Altham., 1962). Extensive studies and research have been conducted to trace its history and they have come out with different versions (Altham., 1962).The modern version of the game originated in England and remains popular in present and former members of the English Commonwealth. In South Asian countries – including India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, and Sri Lanka – cricket is the most popular and scientific sport. Bowling, batting and fielding are three key skills in cricket; much of the biomechanical research into this sport has focused on bowling and batting (Bartlett et al., 1996).The one of the most third skill that of fielding incorporates both a pick-up and throwing phase, highlighting the importance of the throwing skill in cricket. Throwing technique in general used by the elite cricket players are, comparable over arm, side arm, and under arm throwing techniques, has been widely studied in other sports, including track and field (Best et al., 1993, Maeda., 2008), and baseball (Escamilla et al., 1998, Dun et al., 2008).Only one study has been reported in calculating biomechanical parameters in that Cricket ball throwing (Cook, and Strike., 2000). Throwing is a fundamental movement skill that forms the cornerstone of many games (Elliott and Anderson., 1990); the development of this skill could be paramount for some athletes. Every movement in a throwing motion counts, even the breathing. There are different types of throws that a thrower must be able to throw accurately. There are numerous aspects of throwing making it a complex skill to master, such as ball velocity, ball movement, arm velocity, and arm movement. However these aspects have little effect if the thrower cannot place their throws precisely, that is to say, throw strikes. Even though throwing accuracy can be increased by improving technique and practicing muscle memory (Simons et al., 2009), coaches are constantly seeking other means. cricket, as are many sports, is mentally challenging. For throwing to be successful, they must be mentally and mechanically strong. This has led to many different methodologies being used to analyze the biomechanics of the Biomechanical analysis of throwing techniques. Different temporal, kinematic, and kinetic parameters are selected based upon their necessity for each individual study. Also a variety of methods are being used to collect the motion data including varying numbers and locations for 2D and 3D motion analysis research. In the last several decades, sports biomechanics has demonstrated considerable growth evolving from an exercise to the filming of human movement to an applied science with the powerful array of measurement and modeling sports techniques. The descriptive approach has superseded by attempt to explain the mechanics and has emerged as an important area of scientific investigation in variety of disciplines ranging from classical mechanics to the life sciences, includes: theoretical mechanics, anatomy, anthropometry, neuromuscular physiology, kinesiology, biomechanical engineering, ergonomics, exercise science, orthopedic surgery, physical rehabilitation and corrective physical education. In Biomechanics extensive researches have been conducted in the interaction of arm and legs, in walking, running, throwing analyzing during the course of action of play with different approach, angles and direction under the part of the study of biomechanical engineering . The kinematic and kinetic performance analysis of biomechanical engineering permit the explanation of dynamics of human motion, researchers interested in solving specific problem in human mechanics, such as determining how a given sports skill, improved by modeling, computer simulation, optimization and other statistical approach to motion analysis the increasing involvement of technology has made some other methods and tools available for tracking and assessing motion. Numbers of laboratories around the world are now working on movement analysis. These laboratories primarily work in neurological, neuromuscular, and orthopedic disorders of locomotion. However, there are also important works being done in analyzing sports engineering and sports-related movement. Movement analysis is automatically a part of human performance assessment and analysis. Today many sports scientists use movement analysis as a tool to origin new techniques and establishment of movement, correct movement errors related to a variety of movements. Origin of the concept of biomechanical analysis of throwing technique was evaluated in 1968; the journal of biomechanics was first published with the broadly stated purpose of mechanical principles to the mechanical analysis of throwing technique. Analytical methods used within sports biomechanics as a part of performance and technique analysis. The concept of technique analysis as a specific sequence of movement appears to be well established in the literature, but the concept of technique analysis is still under developed. Although several descriptive and analytical goals for technique analysis can be identified, the main justification given for its used is to aid in the improvement of performance. However, the conceptual framework underpinning this process is poorly developed with a lack of distinction between technique and performance. Biomechanical analysis of throwing technique is a good way to improve the throwing technique of the cricket players. Indeed computer simulation makes possible to validate investigation on throwing movement understanding in the modern computerized system, software program, it is now possible to make sufficient calculation, statistical evaluation. The limited research into the basic mechanisms underlying specific cricket throws highlights the need for more information directly applicable to the enhancement of the performance in the games of cricket for `elite’ cricketer. Only (Cook, and Strike., 2000, Elliott and Anderson 1990) have tried to quantify, in two and three dimensions analysis of, the throwing technique adopted in cricket. (Elliott and Anderson 1990) the study were concerned age related differences in high performance over arm throwing technique pattern, not specifically the mature pattern of throwing in cricket. It has been shown that throwing is an important aspect of the cricket sports and that a sound understanding of throwing technique can facilitate improvements in throwing performance in any games and sports but cricket is the game in which win or lose of the game mostly depended throwing techniques and throwing performance of the team members. There is an increasing emphasis on good fielding in cricket; it could be that three or four quality fielders are as important bowlers who have the ability to take wickets. (Fleisig et al., 1996a) contended that, although there are similarities in all overhand throws, there are quantifiable differences in the mechanics for various sports. Here, we review the literature on throwing and then analysis the three-dimensional characteristics of throwing technique of an elite cricketer, drawing comparisons with previous research. Previous study on the role of biomechanical analysis of throwing technique focused mainly on baseball, tennis, volley ball, and athletics. Not many studies have been undertaking on the role of biomechanical analysis of throwing technique in cricket or relevant throwing technique. This study related some little aspect from the study by Cohen et al. (1994) for the applicable to netball and cricket player using overhead action in performing the throw. A major different was the unavailability of sophisticated tool to perform the mechanical analysis of throwing technique or calculating the speed of the ball release toward the enhancement of the performance. Understanding of human movement is one the most and complex studies with the regarding of the mechanical aspect and thus in sports. To attain the highest level of sports performance needs immense quantity of skillful movement. The performance in any sport depends only on motor action or movement. The skill serves as basic element and indispensable for good performance. Fielding is the one of the most important skill in the game. In every sport the techniques has been changing with rules and regulation from time to time. To cope up with the changes constant understanding of the required variation call for attention. The complexity of techniques makes variation too minute to distinguishably determine the deviation without sophisticated tools. The non identification of the technique variation leads to inappropriate application and demote performances. The Indian’s cricket fielding performance (like, stopping the ball, catching and throwing) is showing low as the comparison with the International level trend with introduction of new techniques and implementations of mechanics in sports especially in cricket. Initial researches, it appears as though the majority of the joint activity involved in throwing a cricket occurs in the upper body, specifically the shoulder, elbow and wrist joints. This impression is acquired due to that fact that most professional cricket player’s injuries are related to the shoulder or elbow joints. The most common musculo-tendinous injuries sustained by baseball pitchers occur within the rotator cuff region (Mullaney et al., 2005). Since throwing is such a rigorous and repetitive motion, many of these injuries or failure in the performance can be attributed to overuse or improper mechanics. The throwing motion can be broken down into several key temporal parameters based on distinct motions involved in every throws. Different studies use different temporal parameters based on the needs for the study. (Werner. Et al., 2001) broke down the throwing motion into three phases: stride foot contact to the instant of maximum shoulder external rotation (cocking phase), maximum external rotation to the instant of ball release (acceleration phase), and from ball release until 500 milliseconds after the ball has been released (follow-through phase). Many studies and books such as (Layera., 2010), (Bartlett., 1997) and (Adrian., 1995) base their justifications for a good technique on the kinematic chain (occurrence of peak segment velocities from proximal to distal), starting with hip velocity and ending with wrist velocity. This investigation aims to confirm research done by the likes of Campbell et al (2010) and Chu et al (2009) that there are important aspects of the throwing action that occur below the waist, and also in the trunk. It should be noted that this study is not aimed in disagreement with the importance of the kinematic chain Bartlett.,(2007) and Hamill., (2003), but rather in agreement with the idea that the lower body forms a fundamental part of the throwing action and should therefore be taught to the same level of understanding as the function of the upper body. This will be achieved through the use of a case study using a skilled and less skilled performer, and comparing various lower body kinematic parameters. Unless the specific study is looking at the kinematic and kinetic effects of different throws, the subjects being analyzed will throw fastballs at the desired target. This makes for more uniform sampling as well as easier data comparison among subjects because every player throws a fastball in a similar manner to achieve a high velocity and accuracy. It is rare to find testing or data collection performed during game situations. If this is the method chosen for data acquisition however, anatomical landmarks must be manually digitized and camera angles must be accommodating to the cricket field’s facilities and grounds. Most studies are performed in a lab with multiple-high speed cameras at various angles to capture all of the reflective markers located on the body to calculate various kinematic and kinetic parameters. Analysis of throwing technique has been the basis for many studies across a range of sports; these have served to identify important variables and characteristics of throwing performance to facilitate analysis and understanding, many researchers have divided the throwing action into specific phases, each with its own biomechanical function (Elliott and Anderson, 1990). Although the throw can be divided into specific phases, this does not infer a discontinuous action but serves only to aid subsequent analysis (Elliott and Anderson., 1990). Subdivision of the throwing technique has enabled important variables of performance to be identified within each phase, in addition to an overview of technique in which the whole body can be seen to work in a coordinated fashion to achieve its goal. The main aim of the study biomechanical analysis of throwing techniques in cricket was to asses, the role of mechanical factor that may affect effective throwing in cricket. In this study the effect of selected biomechanical analysis of throwing techniques in the different angle of approach at different direction and distance, with maximum velocity and accuracy was investigated. There are considerable numbers of different joint involved in throwing, but the purpose of the study the focus was on upper extremities and more specifically shoulder complex. The biomechanical analysis of throwing technique is the answer to full fill existential vacuum, refinement and stabilization of the game and sports in growing competitive sporting world to the changing demand. At the international level of competition a minute variation may result in win or lose. Every nation is backing their sports person with biomechanical researches to accomplish the need. However there have been fewer researches in the field of cricket ball throwing technique at inter-national level specially relevance of throwing mechanism. (Freston et al., 2007), has studied the factor involved/associated with throwing velocity and accuracy in elite/ sub elite cricket players. (Sachlikidis and Salter., 2007), found that non dominant arm throws had significantly lower maximum lead knee lift, had significantly less elbow flexion before extension, had significantly less shoulder external rotation at the start of the arm acceleration phase. (Cook and Strike., 2007), found the greater elbow flexion at lead foot contact and less external rotation during the preparation phase.(Bartlet., 2001), cited that the practical value of performance analysis was that well-chosen performance indicators highlight good and bad technique or performance. More emphasis has been given in biomechanical analysis of throwing technique in bowling throws in cricket at international level. Other developing countries have made their changes according to demand and thus superseded Indian performance. Indian cricket player need support from our researchers to identify variation and variables to steer their performance to those golden days of dominating world cricket. The mechanical factor of throwing involves ballistic movement of one segment. The imparting force must overcome the inertia of an object. But, in general, throwing is a sequential action of chain of body segments, leading to high velocity motion of external objects. It thus results in the production of a summated velocity at the end of the chain of segment used and the path of the external object motion in accordance to the demand of situation and position, throwing technique in general used by the elite cricket Fielders are, underarm throw, side arm throw, and overhead throw India has not even set to its initial in the biomechanical researches in any field. In India no such research have been undertaking till date in biomechanics. In the computer era, the motion analyses software and programming made biomechanical research specially in kinematics possible to read the athletes motion .The throwing skills in cricket have received very less biomechanical research attention than any other. Throwing is a complex motor movement and therefore generally follows different predictable stages. The theoretical concept have conclusively defines that elite sportsmen of skilled levels and within skill levels exhibits to have mechanical variability. Thus the present research has been taken to find out various throwing techniques in relation to medicinal aspect of high skilled cricket players. BIOMECHANICAL ANALYSIS: A biomechanical analysis evaluates the motion of a living organism and the effect of forces on the living organism. The biomechanical approach to movement analysis can be qualitative, with movement observed and described, meaning that some aspect of the movement measured. The use of the term biomechanics in this text incorporates qualitative components with a more specific quantitative approach. In such an approach, the motion characteristics of a human or an object are described using such parameters as speed and direction, how the motion is created through application of forces both inside and outside the body, and the optimal body positions and actions for efficient, effective motion. The biomechanical analysis of different event can help to understand the critical point of technical performance thus helping coaches and athletes in their preparation. One area of major concentration over the past few years is that of biomechanical analysis. Human motion analysis is frequently used today for both clinical and research application the art and science of motion analysis has expanded beyond basic descriptions of ambulatory patterns to include front line clinical roles in rehabilitation, surgery, prosthetics, orthotics, Ergonomics and Athletics. A biomechanical analysis conducted from either of two perspectives. The first, kinematics and second kinetics. Kinematics is concerned with motion characteristics and examines motion from a spatial and temporal perspective without reference to the forces causing the motion. A kinematic analysis involves the description of movement to determine how fast an object is moving, how high it goes, or how far it travels. Thus, position, velocity, and acceleration are the components of interest in a kinematic analysis. By examining an angular or linear movement kinematically, one can identify segments of a movement that require improvement, obtain ideas and technique enhancements from elite performers, or break a skill down into identifiable parts. By each of these, further understanding of human movement. Pushing on a table may or may not move the table, depending upon the direction and strength of the push. A push or pull between two objects that may or may not result in motion is termed a force. Kinetics is the area of study that examines the forces acting on a system, such as the human body, or any object. A kinetic movement analysis attempts to define the forces causing a movement. A kinetic movement analysis is more difficult than a kinematic analysis both to comprehend and to evaluate, by a significant amount if the weight of the body lifted and the speed of the bar were not considered. The forces produced during human movement are very important, since they are responsible for creating all of our movements and for maintaining positions or postures having no movement. The assessment of these forces represents the greatest technical challenge in this field, since it requires sophisticated equipment and significant expertise. Thus, for the novice movement analyst, concepts relating to maximizing or minimizing force production in the body will be more important than evaluating the actual forces themselves. A kinetic analysis can provide the teacher, therapist, coach, or researcher with valuable information about how the movement produced or how a position maintained. This information can direct conditioning and training for a sport or movement. For example, kinetic analyses performed by researchers have identified weak and strong positions in various joint movements. Thus, one know that the weakest position for starting an arm curl is with the weights hanging down and the forearm straight. If the same exercise started with the elbow slightly bent, more weight can lifted. Kinetics also identifies the important parts of a skill in terms of movement production. Examinations of both the kinematic and kinetic components are essential to full understanding of all aspects of a movement. It is also important to study the kinematic and kinetic relationships, since any acceleration of a limb, of an object, or of the human body is a result of a force applied at some point, at a particular time, of a given magnitude, and for a particular duration. While it is of some use merely to describe the motion characteristics kinematically. KINEMATICS: Kinematics is a branch of classical mechanics which describes the motion of objects without consideration of the causes leading to the motion. The other branch is dynamics, which studies the relationship between the motion of objects and its causes. Kinematics is not to be confused with kinetics, and to dynamics as used in modern day physics; this term is no longer in active use. Kinematics is the branch of biomechanics concerned with the study of movement with reference to the amount of time taken to carry out the activity. Kinematics is the branch of biomechanics concerned with describing the motion of bodies, thus kinematics deal with such things as how far a body moves, how fast it moves and how consistently it moves. It is not concerned at all with the cause of motion of the body. In other words we can say – The kinematics is that branch of biomechanics, which concerned with description of the movement of segment of the body without regard to the forces and cause due to the movement occurred. KINEMATICS ANALYSIS: We are concerned with the relation and conclusion of different kinematics variables. In the cricket ball throw with the different technique of the cricket player, body movement like the movement of upper extremities (upper arm, forearm, hand) and ball how much upper arm moves, how much forearm moves, how much hand moves, from initial point and how accurate ball moves. ANGULAR KINEMATICS: Rotational or angular kinematics is the description of the rotation of an object. The description of rotation requires some method for describing orientation, for example, the Euler angles. In what follows, attention is restricted to simple rotation about an axis of fixed orientation. The z-axis has been chosen for convenience. Description of rotation then involves these three quantities: Angular position: The oriented distance from a selected origin on the rotational axis to a point of an object is a vector r ( t ) locating the point. The vector r ( t ) has some projection (or, equivalently, some component) r ( t ) on a plane perpendicular to the axis of rotation. Then the angular position of that point is the angle θ from a reference axis (typically the positive x-axis) to the vector r ( t ) in a known rotation sense (typically given by the right-hand rule). Angular velocity: The angular velocity ω is the rate at which the angular position θ changes with respect to time t. ANGULAR SPEED AND VELOCITY: Angular speed = angular displacement ÷ time Angular velocity = angular displacement ÷ time QUALITATIVE ANALYSIS: The qualitative analysis system includes the development of a theoretical model as a basis for identifying faults judging their relative importance. In the qualitative analysis, the performance is evaluated subjectively based on direct, visual observation and this method is widely used, as it is less expensive. To conduct qualitative analysis, requires some prior knowledge of the sports or activity concerned, in particular if the motor skill to be analyze. A qualitative analysis includes visual and photographic observations, which usually result in a description or a judgment of the good and the weak points of a given performance. Visual analysis has the obvious advantage of not requiring expensive equipment but suffers from limited accuracy and most effectively practiced by an expert coach with an experienced eye. Without instant replay, the teacher must depend upon the senses to be able to quickly see what took place. With the luxury of film or videotape and the time to view repeatedly a single performance, the chances for correctly diagnosing an error enhanced. The filming process itself is very critical, and most ordinary game films are not of much use in analyzing of an individual, because of the probability of poor camera angle, background, or light. The time and expense needed to photograph individual performers and then to study the film for perhaps several hours is usually justified. QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS: In quantitative analysis, technique evaluated objectively based on measurements taken from recording (e.g. film, videotape, force-time curves’) of the movement. At any level of quantitative analysis, there is a need for interaction between the coach and biomechanist if maximum performance is to be achieved. Quantitative evaluation of movement requires that a permanent record be collected for a number of trials so that each can be viewed and analysed. Recording of permanent data on movement may take a number of different forms, for example cinematography, electromyography (EMG), accelerometry, dynamometry or electrogoniometry. While some of these techniques may not be available for general use, a more informed reading of the scientific biomechanics literature can only occur if it understands how objective data are derived. In quantitative analysis system, the performance is first recorded technique and then it is evaluated objectively. This method is used only for research purposes and is quite expensive. It involves the measurement and recoding of hard data about movement, gait analysis (walking, running Parkinson Ian gait), sequential analysis in kicking and throwing, postural characteristics in relation to performance, and it goes well beyond qualitative analysis because of its emphasis aim to identify the mechanical principals that effect motion and movement patterns, and employ the physical principles of the human body facilitate improvements in performance. Image analysis techniques, including both movie photography and videography, provide the opportunity to capture complex movement sequences on film or videotape so that a detailed analysis can be performed. However, an understanding of sampling frequency relative to photography or videography is needed prior to discussing different image analysis techniques, as both are sampling processes that record information at discrete points in time during a continuous motion. The sampling rate needed for an accurate representation of movement must be at least twice the value of the highest frequency component contained in the movement, although many researchers believe sampling rates of 5 to 10 times the maximum frequency component are necessary. Excessive sampling either increases the cost when using high-speed photography or limits the choice of cameras when using high-speed videography. Under-sampling will cause vital movement characteristics to be missed, or distortions to arise. At the subjective level of analysis, film or video techniques may be use to record movement and allow general comments to be made on the observed characteristics. At an objective level it is not sufficient to just record and observe movement, as detailed measurements must be completed and inferences drawn with reference to the movement. Specific equipment and procedures must be use if accurate objective data are to be collected using image analysis techniques. Movie Photography: In high speed cinematography a motor-driven camera capable of providing frame rates up to approximately 500 Hz (c.s-1) and exposure times up to approximately 1/10 000 s is needed to accommodate movement and sport skills of differing speeds. In a golf drive for example, the ability to clearly record the impact of the ball and Club head would require an exposure time of approximately 1/3600 s and a frame rate of 400 Hz. The 400 Hz frame rate ensures that the moment of impact captured on film, while the exposure time guarantees that no blurring of the image occurs. For an analysis of jogging, an exposure time of 1/800 s would provide a clear image of the leg, while a frame rate of 100 Hz is sufficient to sample leg movement at the required frequency. The collection of data from film for analytical purposes (digitizing) is the most time- consuming and tedious aspect of cinematographic research. A stop-action projector is needed to control film movement so that an operator can move an X-Y coordinate system until a pointer, pen, light or cross-hairs lie over the desired anatomical landmark to be digitized. The co-ordinates of this point are then stored on a computer. In order for the anatomical landmark to be located, it must be clearly marked on the subject being filmed, so that an accurate identification of the segment end point or joint centre is possible These co-ordinate data are then smoothed prior to being mathematically manipulated in the calculation of kinematic and kinetic data. Information additional to the co-ordinates of the selected landmarks is required. A large sweep-hand clock may be included in the photographic field to establish the actual frame rate of the camera. Alternatively, internal camera lights which flash at a set rate may be used to mark the film and allow film speed calculation. Aspatial scale, such as a large metre rule, must also be filmed in the plane of action to convert film scale measures to real values. This type of scientific analysis may be done on any of several levels, ranging from research that has immediate applicability to sports, scientist in the lab are aided by interesting and very technical measuring and recording devices, including high-speed cameras, motion analyzers, force platform and computers. Two Dimensional Analysis: This type of analysis commonly uses one camera and fewer markers on the subject than in more complex 3-D analysis. Although it has limitations, it was the first method used by sport researchers and biomechanists, and is still used today by many research labs that utilize motion analysis, and is easily adapted for student research. Video Analysis: Once film or video is recorded it must be analyzed. This usually entails digitizing points off of a film or video using a special machine, or even using tracing paper overlaid on a monitor. Video can be captured by a computer and relevant points digitized directly using image analysis programs such as NIH Image and Measurement in Motion. In the motion analysis activity included here, QuickTime movies are used to digitize points that make up an angle between the leg, ankle and foot. This angle lets one analyze the effect shoes have on pronation and supination.

Examining Poems By Wilfred Owen English Literature Essay

The alarming reality of the use of gas as a weapon of war contributed to the deteriorating of the soldier’s state of mind. This issue is present in “Dulce Et Decorum Est” by Wilfred Owen. Owen describes a scene of a gas attack “as under a green sea I saw him drowning”. This simile explores the image of a solider falling to his death in a horrific way just like drowning in a ‘green sea’. This quote further demonstrates a personal experience as Owen can attest to the truth and horror of it, and the part that tortures him the most is that he is unable to assist as he just “saw him”. Repetition and punctuation emphasises the issue. “Gas! Gas! Quick Boys!” is the physical focus of the poem, and the repetition marks the immediacy of the tone to enable the audience to understand and engage more into the reality of the soldier’s situation. Owen also refers the soldiers as “boys”, and this reminds the audience of the soldiers age and the dangerous and unpredictable circumstances the ‘boys’ find themselves in. The technique further helps the audience to be drawn into Owen’s world of poetry and understand that the soldiers were drained of their youth. As a result, the soldiers entry into the war at a young age as being a sign or an act of patriotism is nothing more than just an old lie of how sweet and fitting it is…to die for one’s country. The disguising of the truth and the way nations perpetuate the optimism of war is a feature of “Dulce Et Decorum Est. Owen wants to reveal realities of war to both the people at the home front and the men being sent to war. Owen highlights this issue in the very last lines of the poem as he says “The old lie: Dulce et Decorum est/ Pro Partria Mori”. This is the lie that revolts Owen, which in translation means “it is sweet and noble to die for ones country”. This is the climax- the flawed justification Owen has exposed for the lie that it is. Owen uses oxymoron to support his view. “To children ardent for some desperate glory”. These ideas are designed to put the reader in some contemplation over what constitutes glory. The use of this technique further supports Owens attempt at highlighting the immoral ideas of propaganda throughout his poetry towards the glory and honour of dying for one’s nation. The concept of massacre and waste of human life is present in “Anthem for Doomed Youth”. Owen describes this as “what passing bells for these who die as cattle?”. Owen uses this line as one of great passion, which represents how society sees these men; a block of sacrifice to die for their country and not as individual men. Owen uses alliteration to engage his audience. The alliterative “Only the stuttering rifles rapid rattle” emphasises the sounds of war and gunfire as the men’s musical accompaniment to their death – this is their “Anthem” and Owen suggests that this is their only one. There is also a strong sense of pace in the words too, which emphasises that the men are carving up their lives too quickly. This issue of the waste of human life effectively engages Owen’s audience in understanding the reality of war. The uselessness and pointless reality of the moral and true meaning of war is indispensably obvious that it is not ‘sweet to die for one’s country”, but propaganda to gain nationalistic pride. The brutality and viciousness of war is evident in “Dulce Et Decorum Est”. It highlights the distressing and horrific experiences of war. He describes the return of a dead solider in this way: “behind the wagon that we flung him in”. Owen’s aim to create an apathetic image as the wager recalls carcasses of meat suggests a callous and irreverent response to yet another death at the front line. It is a distressing image in an attempt to awaken the public’s awareness of the reality of war. Owen uses imagery to emphasise this issue. “Obscene as cancer bitter as the cud/of vile, incurable as sores on innocent tongues.” All this imagery is hideous and physically sickening as Owen wanted to provoke a response from his audience. It is astounding writing, but it is also accurate as it suggests disease but ironically the solider is beyond that – he is dying anyway. This quote is also suggestive of war for itself being a disease, supported by the sustained use of similes. This issue help Owen’s audience to visualise the disturbing and panic-stricken events the soldiers had endure without being emotionally attached otherwise their state of minds would disintegrate. Consequently the ideas raised by Owen allow the audience to ponder and reflect on the ineffectiveness of war resulting in human psychological post-war effects experienced at war. Therefore it is through the use of vivid imagery that one is able to see the futility of war and how the “old lie” is represented in Owen’s poetry. The soldier being deceived by shameless men in charge is evident in “Anthem for Doomed Youth”. The title suggests that Owen is writing a true recognition of the hardships and sacrifice. Although he makes the poem a parody in an attempt to wake up civilisation duped by the “lie” he also wants to give the soldiers their due praise for the horrors they experienced. Owen uses personification to highlight this issue. “And bugles calling them from sad shires”. A bugle is a traditional instrument used to call men to battle – the calling is beckoning and hopefully the men will return home. The men in charge are aware of the soldiers’ imminent death but continuously edge the soldier’s to fight by telling them it is patriotic to die for their country but really there is no pride in dying for your country as the men in charge lead the soldiers on their sacrificial journey. War is defined in the poem as futile with the only result coming from it is the denaturing of psychological consciousnesses or death. The major theme of “Dulce et Decorum Est” is associated with its Latin title, which is taken from a work by the Roman poet Horace. The full phrase is ‘dulce et decorum est pro patria mori’, which can be loosely translated, “it is sweet and fitting to die for one’s country.” Owen consciously works to undermine this noble statement of patriotism by showing the ignominy of death in modern war. The men he describes in this war are anything but noble. Instead of confronting their foes in single combat, the soldiers in Owen’s poem are retreating from the front lines. They are tired, both physically and psychologically. They are almost deaf to the sounds of the falling gas bombs that could take their lives at any moment. The graphic realities of the battlefield did not match the glorious descriptions of war prevalent in the literature Owen and his educated officer comrades had read. There was no glory in dying from gas poisoning. What Owen seems to have realized is that death by gassing was a metaphor for all death in modern warfare; the notion of a glorious death was simply a lie. “Dulce et Decorum Est” graphically depicts a central irony of death on the modern battlefield: No matter how noble the cause may be, the individual soldier can expect nothing but misery in combat and an ignominious end should he be unfortunate enough to become a casualty. For the pity of war is clearly evident in expressing the perspective of World War I, as it is unquestionably bogus to believe war is noble and sweet to die for one’s nation. Wilfred Owen’s “Anthem for Doomed Youth” asks what burial rites will be offered for the soldiers who die on the battlefields of World War I and argues that, in place of a normal funeral, these men “who die as cattle” will receive, initially, a parody of funeral rites, enacted by the noise of guns, rifles, and “wailing shells,” and later the more authentic rites of mourning supplied by the enduring grief of family and friends at home. The scene might become simply gruesome and ugly, but Owen prevents this by focusing on the sounds of warfare in order to draw parallels between the rites of burial and the conditions of the front lines. Complicated patterns of sound in these first seven lines represent the noise and chaos of the front are evident in lines one and three which add an extra short syllable to the usual iambic pentameter, so that these lines end haltingly, stumbling to a close. The repetition of a stressed open vowel followed by the sound of the letter ‘n’ in line two mimics the steady, regular thundering of the heavy guns, for example “only,” “monstrous,” “anger,” and “guns”. While the repetition of a vowel followed by the sound of the letter ‘t’ in lines three and four, for instance “stuttering,” “rattle,” “patter” combined with the alliteration of “rifles’ rapid rattle” mimics the crack of gunfire. The fact that the iambic pentameter of line three is violated by both the dactyl of “Only the” and the trochee of “stutter-,” along with the aforementioned extra syllable that ends the line, means that the line literally stutters, imitating the irregular staccato of rifle fire up and down the trenches. The use of these aural imagery as well as onomatopoeia allows the reader to understand the effects of war and further oppose the idea of patriotism to war. These images that the audience illustrate mentally express a kind of scornful disdain for the instruments of death, however, the scene as a whole is one of chaos and horror in which the poet finds only the absence of dignity and comfort, an absence underscored by the repetition of the words “no” and “nor” in lines five and six. Wilfred Owen successfully draws responders into the world of poetry by employing poetic techniques to create an appealing yet shocking image of war as a sadistic, unstoppable, untameable and unnaturally vindictive mechanical monster that kills without thought or reason for personal gain. This image presented throughout Owen’s anthology to attack all those who glorified and romanticised war. Owen’s pacifist sentiments echo through his poetry, however his anger at the woman, politicians and propagandists of his time is clearly evident in the profound imagery and the detailing of horrific deaths on the battlefields. Owens poetry serves as a warning to future generations to reconsider before they again believe it sweet and fitting to die for one’s country, because once the initial onslaught begins, all control is lost and it becomes near impossible to override the vigorous and pity war holds through it, in the belief of the patriotism of dying for one’s nation is nothing but an ‘old lie’. By Roland Allam – 21677728