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Society of the Spectacle and War Photography

Society of the Spectacle and War Photography. Discuss contemporary war photography in relation to Debord’s work on the Society of the Spectacle. Society of the Spectacle written by Guy Debord and published in 1967 at the height of the Vietnam war argues that the world has been overtaken by the notion of spectacle. Debord describes what the spectacle comprises of (in several numbered paragraphs); he says that, “In societies dominated by modern conditions of production, life is presented as an immense accumulation of spectacles. Everything that was directly lived has receded into a representation.” (#1) Debord is stating that life in the modern age has become fixated on reality as representation (i.e. by the media) real life experiences have been substituted for experiences that are digitally lived. Debord goes on to say that “the spectacle presents itself simultaneously as society, itself as part of society, and as means of unification. As part of society, it is the focal point of all vision and all consciousness. But due to the very fact that this sector is separate, it is in reality the domain of delusion and false consciousness: the unification it achieves is nothing but an official language of universal separation…the spectacle is not a collection of images; it is a social relation between people mediated by images.” (#3-4) With the rise of new media and the explosion of 24-hour news and reality television, it would seem that the existence of the spectacle becomes self-evident. Mass amounts of human beings are directed to gaze at what has become a global common culture, news and entertainment. For Debord, the spectacle is a tool of pacification and depoliticization; it is a “permanent Opium war designed to force people to equate goods with commodities and to equate satisfaction with a survival that expands according to its own laws…” the spectacle distracts from the most urgent task of real life. (#44) Debord argues, our sense of reality is nothing more than an immense accumulation of spectacles. All that was once lived becomes mere representation . Debord’s theory of the sectacle is similar to that of Baudrillards theories which concentrate on the ideas of a hyperreality. He considered a photograph to be a replacement for the real object. The lines of reality and non-reality have become so blurred in our society that a photograph can replace the real. Like Debord Baudrillards believed we live in a mediated reality, which prefers the symbol of reality rather than the thing itself. We are constantly bombarded with images form mass media that our own lives are own reality becomes entwined with the images we see. The boundary that should exist between reality and fantasy is erased. A consequence of the age we live in. Images depicting the gruesome nature of war are constantly available on television and in newspapers and magazines; every page turned reveals a new atrocity. We have been flooded with these images for so long that they no longer have an affect on us, instead on inspiring empathy and sympathy we are more passive to them a feeling of indifference. In the mass media if there is a story about celebrities or lifestyle it would surpass gruesome photographs of war. As a society we’ve almost grown accustomed to these types of images, seeing them everyday. In an essay entitled Photographs of Agony John Berger also argues that society has become immune to images depicting suffering saying that … “In the last year or so, it has become normal for certain mass circulation newspapers to publish war photographs which earlier would have been suppressed as being too shocking. One might explain this development by arguing that these newspapers have to come to realise that a large section of their readers are now aware of the horrors of war and want to be shown the truth. Alternatively, one might argue that these newspapers believe that their readers have become inured to violent images and so now compete in terms of ever more violent sensationalism.” (ed Wells L, The Phtotgraphy Reader, chapter 27) Berger is questioning the effectiveness of the violent or shocking war photograph arguing that maybe the public have become immune to images of horror and the newspapers are competing to show ever more horrific images in order to gain pubic attention. We look around us and see a world beyond our control. Relying on advanced technologies to conduct war and to replicate it on film and TV has diminished our ability to distinguish between reality and entertainment, turning our experience of war into a mere spectacle. In regarding the Pain of others Susan Sontag Describes societies attraction to violent images…” Everyone knows that what slows down highway traffic going past a horrendous car crash is not only curiosity. It is also for many, the wish to see something gruesome”… there does seem to be a modern need fro the consumption of images of suffering. And this abundant supply of imagery has dulled our senses and created a new syndrome of communal inaction, we look around us and see a world beyond our control, which is what Debord was describing in society of the spectacle. In her early book On Photography Susan Sontag writes that “ War and photography now seen insperable…” (pg167) and as war evolves and continues so has the photographers response to the effects of conflict. The Bulky large-format cameras of the 19th century prevented the first war photographers such as roger Fenton from capturing the action of combat instead their photographs concentrated on the aftermath of the battlefields. With the technological advancement of cameras and not needing to haul darkroom equipment with them the first world war photographer could get closer to combat and then during the 2nd world war the introduction of the 35mm camera increased the intimacy of the cameras eye, enabling photographers to become part of the action, in a way the first exponents in the 19 century could never have dreamed. During the Vietnam war photographs could now been seen within days of them being taken, the immediacy making the images relevant and challenging the inevitability of war the viewer was now looking at something which is part of the present, and which carries over to the future. For a century and a half the camera has been witness to events that have shaped and shocked the world, capturing these images forever. We might now live in a world of multi channel television, 24-hour news coverage and instant his on the Internet, but it is the still image that provides the most powerful record of our history, good and bad. The still image seems to hold so much power over us, they last, television is passing and goes by quickly, photography lasts, imprinted on paper and in the mind. War and the effects of warfare have always been explored throughout history in literature, poetry, art, film and photography. Before the first world war the depiction of battles by artists were often of soldiers and generals depicted as heroes, in their uniforms adorned with medals but during the first world war when artists were sent to the front line to record the scene, what they saw there defied their imagination. It soon became clear that the traditional painting couldn’t capture the full horror of warfare. The modernist painters began to look at the universal grimness of war, the harsh reality of the world and painted not what they saw but what they felt. For example the artists Paul Nash who served as a solider, portrayed the battlefield in a painting titked Menin Road in 1919, what he depicted was the aftermath of war, a barren scene of an almost alien world the surreal colours a purple blue sky the mutilated bare trees, bursts of smoke rising from the debris strewn ground and blue light filtering through the clouds completely empty apart from four lonely figures in the background. Nash wanted rob warfare of its last shred of glory and its last shine of glamour. Francisco Goya’s series of etchings Disasters of War depicts the horrors of the Napoleonic invasion of Spain in 1808 during which French soldiers brutally tortured the Spanish peasants and the Spanish responded with their own acts of cruelty. The works were withdrawn and withheld from publication during Goya’s lifetime because of their controversial and disturbing qualities. Susan Sontag writes of Goyas’ etchings in Regarding the Pain of others, “…Goya’s art seems a turning point in the history of moral feelings and of sorrow-as deep, as original, as demanding. With Goya a new standard for responsiveness to suffering enters art…” Goya was witness to these events during the war, but the etchings depict imagined scenes of the atrocities of violence where the lines between real events and imagined ones blur creating a unique reality that is complimentary yet distinct from the historical realities of war. As the viewer is not lead to believe the images are exact reproduction of actual events the effect is one of a sincere meditation on the terrifying potential that resides in all humans. The images don’t specify who the people are-the soldiers could be French or Spanish, the dead tortured bodies could be those of civilians or soldiers giving the viewer a more open interpretation bringing images to life in a way that relate to personal experience. Goyas images are constantly being revisited looking at Francis Bacon triptych Three Studies for Figures at the Base of a Crucifixion 1944 the twisted screaming distorted creatures depict mans inhumanity to man and capture the fear of the future mood after the second world war and still our mood today, bacon like Goya still has a hold over our imagination, for example the Chapman brothers reconstructed the Disasters of war in 1991 using miniature plastic figurines. Painting and sculpture are clearly viewed as interpretations of the effect and consequences of war, with photography the assumptions is that images are seen as a document they appear real, even when we know photographs can be faked and subject to the photographers view of events. In On Photography Susan Sontag wrote… “War and photography now seem inseparable.” In On Photography Sontag explains what she saw as the sad state of a society that lived at a more and more voyeuristic distance to the first hand experience of reality. In accordance with this Sontag describes the photographers whose personal concern was apparently with finding out and understanding, were doing no more than satisfying the human thirst for sensation and driving this to extremes by ever more sensational images, until ultimately all feeling was lost. In the book The photograph as contemporary art……describes the contemporary war photographer… “The use of medium-and large-format cameras (as opposed to 35mm format), not normally seen at the sites of war and human disaster-not at least, since the mid-nineteenth century-has become a sign that a new breed of photographer is framing the social world in a measured and contemplative manner…” She goes on to say…”The subject matter has been different, too; rather than being caught up in the midst of an event, or at close quarters to individual pain and suffering, photogrphers choose to represent what is left behind in the wake of such tradegies, often doing so with style that propses aqualifying pperspective.” It is clear to …Contemporary war photographers have in the main taken anti-reportage stance; slowing down image making, remaining out of the hub of action, and arriving after the decisive moment to allow the viewer a more contemplative look at war and the effects of war. Using Photomontage Martha Rosler infiltrates our comfort zones and reveals the dangers involved in an illusionary distance often created by the mass media between war and ourselves. By using images from magazines of advertisements combined with military images of soldiers and weaponry she transforms the notion of the safety of a home into one under assault. Her intent is to project the terror and atrocity of war into the comfortable place in which we live. She employs devices that work against the seduction of advertising and consumer imagery, the process of photomontage allows her to expose the gaps between image and reality, and ultimately make the viewer aware of an out of place presence. She addresses the impact of the mass media who according to Debord make the images of horror seem mundane and remote by pointing out the implicit presence of militarism in our daily lives, by juxtaposing popular lifestyle magazine images with stark images of war. The French Photographer Sophie Ristelhuber Photographs depicts the aftermath of war they are usually un peopled with no survivors and no dead, concentrating on the spaces of war rather than its participants, the scars and burns are found on buildings and landscapes rather then the people. Her photographs of the Kuwaiti desert, entitled Fait were made shortly after the end of the first Gulf War. Many of the photographs from this series were taken from a ariel viewpoint This elevated angle creates a distorted abstract view of trenches, tank tracts, bomb craters, blazing oil wells and battlefield detritus. You have to look carefully and closely at the photographs to discover that the lines and tracts objects engulfed by the sand are the results of war scarring the landscape emphasising how vast and sprawling the effects of war can be. Sophie Ristelhueber describes the effects of scale and perspective in her work: ….”The constant shift between the infinitely big and the infinitely small may disorientate the spectator. But it’s a good illustration of our relationship with the world: We have at our disposal modern techniques for seeing everything, apprehending everything, yet in fact we see nothing.” Ristelhueber recently won the Deutsch Borse Photography prize 2010, which included set of images titled eleven blowups, a series of images of huge craters made by bombs In Beirut and Iraq, again the y describes the devastation war leaves behind both on the earth and the body. Paul Seawright photographs the traces of destruction that war leaves behind in a place The solitary places in Seawright’s photographs seem to be concealing something they require the viewer to look beneath the surface of the image the isolated barren areas reveal hollows where mines have been cleared or left unexploded, or the subtle rubble of military debris strewn across the desert landscape. The quiet subtlety and blankness of the desert distances them from the spectacle associated with the medias representation of war, there is an unknown tension in the images Seawright generates a view of the futility of war. One of his photographs is almost identical to that of Fenton’s photograph of the Crimean war depicting empty cannon balls in a valley illustrating the fact that despite its technological advancements war is fundamentally always the same. In his book Hidden Seawright says that he has… “always been fascinated by the invisible, the unseen, the subject that doesn’t easily present itself to the camera.” Landlands And Bell were commissioned in 2002 by the imperial war museum to make an artwork in response to a two-week visit to Afghanistan and what they experienced there. Landlands and bell’s work characteristically focuses on the interconnected relationships linking people and architecture. They say: ‘we’re totally surrounded by architecture. It is the most tangible record of the way we live because it describes how we relate to socially, culturally and politically. It is the most persistent of the way we live-our aspirations and beliefs.” The result was among other video based works The House of Bin Laden. Presented as an interactive piece similar to a video game the viewer is in control via a joystick to explore a reconstruction of Osama Bin Laden’s barren hilltop bunker. The viewer can virtually travel through a bleak set of derelict houses, surrounded by burnt-out cars and debris. Langland’s and Bell took thousands of photographs of the house near Jalalabad, The eerie interactive digital exploration of Osama bin Laden’s house offers an unsettling experience, and engages with the viewer in a totally new way regarding war photography. The houses surprisingly small and basic. Piles of blankets and clothes are strewn in the rooms elsewhere a single string bed is isolated in a dark corner. Outside there is a series of strangely constructed bunkers and a small mosque. Being in control of looking at the work almost feels like observing a crime scene. The buildings and grounds are absent of any human presence thought signs of people who were once there are constant, although the elusive bin Laden is nowhere to be seen, his presence can still be felt in this mesmerizing and ancient environment. It brings us disturbingly close to him, even as it emphasizes his continuing ability to evade capture. The House of Bin Laden becomes a metaphor for the elusive presence Bin Laden maintains by the very fact of his disappearance. By presenting this piece as an interactive game like simulation Langland’s and Bell are actively engaging in the idea of the spectacle by using what is essentially and entertainment based media and allowing the viewer to control their viewer using a joystick, it could be argued that by combing entertainment and unreality with real life situations speaks more to a generation obsessed with mass media. They do not attempt to make the 3d environments look realistic like the photographs they took instead it looks constructed exactly as a computer game would look, angular and flat. I personally experienced this work when I saw the Turner Prize in 2004, and it is clear that their intention was for this piece to be viewed and experienced like a computer game. Violent warfare is sold as entertainment in the form of computer games whose manufactures claim to make them as realistic as possible. Thus reflecting modern societies engagement with entertainment as opposed to real life issues. There seems to be a move in contemporary war photography to a more contemplative and abstract approach, maybe this is as Debord describes because we are use to the violence and horrors the ‘spectacle’ of war presented in the media, and have become almost immune and unmoved by these images. we can never experience the true horrors of war unless from first hand experience but photographers seem now to be taking the stance of the modernist painters of the first world war who painted what they felt rather than what they saw. Contemporary photographers are interpreting these events rather than documenting them, in a way that enables the viewer a more contemplative approach to the contemporary war photograph. Society of the Spectacle and War Photography
Health & Wellness Manual.

I’m working on a wellness writing question and need guidance to help me learn.

As a culmination project which demonstrates comprehensive understanding and integration of the IHW curriculum, students will develop a health and wellness manual. The goal is to have an electronic resource of evidence-based strategies and materials to use in your future practice. Students are encouraged to design a well-organized manual, and use a unique/imaginative approach to design for a visually attractive product. The manual should include the following:Table of contentsCoaching philosophy statement/paragraphThorough description (which may include pictures or other visuals) of 20 evidence-based strategies, theories, or concepts the student plans to use in their future health practice. Citations are required.Utilize American Medical Association (AMA) writing style.**I HAVE ATTACHED AN EXAMPLE
Health & Wellness Manual

Gender in the 2020 Elections and Comments on another student paper Prompt.

Please Follow all Instructions PAPER must be written professionally Due Dates Your paper uploaded to Canvas by Thursday October 22, 5 pmComment on Student Paper posted on Canvas by Sunday, October 25, midnightLength2.5-3 pages (do not including your personal information; the writing should itself should be 2.5 pages minimum. No fillers)Formatdouble-spaced, times new roman font, 1-inch margins all around. Please use word for your papers. I have a hard time opening and commenting on other formatsPercentage of GradeThis assignment is 100 points or 30% of your grade. Part I. Paper Prompt (80 points)For this short paper, think about issues we have examined in first few weeks of class (readings and films) to think about issues of women, gender and political participation and leadership in relation to the 2020 elections (both at the primary level (past) and the general election (in November)).You will identity two campaigns to follow and conduct an intersectional analysis of race, gender, sexuality, citizenship and class of the elections. You MUST do some light research and find an issue of interest to you. You can use newspaper articles, peer-reviewed academic journal articles, radio shows dedicated to the topic, TV shows, or only credible on-line publications as you do research. (please avoid random individual blog posts, wiki pages and other such writings). You MUST include either the link or the citation of the source at the end of your paper. So, for example, you may choose to look at one of the following issues:How does the topic of gender, feminism or women’s rights figure in election debates of your choice?What issues seem to matter to female candidates of color and white female candidates? Differences? Similarities? (you don’t have to contrast and compare them—it’s just an idea)What are some of the barriers and life experiences do female candidates have to overcome and how do they contrast with their opponent (if not a female candidate)how do various media sources portray female candidates compared to their male counterparts? What gendered discourse do they use?What are the key differences between feminist and conservative women in various races? What issues matter to conservative and progressive women? How does each group approach their being female candidates? Where do they converge and diverge? Does race/class/region/career/religion shape conservativism and progressivism? (again, you don’t have to do them all…these are just to get you going)What is the role of women behind the scenes of campaigns, as managers, organizers, supporters?How do women’s rights and LGBTQI issues figure in this election cycles?How do trans rights figure in this election cycle?How has Black Lives Matter shaped the way the candidates address race, gender and policing?How is reproductive rights playing out this election? Where do conservative candidates and progressive candidates fall on this issue? If they are both pro choice, is there a difference in where they draw the line? If the women are from the red states, how do they navigate the rise of anti-abortion laws in red states.Why do voters perceive female candidates?How do different candidates across racial, class and gender lines treat the Covid-19 crisis?Something else of your choice (needs approval).You can approach your topic numerous ways. For example, you can look at:Media and representation: You can conduct an intersectional comparison of one media source and its treatment of two candidates (could be male-female/conservative-feminist/cisgender-noncisgender/single-married/white-nonwhite/two different candidates of color/straight-queer etc.). You can compare two or more media sources in how they treat one female candidate (depending on the media’s political orientation, what matters or is ignored about candidates may vary).Policy: You can look closely at two candidates’ specific policies that matter to women/feminism comparing and contrasting their differences (obvious one is abortion but you can also look at policing, health care, housing, child care, family leave, the environment, job creation, militarism, immigration etc.).Voters: You can look at what matters to female voters and see how they perceive the candidates on policy, character, etc.What kind of things can you evaluate to answer your questions? Again, many things:Campaign speechesCampaign websitesInterview your friends and relativesLook at national pollsEvaluate news sources such as talk shows or news coverage or newspaper headlines or feature stories for their words, images, etc. in how they cover candidatesFollow political blogsFollow supporters’ content on Youtube or other social media“Attend” political eventsIn your paper, be sure to:have a hook for your introduction so you draw in the reader and clearly state your topic and the question you set out to answer early in the paper. In order to do be clear about your topic, you will need to spend time thinking about the most important details readers need to know, which is harder than it seems, so take your time and revise and talk to me).explain and define key terms, provide relevant background information and context about the candidates, campaigns, policies, media sources etc. that you refer to. Imagine that explaining your project to an alien visiting earth and has no idea what concepts like elections, politics, feminism, conservatism mean let alone what candidates you are talking about so be sure to cover the basics and don’t assume your reader is on the same page.have some kind of argument/thesis/claim about your topic based on your analysis, even if it is light researchdraw on at least one legitimate outside source (articles, books, in-depth magazine features) that discusses your topic and guides your analysisconnect your topic to the themes and issues in at least at least 2 relevant course materials (This could be 2 readings or 1 reading and one film) we covered in class such as feminism, oppression, power, resistance, intersectionality, reforming institutions form within or without, agency, etc. Make sure you discuss how/why this issue has some significance for women’s/gender issues in the contemporary U.S. Don’t just randomly stick in a quote that does help you build a strong analysis.Edit your papers. Editing Checklist:Use author full name the first time you mention them and then use last name (no first name in papers)Cite your sources properly, including author last, page number where you got quotes or ideas, and works cited pagelimit your direct quotes to 2-3 lines max.Organize your paragraphs clearly making sure to:use clear topic sentences that summarize the key point in the paragraphinclude supporting sentences that lend support to your topic sentencestick to one key point per paragraphlimit paragraph length to 6-7 sentences maxhave good transitioning sentences between paragraphspay special attention to run on sentences, sentence fragments, ambiguous pronoun use, passive voice sentence constructions, and spelling errorsPart II. Commenting on another student’s paper (20 points)You will be randomly assigned one student /paper to review and respond to (1/2 paragraph or so). You may comment on how your own paper to the topic that this student is writing about; what is similar to or different from the issues your paper examines. You could also relate your peer’s paper to the readings. Or, if you know nothing about the topic, pick one think that interested you and respond substantially about why it caught your attention and what larger issue it makes you think about. You don’t have to love the paper—you just need to be thoughtful about its content. You will receive student papers automatically on October 22. Please respond to your peer by midnight on Sunday October 25.Rubric
Gender in the 2020 Elections and Comments on another student paper Prompt

LU MGT And Its Impact on Organizational Efficiency Problem Statement Outline

LU MGT And Its Impact on Organizational Efficiency Problem Statement Outline.

My Research Topic is: Management and its impact on organizational efficiency.Task 1: Problem Statement OutlineUsing the White Paper titled Simple but Effective Problem Statements and Research Questions asa guide, develop a bullet point outline for the problem statement. Each bullet should be a singlesentence. Following the specific problem sentence include a short sentence describing how thisproblem is related to your cognate. Finally, add APA formatted references for the supportingreference sentences. Following the outline, you will provide an annotated bibliography for eachreference provided. You will post your submission in the assignment text window, and as a worddocument.You will post your submission in the assignment text window and as a word document. Title yourword document as follows: LastName_Task 1 Bullet Point Outline_DDMMMYY.docxYour submission will include the following:Title Block Last Name, First Name Cognate Research Track (Project or Dissertation) Research Paradigm Planned Research Design (Case Study, Correlational, etc.) Proposed TopicProblem Statement Bullet Outline General Problem Sentenceo Supporting Reference Sentence with Current Citation (< 5 years)o Supporting Reference Sentence with Current Citation (< 5 years)o Supporting Reference Sentence with Current Citation (< 5 years)o Supporting Reference Sentence with Current Citation (< 5 years, optional bridgesupporting references sentence, see problem statement white paper) Specific Problem Sentence Relationship to Cognate ReferencesAnnotated Bibliography for each ReferenceAPA formatted reference (250 words for each reference) Description of why this is a credible source (author(s), publication, date) Summary of the article Discussion of how this reference supports the existence of the general problem and theconsequences of the problem identified in the general problem sentence.
LU MGT And Its Impact on Organizational Efficiency Problem Statement Outline

Analytical And Empirical Methods For Usability Evaluation Computer Science Essay

best assignment help Usability Evaluation is evaluation on the quality of the usability of the interface design. Two common methods used for this evaluation process are Heuristic Evaluation (analytical method) and User Testing (empirical method). Both of these methods have their own strengths and limitations, depending on the objectives and the context of the usability evaluation. TASK 1: Methods Description The Heuristics Evaluation Heuristic evaluation is a usability inspection technique first developed by Jakob Nielsen and his colleagues (Sharp, 2007). According to Jakob Nielsen (1994), Heuristic evaluation is a usability engineering method for finding the usability problems in a user interface design so that they can be attended to as part of an iterative design process. It is usually conducted by a small group of evaluators presented with an interface design and are required to evaluate whether each of its elements follows a set of established usability principles or `heuristics’. The inspection of the interface is performed by each individual evaluator. Independently, the evaluators work through the interface several times, at least twice. The first round is to get the feel of the flow of the interaction, whilst the second or more, to inspect on specific various dialogue elements of the interface. All problems encountered are recorded and listed under the respective heuristics. `Only after all evaluations have been completed are the evaluators allowed to communicate and have their findings aggregated. This procedure is important in order to ensure independent and unbiased evaluations from each evaluator’ (Jakob Nielsen, 1990). The rational for grouping back the evaluators is to discover as many problems as possible, because one single evaluator would not be able to find all the problems. Different evaluator will discover different problems. The Heuristic Evaluation (developed by Jakob Nielsen and Mack (1994) consists of ten (10) general principles or “a rule of thumb.” They are Visibility of system status; Match between system and the real world; User control and freedom; Consistency and standards; Error prevention; Recognition rather than recall; Flexibility and efficiency of use; Aesthetic and minimalist design; Help users recognize, diagnose, and recover from errors; and Help and documentation. However, the evaluator may add new heuristic element or category-specific heuristics to supplement the general heuristics. Strengths of Heuristic Evaluation: Ease in Organizing Evaluation: It is easy to do it. Being independent the evaluators can inspect anytime as long as there is product to be inspected. The whole inspection process will be handled by the evaluators without any intervention from anybody, until the final part of the evaluation session whereby they come together to discuss everything that has been discovered. Before the final part, the evaluators will repeat the inspection several times, at least twice. Less Cost: Compared to user testing evaluation which needs proper laboratory, heuristics evaluation involves lesser cost and time. The number of evaluators are very much less, from 3 to 5 persons, compared to user testing method which requires many more users participating to be effective. Heuristic inspection can also be conducted anywhere, even at the office or industry premises. Effective Detection of Problems: By virtue of their experiences and knowledge, it is quite easy for the evaluators to identify major and minor problems of the interface. The evaluators discussion session will help identification of problems that are missed out or overlooked by other evaluators. Weaknesses Single Evaluator and Problem detection: Heuristic Evaluation can be done by a single individual evaluator. However, it is hard for one person to discover all the usability problems in an interface. According to Nielsen, averaging from over 6 projects , a single evaluator only found 35% of the usability problems of the interface. Not Providing Systematic Problem Fixes: `Heuristic evaluation does not provide a systematic way to generate fixes to the usability problems or a way to assess the probable quality of any design.'(J.Nielsen) The Paradox of the Less Cost: Employing a single evaluator can reduce cost. But the risk is the coverage of the problems. Thus, it is necessary to engage `multiple evaluators’ which means a higher cost. The Risk of Professional Differences: If the evaluators are not part of the development team, they may not be aware of technical limitations on the design or why certain design decisions were made. This may lead to differences between the development team and the evaluators, which may impede communication problems and correction of the usability problems identified during the usability evaluation. Capturing of one-time low priority problem: As Heuristic evaluations are loosely structured, there is a likely- hood for the evaluators to capture one-time low-priority problems which may not be important to correct. It will be a waste of time and cost if evaluators are pre-occupied with addressing this kind of problems, not only to the evaluators themselves, but also to the product developer. EMPIRICAL METHOD: User Testing User testing is a user-centred usability evaluation method that employs evaluators to observe and record the performance of user during the test session. According to Helen Sharp who quoted from Dumas and Redish(1999), `the goal is to test whether the product being developed is usable by the intended user population to achieve the tasks for which it was designed.’ Thus, it is a method of finding problem areas by engaging the persons who are similar to the target users to perform certain tasks. Administered in the user testing laboratory and in a controlled environment within the scheduled time, the users are required to perform either certain tasks, such as navigating through the menus, information searching, reading the different typefaces, or other specific tasks. During the user testing sessions, the evaluator `interpretes the user’s actions in order to infer how these actions are related to the usability issues in the design of the interface'(J. Nielsen, 1994). The evaluators record everything about what, how and when the users do. The participants’ attitude, action, behaviors, facial expression, remarks or other kind of gestures are all recorded. . Strengths of User Testing The Strength of Empirical Method: Identifying product problems by observing empirically the users interaction with the interface will give better understanding of the problems and needs of the users. It will be further enhanced when followed by the brainstorming session. The Productive Aspect of Brainstorming: The brainstorming or `think aloud’ sessions between the evaluators and the users encourages users to talk and share their experiences. This obviously helps discovery of many more problems for the correction or improvement of the product. Users Need Come First: Sometimes, evaluators or software development specialists have their own biased views of what users want or need. User tests will neutralize the situation by telling what is really needed or expected from the users perspectives. Giving priority to problems raised by the users will also cool down professional differences between the evaluators and the system developer. Weaknesses Problem in Determining The Right Number of User Testers: The problem is to decide on how many users are ideal for the test. There are different of opinions pertaining to the right numbers of users to be engaged in the lab. A research studies conducted by Virzi(1990) show that 80% of problems uncovered based on a group of 5, and 90%, from a group of 10 users. Such be the case, more user numbers implies more costs. However, practically, it is not easy to decide on the most cost-effective numbers or optimum number of users to participate in the usability testing, because results may differ if tested in different context , environment and time. Non-coverage of Functionalities: Sometimes, the test could not cover all the functionalities of the product in such constraint time and environment. Inability to Capture Minor Usability Problems: Though this method of evaluation is good in discovering major HCI problems, it is quite difficult to observe minor usability problems, such as typographic inconsistency. There is a possibility that even the same gesture observed from the users can be interpreted differently by each individual evaluator. Conclusion Judging from the strengths and weaknesses of both Heuristic Evaluation and User Testing, it is rather difficult to conclude which either method is better. It is an `evaluator-centred’ versus `user-centred’ approaches . Ideally, it is good to have both methods as both have their own advantages and can complement each other. REFERENCE Edited by Jakob Nielsen and Robert L. Mack, Usability Inspection Methods: How To Conduct Heuristic Evaluation(J.Nielsen,. 1994), John Wiley

The essay instruction are attached with the required resource material. Read that, see what this modern-day person, having all

The essay instruction are attached with the required resource material. Read that, see what this modern-day person, having all. The essay instruction are attached with the required resource material. Read that, see what this modern-day person, having all the available info thinks about JC, and then see what each ancient author thinks. They only had limited information to go on (in the case of Plutarch for example, he had just one person’s viewpoint), yet they were closer to the event. Do they have the same idea about him as Pavlac? Even if you think all 4 authors are giving us the same picture of Julius Caesar, be sure to discuss all 4 texts in the essay. Textbook source: Pavlac, B. A. (2015). A Concise Survey of Western Civilization : Supremacies and Diversities Throughout History: Vol. Second edition. RowmanThe essay instruction are attached with the required resource material. Read that, see what this modern-day person, having all

Evaluation of human resources management

Human resource management (HRM) is the strategic and coherent approach to the management of an organization’s most valued assets – the people working there who individually and collectively contribute to the achievement of the objectives of the business. The division of a company that is concentrated on activities relating to the employees. These activities by including normally conscription and fact to rent/hire new employees, orientation and fact to draw away actual employees, advantages of employee and retention A human resources department of means is a critical element of ease of employee in any business; it doesn’t really matter how small it is?. The responsibilities of HR include the register of the personnel, advantages, fact to hire and fact to improve with public and federal fiscal laws. P1.1 Identify three key HRM activities of an identified organization Planning and analysis: The planning of HR is a process to analyse and to identify the need for and the availability of human resources so that the organization can meet its objectives, therefore the managers try to expect force which will influence future reservations of and ask for the employees. Staffing: Obtaining of people with appropriate skills, abilities, knowledge and experience to fill jobs in the work organization. Pertinent practices are human resources planning, job analysis, recruitment and selection. The first step in the staffing is recruitment. Especially, before the first candidate of job is searched, the specialist HR must board on SHRP strategic human resources planning. This only region probably encouraged the most part of change in the human development of means during last fifteen years They cannot hire individuals any more anyhow. It is necessary to have well – reason defined to need individuals who have specific addresses, knowledge and capacities which are directly compared with specific jobs demanded in the organization. Critical question becomes then, how do they know that jobs are critical? The answer to this question is in the process of SHRP. More makes the Manager HR exist in complete darkness, or besides, in a reactive mode. Not before mission and strategy of the organization are being absolutely developed can of human managers of means to begin determining the human needs of means. Especially, when a company plans strategically, it determines its purposes and objectives for specific period. These purposes and objectives often follow in the structural changes being made in organizations; that is to say these changes encourage changes in requirements of job, by signalling reports, how the individuals are put together, and others of this type À this title, these new or reviewed structures bring with them a crowd of essential job. It is these jobs that they must stipulate that HRM fills. Some other requirements for staffing are Job description (highlighting the tasks and requirements of a job), Job analysis and its specification (about skills, capabilities and calibre about the job) (http://www.suite101.com/article.cfm/strategic_resource_management/70277) Employee development and Training: Providing them all kind of training to insure they can work better in their job. The aim of this activity is only to make the better performance of their individuals. These can be for future planning, upcoming targets, new tasks or anything which increases the profit of the company and their individuals don’t know. P 1.2 Justify how the objectives of these were achieved by effective management of human resource. The main purpose of these activities of the organizations is to run their business properly and to get more and more profit/ benefit. And that is why the national trust hires the employees every year and give them proper training so that all individuals can perform well and good for their business. They plan every year and forecast their targets and for their completion they do these activities, and they are getting edge every year. National trusts business runs by their potential employees and their HR department’s main activity is to select the right and competent staff and give them required training I would like to discuss the method used by the organizations for their objectives. The first objectives of services of Personnel are effective and effective personnel the system of register of the sensitive personnel to equip needs together with the system of flexible remuneration. These objectives can be attained by the implementation of different units, as the unit of budgets and beginnings, the candidate that stalks unit, the health and safety unit None the objective of less than important HR is the services of industrial relations that imply to establish effective relations between the employer and the personnel. Complete framework of political and complete one should be established for the risk direction, the problems of security and health. Equipper should well be informed problems of security and health in the work place. Human resource maintains the provision is connected closely with the political strategic one, planning and the coordination of an organization. A big variety of human strategies of aimed resource to the more flexible planning can include improved links between the execution and remuneration, the procedures of measure of improved executions for the whole personnel, improved the strategies of recruitment and retention, and the encouragement of development of competences. A more objective has for result the support of furnished counsel while basing itself on improved the news of the employer and the needs of personnel of HR and works the conditions. The objectives of HR stimulate the people development to be their better one to meet the needs of an organization. A successful system of direction of execution including the department, the team and the objectives of individual matters, the personal projects of development, the execution estimation, the career planning, etc., the objectives to improve the engagement of the personnel to develop the matters in the long term and can give challenges that will improve the personnel the personal growth. Of more, if an organization can evaluate the necessary changes of manpower by the matters, execute the necessary optimization and measure the results that use systems of technology to day, it will obtain from the data that have a role criticizes in interception and check the general execution. (http://ezinearticles.com/?HR-Activities-and-Objectives