A Summary of my Understanding of Critical Reflection with Social Work Practice INTRODUCTION Reflective social work practice is a key learning and development process in social work courses which enable social work trainees to apply theories and models in critical and challenging situations in practice to enhance professional developments (Scragg and Knott, 2007). Great emphasis is placed on developing skills of critical reflection about, in and on practice and this has developed over many years in social work. Reflecting about, in and on your practice is not only important during practice learning and education to become a social worker, but it is considered a key to continued professional development. Social work is a profession that acknowledges life-long learning as a way of keeping up to date, ensuring that research informs practice and striving continually to improve skills and values for practice (Parker, 2004). Contemporary social work educators and practitioners are increasingly emphasizing the value of reflective practice as a rich source of social work theories and skill development that conceptualize formal learning theory (D’Cruz et al, 2007). This essay will explore my understanding of reflective social work practice and the application of key theories and models of reflection to promote best social work practice. Schon(1993) considers critical reflective practice to involve thoughtfully considering one’s own experiences in applying knowledge to practice while being coached by professionals in the discipline (Ferraro, 2000). In order to put this into perspective, I will begin this essay by looking at the development and nature of critical reflective practice followed by my understanding of critical reflection and its application within social work. Also I will look at the merits and demerits of critical reflective practice in social work. The next section will involve a critical account of my development of reflective practice in my practice learning opportunity (PLO). Zhao (2003) defines reflective practice as’an ability to reflect on experiences, to employ conceptual frameworks, and to relate these to similar and dissimilar contexts so as to inform and improve future practice‘. Kondrat (1992) explained that reflection on practice in social work has been associated with attempts by practitioners to distance themselves from their experiences and thereby achieve a more objective view of their practice (cited in D’Cruz et al 2007). However according to Fook (2002) critical reflection places more emphasis and importance on understanding how a reflective stance uncovers power relations, and how structures of domination are created and maintained (www.courses.hull.ac.uk/modules/MA PLO inductionsession.html) [accessed on 22/09/2009]. Also critical reflection, as an approach to practice and the generation of knowledge, values the practice wisdom of practitioners and seeks to generate theory from practice experience inductively (D’Cruz et al 2007). As a practice skill, critical reflection has been developed as a process that is taught to practitioners and students to enable them to enhance and research their practice (Fook, 1999, 2002). DEVELOPMENT OF REFLECTIVE PRACTICE A review of development of reflective practice in contemporary times indicates a substantial knowledge base. The thinking about critical reflection and reflective practice has evolved over many years, through carefully constructed theories, research and application. Dewey (1938) suggested that people only begin to reflect when they identify an issue as a problem to be overcome and recognize that this can create an air of uncertainty about the outcome (Parker, 2004). Schon (1987) is widely credited with the extensive development of reflective practice and thereby increasing the popularity of reflective practice in social work practice. His work was built on the ideas proposed by John Dewey, where he describes the process of change and understanding in professional learning and development from a ‘technical- rational’ approach to an approach based on reflection-in-action’ (www.learningmatters.co.uk/sampleChapters/) [accessed 20/09/2009]. He asks social work practitioners to engage in a ‘reflective conversation’ where they could blend theoretical knowledge with their own personal experience to gain a greater understanding of a specific situation. Schön is of the notion that real life practice situations could be messy, involve uncertainty, and may challenge our preconceptions and beliefs. It is clear that Schön’s idea of a reflective practitioner requires honesty and openness to engage in a critical ‘reflective conversation’ to improve social work practice. However, he admits that this level of openness may occasionally be problematic if students are required to share their reflections with supervisors or fellow students due to power imbalances within the practice (www.learningmatters.co.uk/sampleChapters) [accessed 20/09/2009]. Schön (1984) and Kolb (1983) separate works have given critical reflective practice the credibility in contemporary social work practice, where they have employed basic principle of reflecting on experience to improve action and professional practice (Saltiel 2006). In recent years the concepts of reflection-in-action and reflection-on-action have become widely influential, in professional education and training where a wide range of teaching methods have been developed to encouraged students to reflect on their practice and integrate theory with action ( Saltiel, 2006). Schon (1983) realising the risk reflection-in-action could create in the future as it become habitual and routinised, advocated for a much more formalised methods of reflection known as reflection-on-action. This is a reflection after an event has occurred by revisiting previous judgements in a more analytical way designed to make tacit knowledge explicit (Taylor, 2006). WHY CRITICAL REFLECTION FOR LEARNING IN SOIAL WORK PRACTICE? Reflective practice is split into two interrelated components, practice and reflection, which are clearly not just as simple as doing and thinking. Practice, is an event which is usually, but not always, observable, which Michael Eraut (1994) calls ‘practice performance’. It includes cognitive and affective aspects as well as the behavioural. On the hand reflection, implies a number of processes which are largely linked to the practice event (www.leeds.ac.uk/educol/documents/000000468.htm) [accessed 19/09/2009]. Calderhead (1989) defined reflection broadly; ‘as an acquisition of attitudes and skills in thinking. It is a process of becoming aware of the influence of societal and ideological assumptions, especially ethical and moral beliefs, behind professional practice’. The two components are clearly not discrete since good practice will, for example, consist of the practitioner eliciting the client’s or service user’s reflections on the practice. The various processes of reflection as outlined particularly by Schon (1987) can be summarised as the analysis, synthesis, evaluation and feeling. However, critical reflection transforms practice by challenging existing social, political and cultural conditions (Clift et al., 1990). It involves ethical and moral criticism and judgements (www.leeds.ac.uk/educol/documents/000000468.htm) [accessed 19/09/2009]. My practice learning experience at Age concern has challenge my knowledge and values in working with my supervisors, colleagues and service users and more importantly my experience acquired from FASU in my PLO1. At Age Concern the environment was quite friendly but intimidating and the workload was demanding as much was expected of me. However, by deploying reflective techniques such as self and peer assessment, reflective conversation, engaging in collaborative discussions with my team members’ and critically reflecting on my practice and professional development I got grip with the practice. I always engage in a ‘reflective conversation’ with my supervisors and peers where I blend my theoretical knowledge acquired from formal learning with my own personal experience to gain a greater understanding of situations. Schön (1987) is of the view that real life practice situations can be messy, involve uncertainty, and may challenge our preconceptions and beliefs. It is clear from Schön’s idea that a reflective practitioner requires honesty and openness to engage in a critical ‘reflective conversation’. However, this level of openness may occasionally be problematic if students are required to share their reflections with supervisors or fellow students (www.learningmatters.co.uk/sampleChapters/) [accessed 20/09/2009]. Working with service users who are fifty years and above and experiencing social inequalities and deprivation in different circumstances was very challenging. My openness and honest attitude towards my service users helped me to record events in the right perspectives. Thereafter by critically reflecting on the actions taken during practice transforms my understanding of the theories and models and how to improve my social work practice. According to Fook (2002) critical reflection places emphasis and importance on an understanding of how a reflective stance uncovers power relations, and how structures of domination are created and maintained (www.courses.hull.ac.uk/modules/MA PLO induction session.html) [accessed on 22/09/2009]. My understanding of critical reflection coupled with a supportive learning environment at Age Concern, made me to appreciate better how theoretical knowledge and skills are vital to best social work practice. It seems to me that critical reflective practice offers a highly challenging paradigm of learning. It is more of inductive learning than a deductive learning as the case may be in formal learning contexts such as Higher Education Institutions. MERITS AND DEMERITS OF CRITICAL REFLECTICE PRACTICE Under appropriate environmental conditions, critical reflective practice can help individual social workers and students to enhance their personal and professional development in practice. Appropriate conditions include: a supportive environment, social workers’ readiness to undergo self-reflection, individual space for individual workers to undergo critical reflective practice, workers’ own reflective practice and awareness of one’s limits and breaking point (Yip, 2006). A supportive environment does not only imply a supportive organizational context, including colleagues and supervisors but how it encourages empathic rapport that is crucial for constructive self-reflection in reflective practice (Calderhead, 1989). It is obvious that mutual support and open sharing among colleagues is the best breeding ground for constructive critical self-reflection. Notwithstanding the supportive environment, the individual social worker’s open-mindedness is critical for spontaneous and critical self-reflection in reflective practice (Atkins and Murphy, 1993). Moreover, according to Fisher (1997) critical reflective practice is learning tool for social work students that provide solutions to a wide range of practice theories and models available and enables practitioner-learners to theorise their practice drawing on knowledge embedded in practice. The technique of critically reflecting on previous practice aim to promote the development of practitioners’ abilities to generate understanding of their practice, their theories of action and the values they hold. Another attraction of reflective practice is the hope that it seems to hold out for personal professional development and transfer of learning from one setting to another (Yip, 2006). Martyn (2001) argues that reflection can help people to make sense of the circumstances presented to social workers in complex situations, relating them to agency requirements (Payne, 2001). Critical reflective practice can be a rewarding experience resulting in self-enhancement in both personal and professional development. Contrarily, unsupportive setting can mostly be destructive to many social work students’ self and professional development. Such unsupportive conditions include an oppressive social environment, highly demanding working environment, social workers’ unresolved past experiences from previous learning placements as well as supervisors- students relationships. An oppressive environment implies a setting where there is an imbalance of power that is oppressive to the individual worker and discouraging professional development (Miehls and Moffatt, 2000). Sometimes it may be a highly critical supervisor, apathetic colleagues, a working team full of oppressive politics and dynamics, or insecurity and uncertainty in the social worker’s employment. In an oppressive environment, social workers may be obliged to disclose their weaknesses and shortcomings or their unpleasant practice experiences to supervisors within the agency; such disclosure may then be used against the worker as an excuse to abuse, to exploit, to undermine and even to dismiss them (Yip, 2006). Secondly, critical self-reflection in reflective practice demands that social workers subject their inner space and autonomy to self-analysis and self-evaluation (Boyd and Fales, 1983). Self-observation and self-dialogue also demand reflective distance that originates from the social worker’s own initiative and readiness (Voegelin, 2000 cited in Yip, 2006). However, a demanding workload in terms of a many caseloads, diversity of work, challenging clients may cause exhaustion and stress. This makes critical self-reflection in such settings a real nightmare and may be more of an additional burden rather than to assist the social worker or student. CONCLUSION In conclusion, this essay is an attempt to summarise my understanding of critical reflective social work practice and how it impact on my professional development as a social worker. My practice learning at Age Concern shows that related parties, such as supervisors, agency administrators, social work colleagues or social workers need to create appropriate conditions and relationships for social workers’ in training to develop their skills and knowledge on critical reflective practice. When social work students’ critically reflect on challenging issues in their placement, they develop the requisite skills and knowledge which could impact positively on the lives of service users. In reflective practice, social work students are to be encouraged to undergo self-reflection to develop models and theories that would enhance their social work practice. On the other hand, related parties should also be careful to avoid inappropriate conditions that may create possible limitations to the professional and self-development of social workers. Moreover, other researches emphasize on how different conditions affect the self-reflection process of social work students in reflective social work practice. In summary under appropriate conditions, social workers’ critical self-reflection can be very constructive, resulting in self-enhancement, leading to improvement in social work practice and enables students to plan and focus on what they need to do to improve social imbalance in society. REFERENCES Atkins S. and Murphy, K. (1993) ‘Reflection: a review of literature’ Journal of Advanced Nursing, 18, pp. 1188-1192. Boyd E. M. and Fales, A. W. (1983) ‘Reflective learning: key to learning from experience’, Journal of Humanistic Psychology, 23(2), pp. 99-117. Calderhead, J. (1989) ‘Reflective teaching and teacher education’ Teaching and Teacher Education, 5(1), pp. 43-51. Clift, R., Houston, J. and Pugh, M. (1990) Encouraging Reflective Practice in Education, London, Teachers College Press. Dewey, J (1933) How We Think. Boston: D.C. Heath
Cloning in Plants And Animals. What is cloning? Cloning is a process carried out in a laboratory by which a genetically identical organism can be made through non-sexual means. How it started? In February 1997, when embryologist Ian Wilmut and his colleagues at Roslin Institute in Scotland were able to clone a lamb, named Dolly. Who are cloned? Both plants and animals can be cloned. Plant Cloning is an ancient form of producing desired outcomes in plant species. Animal Cloning is the process by which an entire organism is reproduced from a single cell taken from the parent organism and in a genetically identical manner. This simply means the cloned animal is an exact duplicate in every way of its parent; it has the same and exact DNA. What does it involve? For different purposes there exist different extents of cloning such a molecular cloning; the process of making multiple molecules, cellular cloning, which can be further divided into unicellular cloning; in which you derive a population of cells from a single cell, and Cloning in stem cell research; used to create embryos for research or therapeutic purposes, and the most complex type of cloning is organism cloning; it refers to the procedure of creating a new multicellular organism, genetically identical to another. Is cloning advantageous or disadvantageous? Cloning has both advantages and disadvantages to human beings. Advantages may include the creation of human beings that can be used to study human development and to potentially treat diseases. Disadvantages may include the lack of diversity of organisms and the hindrance of evolution. Why clone, and why not to clone? The ethics of cloning has become a great issue. Scientifically speaking, cloning can be the solution to problems associated with organ transplants that can benefit human health, and can also help in great yield production of healthy crops. But, ethically speaking the bible states that a new individual should be born from a husband (which provides the sperm) and a wife (which provides the egg), therefore by cloning one will blunder the world of God for it involves asexual reproduction of organisms. Cloning has indeed been the subject of scientific experiments for years but it was first known to be successful in 1997 when, after about 277 eggs used, the first cloned mammal ‘Dolly’ was born. In the United States, the human consumption of meat and other products from cloned animals was approved by the FDA on December 28, 2006, with no special labeling required. CONCEPT AND SIGNIFICANCE Cloning can have slightly different meanings depending of the specific field one is studying. In general Biology cloning refers to the process of production of similar populations of genetically identical individuals that occur in nature when organisms such as bacteria, insects or plants reproduce asexually. In Biotechnology cloning refers to the process used to create copies of DNA fragments, cells, or organisms. Cloning has two main branches. They are Plant Cloning and Animal Cloning. Plant Cloning is an ancient form of producing desired outcomes in plant species. For farmers plant cloning is used to duplicate the success of good plants, and rich crops with very high yields. Plant cloning is easier than using seeds to generate new plants because the duplication of desired genes is rapid and the grower knows the type and quality of plant he would be growing since the new plant can be created from just a twig. Animal Cloning is the process by which an entire organism is reproduced from a single cell taken from the parent organism. This new organism is genetically identical; the exact duplicate in every way including DNA, to the parent organism. Animal cloning can be done both for reproductive and non-reproductive or therapeutic purposes. In the second case, cloning is done to produce stem cells or other such cells that can be used for therapeutic purposes, for example, for healing or recreating damaged organs. Cloning can happen both naturally and in the lab. Natural forms of cloning can include asexual reproduction in certain organisms such as bacteria and also in the development of twins from a single fertilized egg. Cloning can be done in the labs; an example would be the process of nuclear transfer of embryonic cells which leads to the production of cloned mammals. Cloning is divided into three major compartments, they are; molecular cloning, cellular cloning, and organism cloning. Molecular Cloning is the process of making multiple molecules. It is used to amplify DNA fragments containing whole genes, but can be used to amplify any DNA sequence such as promoters, non-coding sequence and randomly fragmented DNA. It is used for biological experiments and practical applications ranging from genetic fingerprinting to large scale protein production. Cellular Cloning has two subgroups; unicellular cloning and cloning in stem cell research. Unicellular cloning occurs in organisms such as bacteria and yeast; these processes are simple and only require inoculation of the appropriate medium for them to derive a population of cells from a single cell. For stem cell research, Somatic-cell nuclear transfer is used to create embryos for the research and therapeutic purposes. This is called research cloning and its goal is to harvest stem cells that can be used to study human development and to potentially treat diseases such as Diabetes and Alzheimer’s. Organism Cloning refers to the procedure of asexually creating a new multicellular organism, genetically identical to another. Successful animal cloning, in particular cloning from an adult animal, one knows exactly how the clone is going to turn out. This becomes especially useful when the whole intention behind cloning is to save a certain endangered species from becoming totally extinct. ACTUAL PROCESS Animals: Molecular Cloning which is the cloning of any DNA fragment can be divided into the following different steps: Fragmentation – breaking apart a strand of DNA Ligation – gluing together pieces of DNA in a desired sequence Transfection – inserting the newly formed pieces of DNA into cells Screening/Selection – selecting out the cells that were successfully transfected with the new DNA. Unicellular Cloning of organisms is performed using a culture technique which involves the use of cloning rings. In this technique: A single-cell suspension of cells that have been exposed to a mutagenic agent or drug used to drive selection is plated at a high dilution to create isolated colonies; each arising from a single and potentially cloned distinct cell. At an early growth stage when colonies consist of only a few of cells, sterile polystyrene rings (cloning rings), which have been dipped in grease are placed over an individual colony and a small amount of trypsin is added. Cloned cells are collected from inside the ring and transferred to a new vessel for further growth. Somatic-Cell Nuclear Transfer is used to create embryos for research and therapeutic purposes. The SCNT process to create embryos for stem cell research is: First, the collection of cells from the organism that will be cloned, the cells can be used immediately or can be stored in the lab for later use. The maternal DNA from an oocyte is removed at metaphase II. The nucleus can then be inserted into an egg cytoplasm. This creates a one-cell embryo. The grouped somatic cell and egg cytoplasm are then introduced to an electrical current. The sexual energy allows the cloned embryo to begin development. The successfully developed embryos are then placed in surrogate recipients. Organism Cloning the procedure of creating a new multicellular organism, genetically identical to another is achieved by: The transfer of a nucleus from a donor adult cell (somatic cell) to an egg that has no nucleus. When the egg begins to divide normally it is transferred into the uterus of the surrogate mother. An example of the first mammal to be successfully cloned from an adult cell is Dolly, a Finn-Dorset ewe. She was cloned at the Roslin Institute in Scotland. Dolly was formed by taking a cell from the udder of her biological mother. Her embryo was created by taking the cell and inserting it into a sheep ovum. The embryo was then placed inside a female sheep that went through normal pregnancy. She lived for 6 years, from 1996-2003. There were early claims that Dolly the Sheep had pathologies resembling accelerated aging, but other researchers, including Ian Wilmut who led the team that successfully cloned Dolly, argue that Dolly’s early death due to respiratory infection was unrelated to deficiencies with the cloning process. In amphibians the ultimate test of whether the nucleus of a differentiated cell has undergone any irreversible functional restriction is to have that nucleus generate every other type of differentiated cell in the body. If each cell’s nucleus is identical to the zygote nucleus, then each cell’s nucleus should be totipotent (capable of directing the entire development of the organism) when transplanted into an activated enucleated egg. Before such an experiment could be done, three techniques for transplanting nuclei into eggs had to be perfected: a method for enucleating host eggs without destroying them; a method for isolating intact donor nuclei; and a method for transferring such nuclei into the host egg without damaging either the nucleus or the oocyte. Plants: The process of cloning a plant is relatively easy compared to that of animals. Simply: Trim a piece of the root from a plant. Supply it with nutrients and plant it in soil. The resulting growth will be identical to the original plant. BENEFITS TO HUMANITY Economically, cultivating existing plants with good yields ensures that farmers will most likely get an identical yield from that new plant, providing similar situations are sustained. Through the process of cloning, the University of Arkansas states that a number of different varieties of foods, such as grapes and oranges without seeds, have been created that consumer prefer over traditional plants. Cloning can save endangered species. On January 8, 2001, scientists at Advanced Cell Technology, Inc., announced the birth of the first clone of an endangered animal, a baby bull gaur (a large wild ox from India and Southeast Asia) named Noah. Noah died of an infection unrelated to the cloning procedure. But this experiment served as prove to show that they can bring back endangered species. ‘Research Cloning’ or ‘Therapeutic Cloning’ can harvest stem cells that can be used to study human development and to potentially treat diseases such as Diabetes and Alzheimer’s. In the case of the Alzheimer’s disease, the nucleus from a skin cell of the patient is placed into an empty egg. The reprogrammed cell begins to develop into an embryo because the egg reacts with the transferred nucleus. The embryo will become genetically identical to the patient. The embryo will then form a blastocyst which has the potential to become any cell in the body. Other Potential Medical Benefits of cloning include: the possibility that we will learn to renew activity of damaged cells by growing new cells and replacing them, the creation of humans with identical genetic makeup to act as organ donors for each other, cloning allows the study of cell differentiation, and cloning also gives sterile couples the ability to have offspring that will have either the mother’s or father’s genetic pattern. DISADVANTAGES OF CLONING In a large percentage of cases, the cloning process fails in the course of pregnancy or some sort of birth defects occur, for example, as in a recent case, a calf born with two faces. Sometimes the defects manifest themselves later and kill the clone. This long lasting process before the success of cloning can lead to the extinction of little remains of DNA from extinct species if it is used with no successive results. Changes in genomes may not only result in changes in appearance, but in psychological and personality changes as well. In plants; cloning limits diversity which makes the plants more susceptible to diseases and pests. Possible potential harms and disadvantages are: the possibility of compromising individualities, the loss of genetic variation, technology is not well developed; it has low fertility rate; in cloning Dolly, 277 eggs were used, 30 started to divide, nine induced pregnancy, and only one survived. ETHICAL ISSUES Although most scientists consider the process of animal cloning as a major breakthrough and see many beneficial possibilities in it, many people are uncomfortable with the idea, they say it is ‘against nature’ and it is ethically damning, particularly in the instance of cloning human beings. One of the main goals of the government is to protect human life. Some people want the government to regulate cloning and not allow it. Producing clones for research or to use their parts is unethical. It would be against the code of ethics of a doctor to harm a clone (i.e., use it for an organ transplant). The clone would be a human being and deserve all the rights and privileges that a non-cloned human has. Â A clone should not be a second-class citizen. It is speculated that clones would be considered as such. The American Medical Association holds four points of reason why cloning should not take place. They are: there are unknown physical harms introduced by cloning, unknown psychosocial harms introduced by cloning, including violations of autonomy and privacy, impacts on familial and societal relations, and potential effects on the human gene pool. Serious ethical concerns arise by the future possibility of only harvesting organs from clones. Some people have considered the idea of growing organs separately from a human organism – in doing this; a new organ supply could be established without the moral implications of harvesting them from humans. Research is also being done on the idea of growing organs that are biologically acceptable to the human body inside of other organisms, such as pigs or cows, then transplanting them to humans, a form of Xeno-transplantation. From a Latter-day Saint point of view, the Proclamation on the Family clearly does not agree with cloning. The Proclamation states: “We . . . declare that God has commanded that the sacred powers of procreation are to be employed only between man and woman, lawfully wedded as husband and wife. We declare the means by which mortal life is created to be divinely appointed. We affirm the sanctity of life and of its importance in God’s plan.” In other words, the power to create humans is only to be used in a marriage between husband and wife. Cloning only involves one parent, therefore it is not following God’s plan in which a man’s sperm and a woman’s egg are needed to create life. CONCLUSION Cloning is the process of creating a copy of a biological entity. In genetics, cloning refers to the process of making an identical copy of the DNA of an organism. Cloning is an established process today, which holds the promise of repopulating endangered and even extinct animals. Cloning can revolutionize the world and the way we live. Animal cloning has been one of the greatest frontiers scientists have conquered. However, there are various ethical and scientific issues related to cloning that have been debated. Foods from healthy cloned animals are deemed safe to eat. In recent years, there has been a shoot of new laws banning or regulating cloning around the world. In some countries, animal cloning is allowed, but not human cloning. Some advocacy groups are seeking to ban therapeutic cloning, even if this could potentially save people from many debilitating illnesses. Cloning in Plants And Animals
Defining Culture in Marketing Essay. Abstract The primary goal of this paper is to draw attention to aspects that are related to culture that should be considered by international companies during the development of marketing strategies. It is imperative to note that the influence of such factors as traditions and beliefs is significant in most cases and should not be overlooked. Introduction It is necessary to say the role of culture in marketing has been actively discussed by economists over the last few years. The importance of such aspects should be taken into account by enterprises, but the resources that are spent on research should be reasonable, and it is necessary to invest in activities that have potential (Fields, 2014). Culture is Not Inherited It is paramount to understand that traditions and the way the world is perceived by an individual are formed over the years, and the impact of surrounding and environment is tremendous. It is imperative to note that it is quite evident that the behavior of customers is influenced by traditions of a particular region. For example, the aspects that are valued by people of different cultures in a product or an advertisement are dramatically different most of the time (LaPlante, 2005). Culture is Static It is imperative to say that the understanding of this aspect is essential for every single international company because it should be noted that the culture cannot be affected by external forces (Gaspar, Arreola-Risa, Bierman, Hise,Defining Culture in Marketing Essay
Acceptance of Populations: Minority Groups (presentation)
Acceptance of Populations: Minority Groups (presentation).
Minorities have experienced an unpredictable history in the United States, with some eventually becoming part of the mainstream while others continuing to exist in the margins of society. Using your knowledge from previous chapters in the textbook that discussed minority groups, compare the various experiences and acceptance of those groups by 1840. Consider the following minority groups as you respond, and include an analysis of at least two groups.Irish, German, ScottishAfrican-Americans; free blacks and slavesAmerican IndiansRequirements:Create a presentation: You may use PowerPoint Your slide presentation must be six to eight slides in length, not including the required References slide. Follow Good Design Principles:Each slide/frame must include text narration and at least one image. (You must have at least six to eight images total. Remember that images need to be cited! Be careful about copyright rules when finding images on the internet. Images must be in the public domain. Wikimedia Commons, Creative Commons, or a Google search on “public domain [name of subject matter]” can be useful.)Follow good design principles. Visit the CSU-Global Visual Presentation Tips at http://csuglobal.libguides.com/CommonWritingAssign/vispresent (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site..Generate Solid, Logical Content:The presentation should lead the viewer through the information in sequential order with transitions of some type making a cohesive presentation.Include a three-page transcript to accompany the presentation. Information must be thoroughly covered in the submitted document, without requiring supplemental documents. That is, all information must be conveyed clearly and completely in the slide presentation, without a formal presentation or speech accompanying the slides.include an introduction and thesis statement, a body, a conclusion, and a references slide.Do not rely on personal or published opinions that denote value. All information presented must be backed with scholarly, peer-reviewed references.Use Credible Sources: You should incorporate a minimum of two credible, academic sources, not including the course textbook. Please use at least one primary source from those primary sources identified in the syllabus. These sources must be referenced on the required References slide/frame.Format your presentation according to CSU-Global Guide to Writing and APA Requirements (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site..attached is an example of a power point presentation from the instructor.
Acceptance of Populations: Minority Groups (presentation)
Colorado College Gary School District in Indiana Pilot Curriculum Paper
assignment helper Colorado College Gary School District in Indiana Pilot Curriculum Paper.
Part 1 Assume that you are the curriculum designer for a school district. The school board has requested that several teams develop proposals for new curricula to meet newly established state standards. You and your team must develop the first proposal to provide as a pilot or model for the other teams. You have to first identify a specific curriculum area not currently used in the school district that would greatly benefit the students in the district. Use the Internet or the Strayer Library as well as your textbook to develop a pilot curriculum for a specific discipline area such as reading, math, science, or for a grade level (K–12) at a local school district. Instructions: Curriculum Inception Write a 4–6 page paper in which you: 1. Describe the school district for which the pilot curriculum will be developed using information for the school district’s publications and/or website. Address the following characteristics: (a) geographical location, (b) demographics of the student population, (c) cultural influences (peer culture, race, ethnicity, regional), (d) regional accrediting body standards for curriculum development, (e) state and local policies and practices related to curriculum development. 2. Describe the specific discipline and grade level(s) for which the pilot curriculum will be developed. 3. Provide a rationale that proposes three benefits to the students of the pilot curriculum. 4. Provide at least four core instructional goals of the curriculum, providing a rationale for the goals. 5. Use at least three relevant, scholarly references published in the last seven years. (Note: Wikipedia and other nongovernment websites do not qualify as scholarly resources. Review the supplementary readings listed on the first page of the course guide for possible references.) Part 2 Assume that you are the curriculum designer for a school district. The school board has requested that several teams develop proposals for new curricula to meet newly established state standards. You and your team must develop the first proposal to provide as a pilot or model for the other teams. You have to first identify a specific curriculum area not currently used in the school district that would greatly benefit the students in the district. Use the Internet or the Strayer Library as well as your textbook to develop a pilot curriculum for a specific discipline area such as reading, math, science or grades K–12 at a local school district. Refer to the scenario for the three assignments. Build on the same pilot curriculum you identified in the Curriculum Inception assignment for this assignment. Instructions: Curriculum Foundations Write a 6–7page paper in which you: 1. Summarize the following aspects of the Curriculum Inception assignment: (a) Describe the specific curriculum area and grade level or levels for the pilot curriculum. (b) Provide four core instructional goals for the curriculum. 2. Describe the approach to curriculum development (that is, behavior, systems, humanistic) you will use to shape curriculum design, providing a rationale for your selected approach that is consistent with the core instructional goals of the planned curriculum. 3. Describe the philosophical/theoretical approach to curriculum development (for example, idealism or realism) you will use to shape the curriculum design, providing a rationale for your selected philosophy that is consistent with the core instructional goals of the planned curriculum. 4. Describe the psychological motivational approach to curriculum development you will use to shape the curriculum design, providing a rationale for your selected approach that is consistent with the core instructional goals of the planned curriculum. 5. Discuss one cultural influence that has the greatest impact on the school district and provide a rationale for the impact it has on the district. 6. Recommend at least one effective way to integrate the cultural influence into the planned curriculum that is consistent with the core instructional goals of the planned curriculum. 7. Develop a strategy for incorporating critical thinking skills (appropriate to grade level) into the planned curriculum using Bloom’s Taxonomy of cognitive objectives. 8. Provide a rationale for your strategy that is consistent with the core instructional goals of the planned curriculum. (Note: A brief description of Bloom’s Taxonomy may be found at The Center for Teaching and Learning.) 9. Use at least six relevant, scholarly references published in the last seven years (that is, three new references in addition to the three identified in the Curriculum Inception assignment). (Note: Wikipedia and other nongovernment websites do not qualify as scholarly resources. Review the supplementary readings list on the first page of the course guide for possible references.) Part 3 Assume that you are the curriculum designer for a school district. The school board has requested that several teams develop proposals for new curricula to meet newly established state standards. You and your team must develop the first proposal as a pilot or model for the other teams. You have to first identify a specific curriculum area not currently used in the school district that would greatly benefit the students in the district. Use the Internet or the Strayer Library, as well as your textbook to develop a pilot curriculum for a specific discipline area such as reading, math, or science or grade level (K–12) at a local school district. Instructions: Curriculum Development and Implementation Write an 8–10 page paper in which you: 1. Summarize the following aspects of the Curriculum Inception and Foundations assignments. (a) Describe the specific curriculum area and grade level(s) for the pilot curriculum. (b) Describe at least four core instructional goals for the curriculum. (c) Review the various approaches to be used for the planned curriculum as well as potential cultural influences. (d) Review the strategy for incorporating critical thinking skills into the planned curriculum using Bloom’s Taxonomy. 2. Develop at least three student learning outcomes for each of the core instructional goals in the planned curriculum. (Note: Student learning outcomes must support accomplishment of their respective core instructional goal and be stated in a manner that is observable and measurable. The student learning outcomes must also support development of critical thinking skills consistent with Bloom’s Taxonomy. A brief article on writing student learning outcomes or objectives is provided: Writing learning objectives: Beginning with the end in mind. 3. Outline a least one instructional lesson or exercise that could be used to facilitate mastery of one of the three student learning outcomes listed. (Note: The instructional lesson outline should include instructor activities to promote mastery of the learning outcome and develop critical thinking skills. The outline should also include student activities that promote critical thinking and accomplishment of the learning outcome.) 4. Propose at least one way the students for which the lesson is designed will use technology as part of the lesson, providing a rationale for the technology. 5. Propose at least one way in which technology will be used to deliver the lesson, providing a rationale for the technology. 6. Create an implementation plan for the curriculum in the form of a PowerPoint presentation of at least eight slides. Include (a) a summary of the development process (the first two assignments), (b) the instruction lesson outline, (c) an implementation timetable, and (d) the human and capital resources needed for successful implementation. (Note: The PowerPoint, which is not part of the page count, will be presented to the district school board.) 7. Use at least three relevant, scholarly references published in the last seven years. (May use references already used in this paper.) (Note: Wikipedia and other nongovernment websites do not qualify as scholarly resources. Review the supplementary readings list on the first page of the course guide for possible references.) Part 4 Explain how you expect this course will help you move forward in your current or future career.Assume you are interviewing with two top administrators of an organization for a new position of curriculum leadership. The administrators are still developing the description of the position and are expecting applicants to offer descriptions of the job. Explain to the administrators at least three primary roles you believe should be your responsibility. Provide a rationale for your response. Part 5 Analyze the major philosophies described in the textbook (e.g., idealism, realism, etc.). Then discuss three primary goals of the school district in which you work (or one with which you are most familiar) and determine which philosophy is reflected by these goals. (Note: Helpful information may be available on the school district’s Website.) Debate It: Take a position for or against this statement: The U.S. should establish a required core curriculum that includes liberal arts, science, math, and technology that must be met for high school graduation Part 6 Please respond to the following in Curriculum: Review Table 3.4 “Overview of Curriculum Theorists, 1918—present.” Considering that the textbook claimed that Tyler “…summed up the best principles of curriculum making for the first half of the 20th century,” discuss two theorists that you believe have made a significant contribution to curriculum development. Provide reasons and examples to support your response. ANSWER THIS BASED OFF GOOGLE RESEARCH. Part 7 Please respond to the following: discuss the six levels of cognitive objectives included in Bloom’s Taxonomy. Provide a rationale and examples for using each of the three highest levels—analysis, synthesis, and evaluation—to promote critical thinking skills. Provide the website or websites you referenced in your discussion, using Strayer Writing Standards. Part 8 consider the needs of all learners in the school district where you work or one with which you are familiar. Identify barriers in existing curricula, and examine whether universal design guidelines would enhance student representation, engagement, and/or expression.
Colorado College Gary School District in Indiana Pilot Curriculum Paper
University of Alabama Birmingham Public Health Health Care and COVID 19 Discussion
University of Alabama Birmingham Public Health Health Care and COVID 19 Discussion.
I’m working on a Health & Medical report and need a sample draft to help me learn.
The purpose of this activity is to evaluate the COVID-19 response across a state. Students to identify a state for analysis and critically examine the public health response to the COVID-19 pandemic. Students will assess the compare and contrast the efforts of governmental health organizations at the local/state, identify the relationships to core functions of public health to their responses, and evaluate the effectiveness of health care services, programs, and policy interventions. Trends in COVID-19 cases and mortality data will provide insight. APA style will be utilized for in-text citations and references. For those who need extra guidance with formatting your paper, here is a resource you can use https://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/ (Links to an external site.).Format: 3-4 page paper (not including the title page and reference page) submitted via Turnitin; APA format (double-spaced, Times New Roman, 12pt font). Your paper should include the following sections:Introduction (suggested length 1 page)In an introductory paragraph, introduce the local/state health department.Provide an overview, history of the organizations, and organization structure.Epidemiological Trends and Disparities (suggested length 1 page)Summarize the epidemiological data for COVID-19 for the state.Trend data for daily new cases (incidence) and overall cases (prevalence)Trend data for mortality Summarize disparities (racial/ethnic, age, gender, and/or geographic, etc.) as they are relevant to COVID-19 in the state.
Describe some of the risk factors that contribute to the disparities.Response to COVID-19 and the related core functions (suggested length 1-2 pages)Summarize the state’s response to COVID-19 and identify how this organization fulfilled the core functions and a minimum of 3 (three) essential public health services.Be sure to describe the core functions and essential services specifically You may use the information provided on the state and local websites, local media, etc. Evaluation of Response (suggested length 1 page)Evaluate the effectiveness of the public health response in the state by using evidence and data to support a critique of the public health responses. You may critique the following:
Effectiveness of health care servicesPublic health interventionsPolicy interventionsAssignment Guidelines:Use APA format for references. Include a title page, section headers, and in-text citations.The title page and reference pages are not included in the page requirement.References should be from reputable websites and organizations (local, state, and federal websites). Do not use websites such as Wikipedia. Content from local media is OK if they reference creditable sources in their reporting.Submit the assignment in a word document or pdf.
University of Alabama Birmingham Public Health Health Care and COVID 19 Discussion
Research and create one-page Dating Site Profile for one of the following topics. Creativity is encouraged – the more you use your imagination, the more enjoyable this project will be. Just be sure to work together and cover your selected topic in anatomical and physiological detail. Topic selections include: • The layers of the skin and structures of thick and thin skin. Create an anatomical visual prop to increase the understanding of your presentation topic. This may be a model, diagram, or other created object. Include the picture of your prop on a separate page and submit it along with your write up.